Skip to main content

Full text of "Railway master mechanic [microform]"

d\* 



VOLUME TWENTY-THREE 



f 



FROM JUNE TO DECEMBER, 1899 

INCLUSIVE 







4 




«\ 



RAILWAY 
MAST ER 
MECHANIC 




DEVOTED TO RAILWAY MOTIVE 
POWER. CAR EQUIPMENT, v' <x 
SHOPS. MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES 



MASS.INSTlTUTr 

TECHNOLOGY 
APR 5 1900 

,! SRARV 




I 

WALTER D. CROSMAN, Editor 

EDWIN N. LEWIS, Manager 

W. E. MAGRAW, Ass't Manager 







Published by 

I III RAILWAY LIST COMPANY 

815 Dearborn Street 

CHICAGO 






INDEX TO CONTENTS. 



♦Articles marked with an asterisk are illustrated. 

Accidents, Railway ...... 

*Air Brake Repair and Instruction Rooms — St. Paul & Duluth Ry. 
Air Brake Tests, by the M. C. B. Association 

* American Locomotives for England, Early .... 

* Applying Stay Bolts to Locomotive Boilers .... 

Apprentice, The Special ........ 

Apprentice, The Ordinary ....... 

Arch Bars, Wrong, Responsibility for — Car Foremen's Discussion 
Arbitration Cases ........ 

Ash Pan Dampers, or Stack Lids ? . 

Ash Pan Dampers and Coal Saving .... 

Associations, Merging the . . ... 

^Automatic Cost Distributing and Accounting Plan 

Axle Fillets, Worn — Car Foremen's Discussion 
:;: Axles and Wheels— M. C. B. Report .... 

Axle Test Specifications, Iron ...... 

Blacksmiths' Association, The ..... 

* Blacksmith Tools, Pneumatic— St. Paul & Duluth Ry. 

* Blow-off Cock, The Climax ...... 

* Boilers with Corrugated Furnaces ..... 
*Bolton and Watt 

Bolt Heads and Nuts — M. C. B. Report .... 
*Buhoup Three-Stem Freight Coupler .... 
Brake Appliances — M. C. B. Report .... 

* Brake Lever, Construction of the .... 

* Brake Repair and Instruction Rooms — St. Paul & Duluth Ry 
Brake, Westinghouse, The Russian Contract for 
Brake Tests 85 ; M 

* Brake Shoe, a New 
Brake Shoe Tests — M. C. B. Report 
Brake Shoe Tests, Proposed .... 



age. 

;6o 
•62 

85 
33i 
165 
197 
386 

63 
282 

10 

50 

87 

37 
124 

109 

155 

306, £>3 

• 29 
359 

. 2« 

• 9 
i8l 

. 107 

76 

. 262 

365 

C. B. Report, 94 

408 

96 

. 261 



? 



Brasses, Wrong, Credit for— Car Foremen's Discussion 
Brasses, Damaged — Car Foremen's Discussion 
Buffer Blocks — Car Foremen's Discussion 
Bulldozers ........ 



226 
299 

67 
368 



Index to Volume Will 






*Cab Seat, New ....... 

*Cam Throttle Lever ...... 

Car Sills, Uniformity of Section for — M. C. H. Report 
*Car, Dynamometer, A New ..... 

Cars, Box, 50 -Ton ....... 

CarTConstruction for a Year .... 

*Cair Door, The Jones ...... 

Car Foremen's Association of Chicago, 59,121, 171, 217, 292, 33 

Change, An Inevitable ...... 

Check Valve Cases, Broken — Car Foremen's Discussion 

* Classification Book, Locomotive — C. & X. W. Ry. 

* Climax Reducing Valve ..... 

* Climax Blow-off Cock ...... 

Club (Railway) Funds ...... 

* Coke for Locomotive Fuel ..... 

* Column Bolts — A Suggestion .... 

* Columbian System for Lighting Cars by Electricity . 
Committees for 1900, Master Mechanics' 
Convention Work ...... 

* Cooling Hot Journals with Water 
*Cost Distributing and Accounting Plan, Automatic 

* Coupler, Some Notes on the M. C. B. 
Coupler, The M. C. B. 

* Coupler, Freight, The Buhoup Three-Stem 
*<|oupler Gauges, Development of 

Coupler Gauges ...... 

* Coupler Knuckle, The Gilman-Brown Emergency 
Coupler Pockets — Car Foremen's Discussion 

I Coupler Prices- — M. C. B. Report 

-^Coupler Testing Machine, M, C. B. 
Couplers, M. -C. B. 

^Couplers, M. C. B.— M. C. B. Report, 99; Car Foremen's Dis- 
cussion .......... 

Couplers, Automatic, A Supreme Court Insists On 

Couplers, Credit for — Car Foremen's Discussion 

Couplers, Height of — M. C. B. Report .... 

Couplers, Second Hand Parts in Repairing — Car Foremen's Dis- 
cussion .......... 

Defect Cards, Missing — Car Foremen's Discussion 



Page. 
3d 
322 
I IO 

31 
89 
12 

83 

■ 395 

20 

122 



?5? 



244 

359 
3i3 

240, 340 

409 

. 361 

261 ; M. C. B., 344 

85, 139, 141 

407 

37 
22 

1 

187 
227 
32 1 
188 
294 
98 
405 
139 



293 
M 
68 

1 1 1 

125 



30' 



-'5 



51 



Railway Masteb Mechanic 




'age. 

Definitions, A Summer's Half Hour With . . 199 

Differential Car Repair Prices ...... 89 

Door Posts, Broken, Responsibility for — Car Foremen's Discussion 174 

Draft Appliances, Locomotive . . 314; Hell's Paper, 350 

♦Drifting, Locomotive ........ 393 

* Drill, Ratchet, The Williams . . . . . . 241 

*Drop Test Machine for Couplers . . . . 153, 405 

Duties Owed Employes . . . . . . . 374 

Dummy Hose Couplings ....... 87 

* Dynamometer Car, A New . . . . . . 31 

Dynamometer Cars ........ 3 

Employes' Associations, Encouragement of, Lacking . . . 367 

Engineering School Extension Work . . . . . 389 

Engine-Men, Handling, on the B. & 78 

European Traveling Experiences ......' 269 

Exhibits at the Conventions . . . . . . ^ 136 

Exports of Locomotives . . . . . . . 170 

* Extended Piston Rod Supports — A., T. & S. F. Ry. . . .142 

Topical Discussion . . . . . . . 180 

Fifty-Ton Box Cars ........ 89 

*Fire Boxes, Corrugated . . . . . . . 256 

*Flue Plant, A Model— C, B. & O. Ry 18 

♦Foundry, Steel and Iron, The Sargent ..... 289 

Front End Arrangements . . . 314; Bell's Paper, 350 

*Fuel, Locomotive, Coke for ..... 240, 340 

*Gauges for Worn Couplers, Development of .... 227 

Gauges for Worn Couplers . . . . . . . 321 

*Gilman-Brown Emergency Knuckle . . . . . .188 

Handling Engine-Men on the B. & O. . . . . 78 

Harmon\- in Each Department ...... 369 

High Prices for Material and Equipment .... 367 

Hose, Burst, Responsibility for — Car Foremen's Discussion . 178 

Hose Couplings, Dummy ....... 87 

*Hose Pitting Rigs . . . . . . . . .211 

Inevitable Change, An . . . - . . . . 20 

♦Indicator on a Steam Engine, The Advantages of . . .201 

♦Indicator Reducing Motion . . . . . . 156 

International Association for Testing Materials . . . 195 



Index to Volume XXIII 



Interchange Rules — Car Foremen's Discussion 

Journal Bearings ..... 

Journals, Cut — Car Foremen's Discussion 

* Journals, Hot, Cooling with Water 

* Knuckle, Emergency, The Gilman-Brown 

Laboratory, A Research . . . . 2 ; M. 

Legal Aspects of Convention Work 

Life of a Locomotive, The Average ...... 

* Lighting Cars by Electricity, The Columbian System 
Lighting of Passenger Cars ....... 

Locomotive, Atlantic Compound — C, B. & Q. Ry. 

Consolidated Pushing — D. & H. Co. 
Double End Consolidation — Sydney & Louisburg Ry. 
Eight-Wheel Passenger— C. & X.-W. Ry. 
Heavy Compound Ten-Wheeled — N. P. R. R. 
New Express — Plant System 
Ten-Wheel Passenger— L. S. & M. S. Ry. 
Twelve-Wheeled Freight — D. L. & W. Ry. 
Twelve-Wheeled Freight — Illinois Central Ry. 
The Vanderbilt ..... 



* Locomotive 

* Locomotive 

* Locomotive 



:i: Locomotive 



* Locomotive 

* Locomotive 

* Locomotive 

* Locomotive 

* Locomotive 



The Average Life of a 



Locomotive, 

Locomotives, Compound, On the London & Northwestern 

Locomotives in England, American .... 

* Locomotives for England, Early .... 
^Locomotives with Corrugated Fire Boxes 

* Locomotive Classification Book — C. & N.-W. Ry. 
Locomotive Draft Appliances ..... 

Locomotive Exports ...... 

Locomotive Front Ends — Bell's Paper 

Locomotive Progress ...... 

Master Blacksmiths' Association, The .... 

M. C. B. Standards 

Master Car Builders' Committees for 1900 

* Master Car Builders' Convention .... 

Master Mechanic, The ...... 

Master Mechanics' Convention .... 

Master Mechanics' Committees for 1900 

* Mechanical Movement, A New .... 



Page. 

218 

368 
. 299 

188 

M. Report, 1 17 

141 

. 184 

361 

. 277 

51 

385 

319 

51 

• 377 

69 

403 

• 347 

303 

253-256 

184 



. 151 

216 

• 33i 
256 

• 255 

3M 
. 170 

350 
6 

306, 323 

• 317 
344-403 

. 92 
199 

. 1 10 
261 

• 241 



Railway Master Mechanic 




Master Mechanics' 



Mechanical Officials, Migration of 
Merging the Associations 
Migration of Mechanical Officials 
* Model Steel and Iron Foundry 

Nickel Steel ..... 

Xickel Steel In Locomotive Construction 

Committee Report ...... 

Nuts and Bolt Heads — M. C. B. Report 

Parting of Trains — Report to Car Foremen's Association 
M. C. B. Report 

Passenger Car Lighting ...... 

Pension Fund for Employes of Pennsylvania Railroad Co 
♦Personal Mention ... 79, 134, 189, 245, 306, 355, 409 

Pipe Fittings, Standard — M. M. Report . . . • 121 

:;: Piston Rod Supports, Extended — A., T. & S. F. Ry. 

Topical Discussion ..... 
^Pneumatic Blacksmith Tools — St. Paul & Duluth Ry 
:;: Pneumatic Ram for Metallic Packing 



205 
97 

59 
96 

277 
234 



Pneumatic Tool Litigation . 

Portraits — John W. Cloud, 54 ; C. M. Higginson, 79 ; F. W. 

Brazier, 80; Thomas Fildes, 81 ; Joseph W. Taylor, 135 ; Geo. 

\Y. Morris, 191 ; R. C. Blackall, 357; Frank Hufsmith, 358. 
* Preventing Trouble in Boilers from Water Impurities — Master 

Mechanics' Committee Report ...... 

Presidents' Addresses at the Conventions .... 

Prices, Differential Car Repair ...... 



142 

180 
29 
204 
417 



Railway Accidents ...... 

Railway Club Funds ...... 

Railways at the Paris Exposition .... 

Ram, Pneumatic, for Metallic Packing- 
Ram, Steam, The Erwin ..... 

Ratchet Drill, The Williams .... 

Reducing Motion for Indicators .... 

Refrigerator Car Tanks ..... 

Repairing Wrong Parts — Car Foremen's Discussion 
Repair Cards, Missing — Car Foremen's Discussion 
Repairs, "Temporary" — Car Foremen's Discussion 
Repairs West of the 105th Meridian— M. C. B. Report 



163 

157 
89 

260 



55< "2 
. 204 

413 
241 

. 156 

279 

397 
. 125 

334 
• 95 



I XI ) K X TO V O LV M K XXIII 



Page . 
Repairing Wrecked Steel Cars . . . . . . 131 

Research Laboratory, A ........ 2 

*R'igs for Fitting Up Air Hose . . . . . . 211 

Road Tests of Locomotives . . . . . . 371 

Russian Contract for Westinghouse Air Brakes . . -365 

Stack Lids, or Ash Pan Dampers? . . . . . .10 

Standards, Observance of ...... . 88 

Standards, M. C. B. 317 

Standards and Recommended Practices — M. C. B. Report . 93 

*Station Treatment of Water — Southern Pacific Railway . 212 

*Stay Bolts, Applying, to Locomotive Boilers . . . .165 

* Steam Ram, The Erwin . . . . . . . 413 

Steel Cars, Repairing . . . . . . . . 131 

" Suggestions from the Chair" . . . . . 157 

Summer's Half Hour with Definitions . . . . 199 

Supply Trade Notes ... 84, 193, 249, 309, 363, 415 

Supreme Court Insists on Automatic Couplers, A . . -14 

*Seat, Cab, A New . . . . . . . . 301 

Sheathing, Broken — Car Foremen's Discussion . . .61 

Side Doors, Broken, Responsibility for — Car Foremen's Discussion 1 7 1 
Sills, Car, Uniformity of Section for — M. C. B. Report . 1 10 

Sill Sections, Standard .... 

Special Apprentice, The ..... 

Speed Limits, Train ..... 



87 
197 

140 



143 
• 339 
153, 405 
Association . 195 

371 

. 322 

120 



*Tank, Water, Design of .... 

Tanks, Track, for Freight Engines 

^Testing Machine for Couplers, M. C. B. 
Testing Materials — The Work of the International 
Tests, Road, of Locomotives 

* Throttle Lever, Cam • 

Tires, Flanged — M. M. Report 
Ton-Mile Basis for Locomotive Statistics — M. M. Report . 119 

Track Tanks for Freight Engines . . . . . -339 

Trains Parting, 88; Car Foremen's Report, 59; M. C. B. Report, 96 
Train Speed Limits . . . . . . . .140 

Traveling Engineers' Association . . . . . 301 

Trifles and Tendencies as Noted in a Brief European Trip . 269 

Triple], Valve Tests — M. C. B. Report ..... 94 



Railway Masteb Mechanic 



Page. 

9/1 A 



Page. 

Unfinished Convention Work ..... ^P 139 

* Valve, Reducing, The Climax ...... 244 

Vanderbilt Boiler, The . . . . . . . .253 

♦Village, Model Workingman's — C, B. & Q. Rv. 378 

:;: Watt and Bolton . . . . . . . . 272 

*Water Impurities, Preventing Trouble from—Master Mechanics' 

Committee Report . . . . . . . .163 

* Water Treatment at Stations — Southern Pacific Rv. . . 212 

* Water Tank Design . . . . . . . .143 

Wheel and Track Gauges — M. C. B. Report ... 95 

*\Vheels and Axles — M. C. B. Report . . . . .109 

Wheels, Relative Merits of Cast Iron and Steel Tired — M. M. 

Report . . . . . . . . . . 118 

-Workingman's Village, A Model — C, B. & O. Ry. . . 378 

:;: Y. M. C. A. Building at St. Louis 133 



Page 
Alderson, W. C. 35(5 
Anderson, H. A. 308 
Bailey, Thos. .. 411 

Ball, H. F 190 

Barcley, W 192 

Barr, J. N 355 

Bay, J. B 411 

Bayfield, H. A. 189 
Bates, H. K. .. 136 

Bean, John 309 

Beckwith, A. C. 350 
Beckwith, A. C. 410 
Bender, E. N . . 356 
Bentley, W. F. . 358 
Best, N. W ... 191 
*Blackall, R. C. 357 
Blackwell.W.B. 83 
Bonner, John. . 247 

Bork, C. H 307 

Boyd, Thos. L. 411 
Braden, J. B. . . 309 
Braker, Fred . 411 
Brassill, Jas. K. 247 
Bray, F. O. ... 412 
*Brazier, F. W. 

80, 192 

Brice, Oscar. . . 411 
Brittengham, 

Chas 307 

Brown, J. W. . 410 
Brown, Geo. .. 307 
Buchanan, Jas. 193 
Buchanan, Wm. 411 
Buker, Joseph . 245 
Buker, James . . 245 
Burford, J. M. . 191 
Bunsen, 

R. W. E 245 

Burns, Thos. . . 306 
Butler, L. E. . . 134 
Butts, H. M... 193 
Cain, Frank . . . 

191, 306 

Callahan, Jas. P. 248 
Calvert, John. . 24(5 
Cannon, A. K. . 411 

Capps, J. E 249 

Carson, M. T.. 82 
Carroll, John T. 308 



PERSONAL MENTION. 



Pag 

Carey, M 83 

Cassatt, 

Robert K.... 308 

Case, S. T 193 

Chaffee, F. W. 193 
Chambers, J. S. 81 
Chester, W. E. 82 
Chisholm, J. E. 411 

Clark, D. B 410 

Clifford, C. J. .. 81 
Cochran, P. L. 191 
Coleman, C. P. 358 
Colmey, C. . . . 82 
Congdon, 

Isaac H 245 

Conway, John. . 356 
Cooke, William 413 
Courtney, D. C. 136 
Crandall, E. M. 411 
Crawford, D.F. 412 
Crawford, S.N. 190 
Cullinan, John. 410 
Cumback, R. O. 136 
Curtis, Theo.H. 190 
Danforth, 

Wm. P 246 

Danks, J. A.... 247 
Davies.W.O.Jr. 189 
Davis, E. E. 134-192 
Davisson, Frank 356 

Dean, F. M 191 

DeHaven, C. A. 136 
Demorest, T.W. 248 
Dewey, Wm. A. 81 
Deverell, A. C. . 355 
Dickenson, T . . 306 
Dittoe, W. P. . . 308 
Dixon, W. F. . . 248 
Dodge, W. W . . 309 

Doris, C 411 

Doty, J. W. ... 308 
Downing, Ira . . 412 
Duesberry.R.H. 82 
Duffy, W. F. .. 83 

Dunn, A. J 411 

Elbert, John. . . 246 
Elder, Joseph . . 82 
Ellison, H. T. . 306 
Ellison, H. T.. 412 



Page 

Ely, E. E 355 

Evans, J. W. .. 356 
Farmer, C.C. . . 307 
Fenwick, A. . . . 191 
Fielden, Thos. . 136 
*Fildes, Thos.. 81 
Fisher, G. J. .. 356 
Fisher, D. E. .. 83 
Fisher, J. C... 412 

Foote, L.E 308 

Forbes, S. F. . . 356 
Foster, Wm. A. 82 

Fraser, S 306 

Galbraith, 

Oliver 247 

Galbraith, H.D. 307 
Galbraith, R.M. 409 
Garlock, W. H. 80 
Garratt, H. W. 308 
Gaston, James. 358 

Gates, F. C 246 

Gibbon, J. M. . 247 
Gipple, G. A.. 247 

Glover, F 247 

Goegold, H 308 

Gould, Abram . 134 
Graham, 

Chas. W. .... 246 
Greaven, Lewis. 307 
Greusel, E. S . . 359 
Griffith, F. B.. 247 
Gurganus, G. J. 82 
Guyon, L. J . . . 248 
Hager, W. D . . 82 
Hair, John .... 307 
Harrison, W. L. 189 
Harrison, W.H. 309 
Harrison, 

W. H. Jr 412 

Harter, C. C... 248 
Harvey, H.H.. 307 
Haselton, G. H. 193 
Hasty, J. B.... 308 
Hatch, W. B. . . 303 
Hatz, Geo. J. . . 356 
Hayes, W. C. . . S3 
Hays, Wm. . . . S3 
Heacock, W. F. 411 
Heers, L. B 246 



Page 

Hemphill, W. J. 411 
Hendee, A. .191-248 
Henderson, 

G. R 134 

Henry, A. C. .. 356 
Herbert, Geo. .. 247 
Herbert, R. L.. 82 
Hickey, P. H.. . 249 
*Higginson, 

CM 79 

Hinderer, W. F. ::.">!) 
Hiserodt, Edw.. 189 
Hoar, Hovey J. 249 
Hoffman, E. C. 410 

Hone, AC 245 

Horwell, T. E. 413 
*Hufsmith, 

Frank 358 

Hutchins, C. H. 309 
Jackson, O. H . 309 
James, E. T . . . 82 
James, Howard. 246 
Johnson, R. H. 411 
Jones, G. F. . . . 355 
Kalbaugh, I. N. 135 
Kegler, Fred'k. 356 
Keighley, J. F. 410 
Kendall, A. L. . 410 
Riesling, J. H.. 307 
Kilpatrick,R.F. 80 
King, John. . . . 412 
Kingsley, G. A. 136 
Kirk, Jas. H. .. 306 

Kistler, L 24S 

Kline, A. L 307 

Kraemer, F. J . 412 
Kuhns, J. H . . . 356 
Langston, C. J. 410 
Langston.W. B. 35(5 
Langston, W.B. 410 
Laughlin, J G. 247 
Laurie, J. B. .. 308 
Libby, Robt ... 2 I J 

Lillis, de F 83 

Lonergan, P. T. 193 
Long, Joseph K. 307 
Longstreth, Jos. 247 
Loucks, A. C. . 
249, '->M\ 



Railway Master Mechanic 



Page 
Lovell. Alfred.. 309 
Lyon. Tracy. . . 100 
Macbeth. Jos... 193 
Machovec, E. E. 306 
Marshall. W. H. 81 
Meade. Richard 189 
Medway. John 308 
McCarthy. T. J. 411 
McCormick, A. B2 
McCuen, R. E. 191 
McElvaney. 

C. T 249 

McGie. J I'M) 

Middleton. G. . 300 
Middleton. 

Harvey . .134, 355 

Milan. P. J 82 

Miller, W. J 

136, 307 

Moorehead. 

F. W 184 

Morgan. R. W. 249 
-Morris, Geo \V. 191 
Murphy. J. D.. 308 
Naylor, Fred'k. 300 
New. W. T. .. 136 
Newell, T. W . . 411 
Nixon. WalterG. 249 

Nolan, J. C 410 

O'Brien, Robt. 248 
O'Brien, John . "248 
O'Connor. Jas. 249 
O'Hara, J ... 307 
O'Hearne. J. E. 309 
O Meara. F. M 24 7 
Papineau, F. G 307 
Parish Legrande 412 
Pasho, D. N. .. 192 
Paxson, L. B. . 190 
Pease, F. J 80 



Page 
Pen nock, W. C 

190, 248 

Phillips. M. T. . 82 

Pirie. A. B 412 

Player. John.. . 410 
Player, Milton. 411 
Pomeroy, L. R. 409 
Potts, Samuel.. 24 7 
Prescott, C. H. 80 
Preston, John. .412 
Prince, 

Samuel F, Jr. 192 
Putnam, C. H. . 193 
Quackenbush, 

a. w :;:>: 

Quereau, C. H . 136 
Ouimby, A. B. . 24 7 
Raoul, G. C... 412 

Ray, P 82 

Reese, Robert. . 411 
Reichel, George 189 
Reilley, H. S.. 412 
Reilly, W. H. . . 

134, 307 

Rhodes, L. B.. 249 
Roberts, Mord . 

130, 356 

Robinson, J. T. 355 
Rodgers, M. M. 308 
Roesch, Frank . 308 
Sanderson. G.T. 192 

Sayre. F 355 

vonSchlegell.F. 19:', 
Schoren, H. K. 190 
Sehart, L. E . . 83 
Seddon, Isaac. . 190 
Shanks, T. R . 412 
Shellhorn, T. J. 184 
Shepard, L. A 410 
Sherwood. A. . . 249 



Page 
Shields, Alex.. 410 
Simons, J. E. . . 410 
Simonds, S. W. 41 1 
Slack, J. R... .. 

135, :;:>7 

Slavin, Jas 80 

Smedley, S. S. . 192 
Smith, Frank J. 307 
Smith, Geo. W. 35(5 

Smith, L. L 217 

Smith.Wm.H.. 356 
Sprowl, N. E . . 81 
St. Clair, C. M. 308 
Stafford, J. T. . 136 
Stearns, Wm.H. 189 
Stevens, G. W. 81 
Stewart, R. L. . 

300, 356 

Stine, Ben 359 

Stokes, J. W... 130 

Stoll, Chas 411 

Sullivan, W. H. 410 
Sweeley, Edw . . 411 
Talbot, DO... 249 
Taylor, Geo.W. 189 
Taylor, H. D... 82 
-Taylor, Jos.W. 

135, 309 

Taylor, W. O.. 350 
Thomas, Wm.R. 410 
Thomson, 

Frank 82 

Thompson, 

George... 82. 19:', 
Thompson, 

E. B 245 

Thompson, 

W. O 412 

Tomlinson. J. G. 191 
Torrance, John. 248 



Page 

Tunks*Chas.R. 412 
Turner, Amos. 24 7 
Twombley, 

Sr., T. B . 418 
Van Alstyne, 

David 189 

Vanderbilt, 

Cornelius. Jr. 24S 
Verhelle, A ... 82 
Waddington, 

W. W 410 

Waggoner, W.B. 413 
Wall, 

Cornelius D. . 2 J^ 
Wallis. Philip. . 192 
Walker, C. E . . 307 
Walker, H. E . . 307 
Walsh, F. O.. . 412 
Ward, J. M... 247 
Waters, A. R.. 411 
Webb, Percy . . 191 
Welsh, T. \V. . 412 
West, Geo. W.. 82 
Westcott, E. A. 358 
Westervelt. J.. 193 
Whalen. W. H. 82 
White, E. T. .. 135 
Whitman, 

Daniel 246 

Whitsel, 

A. Travis . . . 35(5 
Whitsitt. J. L. . 82 
Whelan, Geo. . . 308 
White, J. E. ... 411 
Whyte. F. M.. . 240 
Williams, F. W. 248 
Winn, C. F.. .. 82 
Wissimer.H.M. 88 
Wood, Joseph.. 418 
Wright, W.H S. 190 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 

WALTER D. CROSMAN, Editor. EDWIN N.LEWIS. Manager. 

Vol. XXIII. CHICAGO, JUNE, 1899. No. 1 



THE LIVEST QUESTION, perhaps, that is to come before 
the convention at Old Point Comfort is that of meeting- the 
M. C. B. coupler situation; but there is no great promise that 
it will be effectively met. The problem is still too great for ready 
solution. It was somewhat generally expected that the Western 
Railway Club Committee report would help to precipitate matters by 
calling spades spades ; but it was evidently deemed inexpedient to do 
this, and thus this expected aid fails, although that committee did 
make a suggestive report — one that should prove fruitful. The M. 
C. B. committee to report at Old Point Comfort will, without doubt, be 
pointed in its recommendations; but still the great evil — multiplicity 
of patterns — will probably be left to menace us when the association 
in convention gets through, for this year, with the topic. The net 
result of the year's agitation, to be closed this month, will, however, 
unquestionably be the distinct advancement of the problem toward 
its final solution in at least two ways ; first, a more general insistence 
upon the purchase of couplers under strict specifications as to physi- 
cal tests, and, second, a wider adoption of methods of gaging for wear, 
and distortion, in service. A contributor to our columns this month 
urges the machine fitting of the working parts of couplers — this must 
also come. A speaker at one of the Western Railway Club meetings 
urged oiling the parts — this may also come. It has been urged that 
the association should appoint a standing committee on M. C. B. 
couplers, and this, we have reason to believe, will be done. 



Opponents of the M. C. B. coupler have voiced, and re-voiced 
their views, and with a considerable superficial show of strength. 
But, as far as we can judge, their points of objection have been quite 
fully disposed of by authoritative facts and opinions published from 
time to time — perhaps never quite so comprehensively and exhaus- 
tively presented in compact compass as in Mr. Garstang's report on 
the subject which we quoted in full in our issue of April, 1899. 



'2 Railway Master Mechanic 

The fact is that we really have a device admirably adapted to its 
purpose, in the M. C. B. type of coupler. Wherein it has developed 
certain inherent faults it has been, or is being, improved and brought 
nearer to the sought-for perfection ; but as to the occasions of the 
greatest reproach against the type, viz., breakages, and partings due 
to wear or distortion, nothing can be done until insistence is made 
that contour lines be followed, that the best metal be furnished, and 
that this metal be given its best distribution. The rigorous use of 
drop and pulling tests at time of purchase, and of contour gages at 
that time and -during service, to determine wear limits, is essential. 
This policy only can result happily with the present situation, gorged 
as it is with nearly ioo different patterns, and almost as many makes 
of couplers. But were this policy to be followed up closely we would 
find ourselves up against the hardest proposition of all — that of price. 
It should be remembered, throughout all discussions of the M. C. B. 
type of couplers, that it is not possible to make a silk purse out of a 
sow's ear. 



A 



RESEARCH LABORATORY, proposed by implication at 
least, to be established under the auspices of the Master 
Mechanics' Association, is all very fine in theory; but viewed 
from a practical standpoint it seems hardly the thing. Years ago, 
before the full establishment of private testing laboratories on a basis 
of recognized authoritativeness, and before we had our Purdue, Cor- 
nell, Illinois and Columbia University testing plants, and before our 
large railway systems had fully developed their testing plants, there 
was good reason for a laboratory to be established and maintained 
under the auspices of the association. But now we seriously question 
the advisability — even the necessity — of such a step. We under- 
stand that plans are in the minds of some to cause the association to 
finance the establishment of a research laboratory. One of the argu- 
ments in favor of this plan that has been advanced, is that tests made 
under such auspices would possess a rarely high degree of authority. 
But the question arises, Who will direct and who perform the work 
of such a laboratory? Those acquainted with the inner workings of 
the association are well aware that it is extremely difficult to get 
members of the association to attend to even ordinary committee 
duties. All members are very busy men, in the discharge of their own 
immediate duties. They could not undertake to habitually partici- 



A Research Laboratory 



pate in tests with the thoroughness which they would wish to attach 
to work which was to bear the stamp of the association. Would it 
not be better to take available funds, or funds that might be raised, 
for such purposes and apportion them to the universities that are 
equipped for research work? Purdue and Columbia have experi- 
mental locomotives, Illinois has a dynamometer car, all have working 
physical and chemical laboratories. If a bit of road testing of loco- 
motives be desired, give it to Illinois; if shop locomotive testing be 
desired give it to Purdue or Columbia; if any of the wide range of 
experimental investigations of materials and appliances be desired, 
give the work to any of the universities equipped to carry them out. 
Appropriate a given sum for the work, to cover power, fuel, materials, 
etc., place it in the hands of a small committee — a committee of one is 
preferable — and instruct the committee to take up its work in con- 
junction with the university best located or best equipped for the 
purpose in mind. The university will be found more than glad to 
give the time, industry and brains of its bright young men to the 
actual work of conducting and recording the tests, asking only that 
actual money outlay be defrayed; the committee man or men will be 
delighted with the facilities placed at their disposal for original work, 
and the final reported results will, issuing from the association, carry 
all the weight that they would if the work upon which they were 
based were performed in an association laboratory. 



DYNAMOMETER CARS are now well recognized as very 
desirable, if not absolutely essential, features of the equip- 
ment of the modern railway. It is quite certain that the 
benefits to be derived from a judicious use of such cars are being 
appreciated more year by year, and in proof of this we may say that 
four or five railway companies are, at the present moment, working 
on designs for dynamometer cars. The latest design that we know 
of, as having been practically placed in service, is that of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, and this we describe elsewhere in this issue. It is the 
presentation of this particular design that occasions the offering of 
some few remarks upon the subject of dynamometer cars in general. 



The first question which arises when considering the design of a 
dynamometer car is: What means shall be provided for measuring 



Railway Master Mechanic 



the drawbar pull? Some have selected the cylinder and piston and 
others have chosen springs, but it is probable that a larger number 
have chosen springs. There are quite a number of advantages to be 
had from the use of an oil cylinder, such as is used in the Illinois 
University car; for instance, the recording apparatus and the attach- 
ment to the measuring apparatus can be made quite simple and neat, 
and by draining the cylinder the dynamometer mechanism can be 
relieved entirely of the buffing and pulling strains when the car is 
not in use. The most persistent objection raised to the use of a 
cylinder is that the friction between the piston, which is generally 
packed with leather, and the walls of the cylinder, is very great some- 
times, and quite variable in amount. Errors may also, of course, 
creep in when springs are used, but it is believed that the errors are 
not as variable in nature, or changeable in amount, as are the errors 
resulting from the use of a cylinder. In other words, the errors of a 
spring, having been determined, may be assumed, until tests made at 
reasonable intervals show otherwise, to remain constant. The diffi- 
culty which arises from the use of springs is that it is impossible to 
provide without great expense, if indeed at all, springs to the capacity 
required which will give the same amount of motion for equal incre- 
ments of load when the load is increasing as when the load is decreas- 
ing. The weighing levers, probably the most approved form of 
measuring apparatus, require springs, but these are so small that they 
can be graduated much closer. Springs arranged tandem, in such 
a manner that one is relieved when the other is compressed, tend to 
correct the errors of single springs and at least one car under con- 
struction will be so arranged. 



An idea about dynamometer cars that appears to be quite general 
is that these cars measure the pull and push in absolute pounds, and 
that a certain number of pounds pull recorded by one car exactly cor- 
responds with the same number of pounds pull recorded by another 
car ; but it is safe to say that the readings from no two cars in use to- 
day can be, on such a basis, compared. This may seem to be a rather 
strong assertion, but it is undoubtedly true. This need not be dis- 
couraging, however, because it is very seldom that it is desired to 
compare the records made by one car with those made by another ; 
the greatest utility of a dynamometer car will be obtained in com- 
paring the records made with various trains and locomotives by the 
same car. 



Dynamometer Cars 



In referring to the "judicious" use of dynamometer cars, in open- 
ing" these notes, we used the word judicious advisedly, because a 
dynamometer car can be made a great nuisance to the operating 
department; and once the opposition of the operating department is 
aroused the car might almost as well be provided with permanent 
storage space. The car must have the good will of the operating 
department and to gain such good will, the officers of this department 
must be interested in the work done with the car and be provided with 
the reports of the results obtained. The work to be done should be 
carefully systematized and arranged and those interested should be 
provided with an outline of the work to be done, the manner of 
doing it and the benefits to be derived from the data to be obtained ; 
then if the time occupied in getting the data is not too long every- 
body will be left in good humor. Much of the work done by a dyna- 
mometer car is of great assistance to the operating department, but 
on account of the necessity of having trains carefully weighed and 
their time on the road carefully arranged, this department suffers the 
most inconvenience when the car is at work ; if, however, the oper- 
ating department is given full benefit of the tests, its good will is sure 
to follow and much friction be avoided. To put it tersely : get reliable 
data with your car as quickly as possible, make a thorough report as 
early as possible, and furnish a copy of that report to everyone on the 
road who is, or ought to be, interested. 



THE extent of the current migration of mechanical men to the 
East has become something almost appalling. Among those 
who have gone East of late are Waitt, Brazier, Fitzgibbon, 
Mcintosh, Chambers, Turner, Canfield, and Fildes. And not so very 
long before them went Herr, Lewis, Apps, Morse, Hawthorne, Sy- 
mons, Roberts, and McNaughton. And rumor has for some months 
past been busy with still another prominent change of this nature. It 
may not be profitable at this time to follow up a query as to what it 
all means; but at all events it illustrates very strongly the old saying 
that the tenure of office in railway service is very uncertain. Take 
the past year's history for instance. We do not recollect a single 
period that has been marked by so many changes in the mechanical 
staff of our railways as has been the twelvemonth since last June. A 
hasty glance through our files substantiates this impression, for, since 
May, 1898, we have recorded in our personal columns almost 400 
changes. Of course the large proportion of these were among the 
subordinate officials, but among those bearing the titles of chiefs 
there was a very large number of recorded changes. 



Railway Master Mechanic 



Locomotive Progress. 

During the past year our locomotive works and railroad shops 
have been busily employed, and the large product of so many estab- 
lishments has given abundant opportunity for development and 
improvement in locomotive design. 

In 1898 the locomotive contract shops of the United States built 
1,875 locomotives, the largest number since 1893, when over 2,000 
were built. The smallest number in the interval was 695 in the year 
1894. The production in 1898 was 50 per cent greater than the 
previous year, and that of the present year promises to far exceed 
any year in the past decade. 

The number of compounds built in 1898 was 373, or 20 per cent 
of the total, a much larger proportion than in previous years, and this 
proportion is steadily growing. Notwithstanding the gigantic dimen- 
sions of the locomotives described in our review last year, the Amer- 
ican locomotive continues to increase in size and weight. In some 
instances the clearance limits have been so nearly reached that 
changes in design are required to avoid interference ; and rail pres- 
sures have far exceeded the limits which were for years fixed as the 
maximum. 

Up to last June the largest locomotives we had to record were 
the Pennsylvania Railroad mountain helper consolidation, with 
simple cylinders 23^x28 inches, 56 inch wheels and a total weight 
of 218,000 lbs.; and the Brooks twelve-wheel engine for the Great 
Northern, with cylinders 21x34 inches, and a total weight of 212,- 
000 lbs. 

These dimensions have since been exceeded by the Pittsburg con- 
solidation for Carnegie's Union Railroad, which has cylinders 23x32 
inches, 54 inch wheels, a weight on drivers of 208,000 pounds, and on 
truck of 22,000 pounds — a total weight of 230,000 pounds, or 115 
tons. The total weight of this engine and tender ready for service 
is 334,000 pounds. The boiler is 80 inch diameter; its heating sur- 
face 3,322 square feet, and its tractive power 53,300 pounds. 

The Baldwin Works have built very large consolidation engines 
for the Lehigh Valley — one a pusher, guaranteed to handle 1,000 
tons of train at an average speed of 17 miles per hour on a 
grade 62 feet per mile, 20 miles long. The drivers of this 
engine are 55 inches diameter; the Yauclain compound cylin- 



Locomotive Progress 



ders are 18 inches and 30 inches diameter, and 30 inches stroke. Its 
boiler is 80 inches in diameter, and has shell sheets % inch thick. 
There are 511 2 inch tubes and the heating surface is the largest of 
which we find any record, viz. : Firebox, 215 square feet; tubes, 3,890 
square feet; total, 4,105 square feet. The weights of this engine are : 
On drivers, 202,232 pounds; on truck, 22,850 pounds; total, 225,112 
pounds; total weight of engine and tender, 346,000 pounds. The 
weight per driving wheel is 25,300 pounds. The other large con- 
solidations for the Lehigh Valley are intended for road service, and 
are remarkable for the size of the driving wheels, which are 62 inches, 
the largest ever used in this type of engine. The driving wheels are 
all flanged, and the total driving wheel base is 16 feet 3 inches. Two 
engines to these general dimensions have been built, one with 
Vauclain compound cylinders 17 inch and 28 inch diameter and 30 
inch stroke, and one with simple cylinders 21x30 inches. The boiler 
pressure is 200 pounds, and the maximum draw bar pull, 60,300 
pounds. This can only be exerted on a dry rail, as the coefficient 
of adhesion required will be nearly .30. These engines will handle 
2,000 tons of train on a grade 21 feet per mile. 

Another interesting example of a large freight engine is the 
compound consolidation built by the Schenectady Works for the 
Southern Pacific. The cylinders of this engine are 23 inches and 35 
inches, with 34 inch stroke. The low pressure cylinder with a diam- 
eter of 35 inches, is, we believe, the largest yet used with the excep- 
tion of those on the Mastodon engines for the same road, and the 
Baldwin two-cylinder engines for the Norfolk & Western. The lat- 
ter are worked with 200 pounds boiler pressure, while that on the 
latest engines for the Southern Pacific is 220 pounds. 

It is instructive to notice that all recent heavy freight locomotives 
are of the consolidation type. The fear of excessive rail pressures 
which led to the introduction of Mastodon or twelve-wheel engines, 
has gradually given way to the more advantageous use of heavy wheel 
weights by placing the largest proportion on drivers. While the 
Mastodon engine had but 80 per cent of its total weight on drivers, 
the new consolidations have 90 per cent. 

Not only a consideration of rail pressures, but the necessity for 
greater heating surface, has in the past led to the construction of 
heavy ten-wheel engines for freight service; but a change is now 
taking place in favor of the Mogul engine. In two recent examples 
of ten-wheel and Mogul engines, each having a total weight of 142,- 



8 Railway Master Mechanic 

ooo pounds, the ten-wheel has only 76 per cent of this weight on 
drivers, while the Mogul has 86 per cent, and the latter has the great- 
est amount of heating surface. 

For freight service the pony truck is the most suitable for either 
six-wheel or eight-wheel connected engines, and we believe that the 
Mogul and consolidation types will more largely prevail in the future. 

The general practice heretofore with each of these types has been 
to use plain tires on the middle wheels, as this was thought necessary, 
to allow the engine to curve easily: but the tendency of recent prac- 
tice is to flange all drivers, as it is found that the engine tracks more 
steadily and the flange wear is not so rapid. W nile a given amount 
of tire steel may be worn off in holding the engine to the track, if this 
is divided among eight tires it will evidently be less per wheel than if 
the whole curve resistance is met by four flanges. It thus appears 
that with all tires flanged the wheels be kept in service a much longer 
time between turnings. 

This subject has been frequently discussed by the Master 
Mechanics' Association, and while no definite conclusions have been 
arrived at, and theoretical treatment has not made the way plain, yet 
practical experience is steadily showing the advantage of flanged tires 
on all wheels of six and eight wheel connected engines. 

For fast passenger service the "Atlantic" type of engine has 
rapidly grown into favor, and the Baldwin Company has already built 
70 of them. These engines are now operating under the most severe 
passenger requirements in this country. The new fast mail engines 
on the Burlington are notable examples of this style of fast passenger 
engine. The wheels are 84 *4 inches in diameter; the cylinders are 
iy/2 and 23 by 26 inch stroke — the largest of the Yauclain com- 
pound cylinders thus far made for passenger work. The tubes are 
2 j4 inches in diameter, and unusually long — 16 feet. The total heat- 
ing surface is 2,510 square feet. 

The frames of some of the largest engines have been slotted out 
of solid steel slabs, while others are made of cast steel. 

The use of cast steel for locomotive details is still extending and 
now includes guide yokes, dome tops and even fluted side and main 
rods. 

In order to get greater power when the engine is under way and 
cut-off shortened, the cylinder ratio to weight on drivers is increasing 
and in some engines built this year has probably exceeded proper 
proportions. The Master Mechanics' recommended practice — 4 \> -, — 



Locomotive Progress 



is equal to 23 per cent. Ordinary practice is 25 per cent, while some 
recent engines have 27, 29 and even 30 per cent as ratio of maximum 
cylinder power to weight on drivers. 

With cylinders of large diameter increased power is obtained with 
some advantages by longer stroke. In this way the wider clearances 
are not required, the weight of reciprocating parts are but slightly 
increased, and the stresses in them reduced for a given cylinder power. 
Claims for economy by better steam distribution in long stroke loco- 
motives, are made by some, but they are not well sustained. 

The working pressure of locomotive boilers is now as high as 
220 pounds, and plans are maturing for boilers to carry 250 pounds. 
With 200 pounds pressure the friction of large slide valves is a 
troublesome matter, resulting in broken valves, valve stems, rocker 
arms, eccentric rods, and eccentrics. The best remedy for such 
troubles is the use of piston valves, and we find them getting into 
more general use on recent locomotives, both simple and compound. 
The Baldwin Company was the first successful pioneer in this direc- 
tion, and the Brooks Works have turned out quite a number of piston 
valves in the past two years. The Schenectady Company is now fill- 
ing a considerable order for simple and compound passenger and 
freight locomotives which will all have piston valves. 

Previous experiments with piston valves in the old times were 
made with valves of small diameter, but when taken up again in 
recent years they were made as large as 10 inches in diameter, and 
have now reached 14^/2 inches in diameter — a size equal to the cylin- 
ders of 25 years ago. 

High boiler pressures have also required an increase in thickness 
of shell sheets so that % inch sheets are now used on the larger boilers. 
In marine practice shell sheets are now used having a tensile strength 
of 74,000 to 82,000 pounds, an elastic limit of 40,000 pounds, and an 
elongation of 21 per cent in 2 inches. Steel for rivets, stays and 
braces, of about the same strength, is used in the same practice. 
When it is desirable to reduce weight and increase the size of loco- 
motive boilers it seems possible to do it with steel of a quality as above 
described, and it will doubtless be so used during this busy and pro- 
gressive year. 

American builders are now turning out locomotives for English 
and French railways, and we trust that the details of these engines 
will be fully illustrated in our railroad journals. There are certainly 
some features of these engines which could be used to advantage on 



10 Railway Master Mechanic 

American roads. The journals and bearings on foreign engines are 
usually of good design, and the lubricating features superior to the 
common American practice. Such opportunities for a study of for- 
eign practice in locomotive design should not be lost. 



Ash-Pan Dampers, or Stack Lids ? 

There appears in another column of this issue a communication 
from a correspondent who argues that sufficient care is not taken to 
properly fit ash-pans below the furnaces of locomotive boilers, and 
who further argues, in effect, that were more pains taken to make 
tight joints throughout the pans and tight connections with the 
lower parts of the fireboxes there might result much saving of fuel. 
Our correspondent closes his argument with the "fling" that he is not 
"talking through his hat," so it may be appropriate to present the 
opinion that the reason he is not "talking through his hat," is because 
his "lid is off;" and we will make an effort to show that if he puts on 
a "lid" he will not find it necessary to worry over open ash-pans. 

The communication starts out well in presenting the idea that a 
damper is an air valve, and that unless a valve is tight it is useless. 
But the succeeding arguments for tight dampers show either that the 
correspondent is not familiar with road conditions or that he is try- 
ing to shield the locomotive crews. 

A damper, or a valve, is a first-class device if it is properly con- 
structed, properly located and properly manipulated. Referring to 
the construction, we would say that it is essential, first, that the fluid, 
the flow of which is to be regulated by the valve, should be properly 
enclosed in that passage or space the flow to which, or from which, is 
to be regulated, so that the proper manipulation of the valve will 
regulate, always, the flow. It frequently happens that the flow can 
be controlled just as completely by placing the valve in the escape 
as in the intake; and it is the intention to present arguments here to 
the effect that this is true of the flow of air through locomotive 
furnaces and tubes. It is true that, in America, the attempt has 
been general to regulate the flow of air to the furnace, and under these 
conditions it is essential that the ash-pan be tight and the dampers 
properly fitted, kept in good working order and properly manipu- 
lated. 



Ash-Pan Dampers 11 



Our correspondent assumes, evidently, that the draft should be 
regulated at the intake, by the ash-pan dampers, and then argues that 
the pans and dampers should receive better attention in the shops. 
Starting with such assumption his arguments are correct as far as 
they go, but he says nothing about the manipulation of the dampers 
by the locomotive crews ; and it is this omission which leads us to sus- 
pect that either he is not familiar with the road practice of locomo- 
tive crews or, if he is, he tries to shield the men. 

The manipulation of the dampers is the duty of the fireman, and 
it is all but impossible to get the engineer to give orders to the fire- 
man ; the result is that the ash-pan dampers are opened and left open, 
and whether the ash-pan is otherwise tight or not does not matter 
under such circumstances. An impartial presentation of the facts 
requires it to be said that the firemen are not always to be blamed for 
this apparent apathy and for their inclination to regulate the steam 
pressure with the injector and the furnace door, because, for one 
reason, the location of the damper levers is not uniform. On some 
locomotives the left lever regulates the front damper, and on others 
the right lever regulates the front damper, and there may be even 
greater variations, so that in these days of locomotive and crew pools 
and long lists of extra men, the men getting a different class of loco- 
motive each trip, it generally happens that if the fireman wants to 
manipulate one damper he must operate one lever and then lie down 
in the gangway so that he can look under the deck and see if he has 
moved the right damper. Under such circumstances it is but natural 
that he resort to the methods standard on every locomotive — the 
manipulation of the furnace door and, until the boiler is full, the 
injector, and, after the boiler is full, open the pop. 

And what would our correspondent say of the practice on some 
roads of cutting large holes in the sides of the ash-pans and covering 
the same with nothing but netting — the netting being used solely ta 
prevent cinders and hot ashes dropping out and setting fires. 

All the difficulty and worry which forms the basis of our corre- 
spondent's arguments, and of the foregoing, result from what we 
believe to be the mistaken idea that the draft through the furnace 
can be regulated only at the. intake — the ash-pan. As the gaseous 
products of combustion must escape through the stack, why cannot 
the draft be regulated just as completely by placing the valve in the 
escape — the stack? It is believed that it can be, and that if our corre- 
spondent will put on (the stack) a "lid" he will find that the lack of 



12 Railway Master Mechanic 

the "lid" prevented him "talking through his haj." This leads to the 
second proposition made, viz. : that the valve should be properly 
located, and to the reasons why the stack is the proper place. The 
best reason is that it is much easier to provide a tight valve in, or on, 
the stack because the passage to be controlled is smaller, and a tight 
valve is an essential to thorough control. Moreover, a valve on the 
stack could be made to be conveniently operated by the engineer 
or fireman, and as the engineer should be the responsible party, it 
would be well to have the operation so arranged. Such a location of 
the valve would necessitate directing the exhaust from the air pump 
somewhere other than up the stack, and this would result in even 
greater economy. Such valves, or lids, are used in Europe ; they 
have been tried in America by covering the stacks while the loco- 
motives were standing, under steam, at division points; we have 
reports from only the latter, and these reports are most satisfactory. 

The third proposition was, that the valves, or dampers, should 
be properly manipulated ; in the foregoing we have presented as a 
fact that the present ash-pan dampers are not properly manipulated, 
even when other parts are tight, and it is believed that this cannot 
be successfully controverted. It is believed that a damper in, or on, 
the stack would be operated just as frequently as the present ash-pan 
dampers are and it would certainly be much easier and cheaper to 
make a stack damper tight and easily operated than to make a tight 
ash-pan and provide tight ash-pan dampers. 



Car Construction for a Year. 

The review of the progress made in car construction which we 
gave last June began with a reference to the unusually fine passenger 
car equipment which various roads had purchased during the pre- 
vious year; and it may be appropriate to refer to the passenger car 
equipment this year, also, even though there is not so much to be 
said about it now as then. The elegance of this class of equipment 
has been well maintained in many instances, but there have not been 
so many "startling effects" as during the previous twelve months; 
this may be due, largely, to the fact that equipment has not been 
purchased for so many important trains. However, one innovation 
has crept in, and no doubt before many years the same will be con- 
sidered a necessary feature of all first-class equipment; reference is 



Car Construction for a Year 13 



made to the ladies' "retiring" room, let us not say smoking room (but 
who can tell to what uses these rooms may finally be put?). The 
broad vestibule is a fixture, and many roads are making special effort 
to get even some of their older equipment provided with this recog- 
nized necessity. There have been some improvements even in broad 
vestibules, and one of these is so simple and useful that it is surpris- 
ing it was not thought of and provided before, viz., the doors, or some- 
times curtains, at the ends, so that when closed at both ends of a train, 
both ends are protected from dust. 

Heretofore pressed steel construction for cars has been confined 
to freight equipment, but it is believed that there is a very good field 
for it in passenger car construction, not so much in the body of the 
car as in the trucks. A six-wheel truck is a necessity for heavy cars, 
or heavily loaded cars, in fast service, and while it is true that this 
type of truck has been provided frequently for cars really not requir- 
ing one so heavy, nevertheless there is a large number of cars which 
should be provided with them. The six-wheel truck, as now gener- 
ally constructed, is extremely heavy, and anything that will lessen the 
weight of fast trains must receive favorable attention, so it is believed 
that here is a legitimate field for the pressed steel companies. Already 
this subject has received some attention. 

There have been a few 7 new ideas in freight equipment, but gen- 
erally there has been a tendency to permit the newer designs to seek 
their level and to allow an opportunity for the less fit to disappear and 
the fittest to survive. Probably the newest idea is the box car of ioo,- 
ooo pounds capacity, and this is so new that whether or not it will be 
favorably received must be left for noting in a future review. The 
1 00,000-pound gondola is generally accepted for what may be called 
"special" loading, but it is believed that the 80,000-pound gondola 
is in favor for general loading. 

Railroad managers appreciate that it is very important to decrease 
the empty-car-mileage, and they have instigated changes in cars for 
special service to adapt them to other service ; one of the best illus- 
trations of this is the provision by which the upper deck of a double- 
deck stock car may be raised when freight other than sheep or hogs 
is to be transported. The double-deck stock car has always been an 
unsatisfactory car to manipulate on account of the obstruction 
offered by the upper deck. The removable upper deck is not a new 
idea, but it seems to be again engaging favorable attention. 

There is a tendency in the direction of longer cars which, if main- 



14 Railway Master Mechanic 

tained, will cause a readjustment in the car-load rates if such cars are 
offered in interchange. Some roads are building flat cars of extra 
length for traffic on owner's line and, of course, objection cannot be 
made to this, but when gondolas sixty-six feet long are offered in 
interchange, the subject of the length of cars is likely to receive some 
active consideration. With the increase in the capacity of cars gen- 
erally, it is believed that the increase in length will first receive atten- 
tion and that a similar review twelve months hence may place the 
average length of new cars at forty feet. 

It is hardly possible to conclude a review of this kind without 
reference to the combinations — the car combination, the pressed steel 
combination, the railway supply combination, and other consolida- 
tions of railway supply houses. Probably no one will hazard an 
opinion as to what final effect these combinations will have on the 
railway equipment business, but it may be well to point out that many 
of the consolidated railroad interests are now controlling such large 
mileage and are such large consumers of material that the question 
of whether or not it pays a railroad to manufacture its own material 
is getting to be a far different proposition than it was a number of 
years ago. 



A Supreme Court Insists on Automatic 

Couplers. 

To the Supreme Court of North Carolina will belong whatever 
credit there is due for first judicially discerning the value of automatic 
couplers and strenuously insisting on their adoption. Its first, epoch- 
making, decision on the subject, in Greenlee against the Southern 
Railway Company, which will hereafter be cited as the leading case 
on the self-coupler question, was reviewed in the Railway Master 
Mechanic, of February, 1899. 

A second, and likewise very interesting, decision the court handed 
down March 21, 1899, in the case of Troxler against the same railway 
company. Here, the court says, the company frankly asked it to 
reconsider and overrule Greenlee's case. Does it do it? No. It 
says (we use quite freely the language of the court) that that case 
was the expression of no new doctrine, but the affirmation of one as 
old as the law, and founded on the soundest principles of justice 
and reason, to-wit : That when safer appliances have been invented, 



Automatic Couplers and the Courts 15 

tested, and have come into general use, it is negligence per se for the 
master to expose his servant to the hazard of life or limb from anti- 
quated and defective appliances which have been generally discarded 
by the intelligence and humanity of other employers. This, it adds, 
must be so, if masters owe any duties to their employes, and unless 
economy of expeditures on the part of the railroad management is to 
be deemed superior to the conservation of the lives and limbs of 
those employed in their operation. To substantiate its position, it 
quotes quite freely from the twelfth annual report of the interstate 
commerce commission (1898), published, as it says, by authority 
of the United States Government, upon returns made by the railroad 
companies themselves; just as in its first decision it quoted from a 
former report. 

In this case, in the trial court, the judge held that the absence of 
automatic couplers, in general use, was negligence per se, and refused 
to submit an issue whether the injury was not caused by the negli- 
gence of a fellow servant, and refused to instruct the jury, as prayed, 
that the plaintiff was guilty of contributory negligence if he could, 
by proper care, have coupled the cars by hand without accident. In 
that, the supreme court holds, there was no error. 

The duty to furnish proper and safe appliances is that, the court 
says, of the common master, and injury caused by their absence can- 
not be attributed to the negligence of a fellow servant. And where 
the negligence of the master is a continuing negligence (as the failure 
to furnish safe appliances, in general use, when the use of such appli- 
ances would have prevented the possibility of the injury), it states, 
there can be no contributory negligence which will discharge the 
master's liability. This, it explains, has been repeatedly and uni- 
formly held. 

Then, after quoting figures from the report above mentioned, the 
court asks, Can it be seriously contended that the absence of such 
safety appliances (as automatic couplers) is not a negligence per se, 
rendering the railroad company liable for damages? 

As these appliances have been patented and more or less in use 
for over 30 years, it should not have required an act of Congress, the 
court thinks, to enforce their universal adoption. Failure to adopt 
them, after being so long and widely known and used, it maintains, 
was negligence in the defendant upon the principles of the common 
law. 

The act of Congress imposing a penalty for failure to add the 



16 Railway Master Mechanic 

appliances after January i, 1898, the court holds, in no wise affected 
the right of an employe to recover for damages sustained by the 
negligence of any railroad company to attach them. And the action 
of the interstate commerce commission in extending the date at 
which such act should come into force (by virtue of authority given 
in the act), the court is equally certain, could not set aside the prin- 
ciple of law that failure to adopt such appliances was negligence 
per se, nor have any other effect than to postpone the date at which 
the United States Government would impose the prescribed penalty 
upon all railroads engaged in interstate commerce failing to equip all 
their cars with automatic couplers — a penalty which is imposed irre- 
spective of whether any accidents occur from such failure or not. 

The indifference of railroad companies shown in not adopting 
these life and limb saving appliances the court pronounces all the 
greater since their cost is comparatively small. Then, after a further 
consideration of statistics bearing on the matter, the court declares 
that, with such an array of the terrible cost of life and limb by failure 
to use appliances to avoid coupling and uncoupling cars by hand (in 
doing which the plaintiff was injured), the small expense — nay, actual 
economy — of adopting them, and the ample means the defendant 
possesses, it cannot reverse its ruling in Greenlee's case, that it is 
negligence per se in any railroad company to cause one of its 
employes to risk his life or limb in making couplings which can be 
made automatically without risk. 

It is because it considers this matter of requiring these great 
corporations to protect the traveling public, and their employes as 
well, by the adoption of all safety appliances which have come into 
general use, is of such transcendent importance, the court says, that 
it has gone into the subject at such length. Ordinarily owned by 
great syndicates out of the state in which they operate, and their 
management, at all events, removed from any subjection to that scfund 
public opinion which is so great a check upon the conduct of individ- 
uals, and of government itself, the court continues, the sole protection 
left to the traveler and the employe alike is the application of that law 
which is administered impartially, and which can lay its hand fear- 
lessly upon the most powerful combination, and protect with its care 
the humblest individual in the land. 

Quoting again from the last annual report of the interstate com- 
merce commission, the court says that, in view of such mortality, 
rivaling that of the bloodiest of wars, it cannot reverse its declaration 



Automatic Couplers and the Courts 17 

heretofore, which is sustained by every sentiment of justice and 
humanity, that where a life and limb saving appliance, like automatic 
couplers, has come into general use, and its partial adoption has in 
four years, notwithstanding the increase in railroad mileage and 
employes, decreased the injuries and deaths from coupling cars one- 
half, the failure to adopt and use it is negligence per se. Considering 
the economy in money of using such appliances, as well as the ample 
revenue of the defendant, the court thinks that it is passing strange 
that it, or any other railroad company, should have delayed till now, 
or even till 1895, to protect the lives and limbs of their employes in 
this particular, or that there should have been need of an act of Con- 
gress or the verdict of a jury to stimulate considerations of humanity 
toward their patrons and employes. 

Counsel for the defendant, it further appears, read, as part of his 
argument, a clipping from a newspaper, and repeated in his brief, 
that a noble English lord, who was a railroad manager, as well as 
an hereditary member of Parliament, had changed his party affilia- 
tions because the one to which he had belonged had advocated the 
enforced adoption of self-couplers upon English railways. Com- 
menting on that, the court says it simply shows that one such man- 
ager, at least, possesses a lordly disregard for the thousands of deaths 
and injuries of employes yearly caused by the lack of safety appli- 
ances; and, it insinuates, it may be there are others who entertain 
sentiments of higher allegiance to the net earnings of the syndicates 
that employ them than to those great principles which every political 
party professes to advocate as being for the best interests of the pub- 
lic. But, it adds, the hostility of one or more railway managers 
toward the matter cannot affect the impartial enforcement of the 
sound legal principle that employes and the traveling public alike 
have a right to be protected against any dangers which can be avoided 
by the adoption of safety appliances which have been tested by 
experience, and which have come into general use. 

Finally, in this case, the # court insists, the defendant had the less 
excuse because there was uncontradicted testimony, not only that 
automatic couplers were in general use at the time of the injury 
(March, 1895), but that the skeleton drawheads, in attempting to 
make a coupling with which the plaintiff was injured, were defective 
in that they were of different heights from the ground, and evidence 
that the cars could not have been coupled with a stick, or in any 
other manner, except by hand. 



18 



Railway Master Mechanic 




A MODEL FLUE PLANT, CHICAGO, BURLING- 
TON & QUINCY RAILWAY. 

At the West Burlington shops of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Ouincy Railway there is in operation a remarkably well-arranged flue 
plant, which is the subject of our illustration. For convenience, 
rapidity and economy in the manipulation of flues it meets all the 
requirements very satisfactorily. For purposes of description we 
have in our illustration numbered the various tools, etc. Num- 
ber i is an apparatus for testing the flues with 300 pounds water pres- 
sure after they are welded. Number 2 is the straightening device. 
Numbers 3 and 4 are the furnaces for heating the flues. In No. 
3 are placed five or six flues and as many safe ends, the blast in this 
furnace being just sufficient to bring the flues up to a nice white heat, 
but not strong enough to burn them, even if they are left in the 
furnace indefinitely. The flues are transferred from this furnace to 
the small fire, No. 4, one at a time as occasion arises, to heat them to 
the proper welding heat. No. 5, adjoining the last mentioned fur- 
nace, is the Hartz welding machine. No. 6 is simply a stake with a 
taper point and a scraper on it upon which the end of the flue is 



A Model Flue Plant 1!) 



expanded and on which also the scale is scraped f"om the weld. 
No. 7 is a pneumatic swager. This tool is a parallel stroke hammer, 
which strikes about 240 blows per minute, and which is so con- 
structed that the hammer advances a given amount with each blow, 
the amount of advance being capable of adjustment to less than 
1 -100 inch per blow. It is also so arranged that this advance will 
continue only to a point at which the flue is swaged to the proper size 
and then ceases — the hammer continuing to strike, but advancing 
no further. This hammer has been found to do very perfect work — 
and it is believed that the flues swaged by it work much better and 
give much less trouble from cracking when being set in the flue 
sheet than those swaged on a mandrel or Hartz machine. No. 8 is a 
revolving rack, which will carry six full sets of flues of 250 flues per set. 
No. 9 is an Otto cleaner. No. 10 is a pneumatic-hydraulic cutting-off 
machine. Right in front of No. 6, the scraper, there is to be placed a 
pneumatic machine for scarfing safe ends. When this is completed 
and placed in position one heating of the flue and safe end will be suffi- 
cient for scarfing both of them, welding and swaging the flue, and 
completing the job in every particular. 

In operation the flues are brought into the shop on a rubble 
car, made especially for the purpose, and are passed through the 
cutting-off machine. This is a pneumatic-hydraulic affair that does 
its work very neatly. The flues are driven against the cutter by a 
constant water pressure of 30 pounds applied at the lower part of 
the cylinder, as shown. When the flue is cut off the rollers carrying 
the flue are driven down by admitting air on top of the piston at 120 
pounds pressure. This drives the water back into the pipe so that 
there is no waste of water whatever and no wetting of the floor or 
surroundings. It has been found that this works much better than 
to use air in applying the pressure while the flue is being cut off, on 
account of the elasticity of the air and the irregular thickness of old 
flues. After leaving this cutting-off machine the flues are passed to 
the cleaner, and are then placed in the revolving rack at the side 
most convenient to this tool. At the proper time the rack is turned 
around to suit the convenience of the man at the fire, the safe ends 
are scarfed, the flues are scarfed, welded and swaged and again placed 
back in the rack. Later on the helper takes the flues from the rack, 
tests and straightens them and places them on the rubble car ready 
to go to the erecting shops. It should be explained that one man 
does all this work at the fire without the aid of a helper. He has 



20 Railway Master Mechanic 



nothing" whatever to do with the cutting off, cleaning, testing or 
straightening of the fines. On this plant one man will scarf safe 
ends, scarf the flue, and weld and swage about 60 per hour — this 
including all handling of the work, no helper being used at all. We 
are enabled to present our account of this interesting plant through 
the courtesy of Mr. J. F. Deems, master mechanic at the West Bur- 
lington shops. 



AN INEVITABLE CHANGE. 

BY EDWIN N. LEWIS. 

It should not surprise any one who gives the matter thought that 
the old and long established methods of doing business are rapidly 
breaking up. While they were being established there were no rail- 
roads, no telegraphs, no stenographers, no typewriters and no tele- 
phones. The postal service, even, hardly existed at first and for 
generations was slow and inefficient. Such a condition of things 
naturally developed the local business, confined to a small district and 
restricted by the comparatively few wants of that district in capital 
and production. 

But so thoroughly had the old methods become established during 
a century or two of existence that they could not be quickly aban- 
doned and new adjustments made to conditions which, in truth, 
rendered them inefficient. The natural conservatism of men led 
them to cling to the old methods and resist the changes rendered 
necessary by the new conditions. 

The public has been slow to realize that, owing to the marvelous 
inventions above mentioned, time and space no longer exist as they 
did when the old methods of doing business were developed and 
established. The natural (and proper) attitude of the general public 
is resistance to change. This is what is called "conservatism" and it 
is, beyond question, a saving influence. But the time comes when 
the influence of changed conditions becomes irresistible. Then the 
haste of the business world to adjust itself to the new conditions is 
like the breaking away of stored waters. It becomes an excitement, 
a craze, and though the general results of the movement are bene- 
ficial, a thousand foolish and wild things are done. Every forward 
movement in civilization leaves a mass of debris behind it, the resid- 
uum of foolish plans, unfounded hopes and ignorant activities. 



An Inevitable Change 21 

Progress always costs much and in its mighty, irresistible move- 
ments the individual is often crushed or shoved aside remorselessly. 
That those who are hurt in such a readjustment of the business 
world to meet radically new conditions as is now taking place should 
raise indignant outcries to heaven is not strange nor new. When 
the rapid building of railroads in England threw out of employment, 
or threatened to throw out of employment, thousands who were con- 
nected with the stage coach industry, the whole land was filled with 
their indignant clamor. It is true that matters soon readjusted them- 
selves and the most of these frightened men found other and con- 
genial employment, but no doubt some were permanently injured 
by the change. The making of omelettes necessitates the breaking 
of eggs. The readjustment of vast industries to new conditions can- 
not be accomplished without injury to the interests which depend 
for their existence upon the methods which are being replaced by 
new ones. That is the price which has, inevitably, to be paid for 
progress. 

That these new and great combinations of capital which are now 
being made so rapidly and so generally are all wise adjustments of 
the businesses they represent to the new conditions is not at all prob- 
able. Some of them, many of them perhaps, are built upon the sand 
and when the floods come will be swept away. But this general 
movement toward the combination of competing business interests 
into a few large concerns is unquestionably an instinctive effort to 
adjust these interests to the greatly changed conditions which the 
railroad, the telegraph, the telephone, and the typewriter have pro- 
duced. What the final outcome will be no one can foretell, but the 
old methods will never be restored. That is as certain as the rising 
of the sun. 

The efforts of state legislatures and other forces to prevent radical 
changes in our business methods will be utterly futile, and the efforts 
which they are making to make department stores and other con- 
venient and helpful combinations of capital and industries impossible 
will be laughed at by coming generations. They are Mother Part- 
ingtons trying with their little brooms to sweep back the incoming, 
irresistible tide of the ocean. Behind such legislation and insisting 
upon it are — not the general public — but only those who are hurt by 
the changes in business methods now being made. But, in most 
cases, the hurt will be only temporary and the majority of those who 



22 Railway Master Mechanic 

are resisting these changes will soon discover that they are better off 
than they were under the old methods. 

What the final adjustment of the business of the world will be 
to the new conditions no one can foretell. It is not impossible that 
wireless telegraphy and the swift airship may present still newer con- 
ditions to which business methods must be adjusted. But that the 
methods which were established when the stage coach, the slow mail 
service, and the local manufactory and store met all the conditions, will 
never return is certain. The new methods of large combinations and 
the repression of competition may be only temporary. They prob- 
ably are, for competition in business will exist and be powerful as 
long as the world endures. But the sooner business men, lawmakers 
and the general public make up their minds that all efforts to resist 
the readjustment of business methods of all kinds to the new condi- 
tions are utterlv useless, the better off thev will be. 



SOME NOTES ON THE M. C. B. COUPLER. 

SUGGESTIONS AS TO METHODS OF STRENGTHENING IT. 

BY GUSTAVE GIROUX. 

At the April meeting of the Western Railway Club Mr. G. W. 
Rhodes made some remarks which are worthy of consideration by all 
parties interested in the M. C. B. coupler. The ideas advanced will, 
if placed in practice, greatly reduce the amount of breakage we now 
have, as well as tend to avoid much of the trouble that the coupler is 
now causing. I believe that fully one-half of the troubles that we are 
now experiencing with the M. C. B. coupler are due to negligence 
and indifference on the part of those who ought to give it more direct 
attention. The coupler should receive the same amount of attention 
as does the air brake, the car wheel, the axle, etc. — indeed more 
attention than is given to the latter items, on account of its 
mechanism. 

The sense of a portion of Mr. Rhodes' remarks was about like this : 
"So long as we shall be satisfied and accept, and not demand any 
more than, what we have and are getting at present we cannot expect 
much improvement/' Mr. Rhodes also made reference to the 
unnecessary vertical width of the link slot in the couple knuckle. 
This latter is a point that should receive a large amount of attention. 



Strengthening the M. C. B. Coupler 23 

We must strengthen the knuckle; for it is the weakest part of the 
coupler and always will be, because it is limited in its shape and size 
by the lines established and made standard some years ago by the 
Master Car Builders' Association. As soon as the link slot is done 
away with, the less will be the number of breakages met with ; 
but then the weakest part of the knuckle will be at the hole for the 
knuckle pin. Meanwhile all possible advantages should be taken 
to make the knuckle stronger; and we should not cut any more metal 
away from the knuckle than that which is absolutely necessary. 
Furthermore we should always put in the knuckle the strongest 
material that is now made. The injury done to a knuckle by cutting 
material from it, especially around the lug, has been fully demon- 
strated. 

Railroad companies that make tests and study these points of how 
to increase the strength of the coupler will ask for certain changes in 
the general design of the knuckle from the prevailing practice of the 
past. Some coupler companies will undoubtedly try to avoid these 
improvements for the reason that they would increase the weight of 
the knuckle; they are selling on a small margin of profit and they 
will try to avoid going to the expense of changing their patterns and 
of adding the required amount of material. I have known coupler 
companies to reduce the weight of their knuckles seven or eight 
pounds, or even more, and, with a similar reduction of weight in the 
drawbar proper, thus enable themselves to reduce the price of their 
coupler, and by so doing defeat some other well designed and strong 
coupler and get the sought-for contract. 

The tendency with some coupler manufacturers who have been 
trying to reduce the weight of the couplers is to go so far as to core 
out the tail and the lugs of the knuckle to such an extent that it is 
nearly like a shell. When such knuckles are tested either under the 
drop or in the pulling machine it will be found that they will stand 
the test, providing the amount of deflection is not taken into consider- 
ation, for they will bend very easily and will not break so soon. With 
a solid knuckle the result would perhaps not be so favorable ; that is, 
the solid knuckle would break before standing the same amount of 
punishment ; but if the deflection is taken into consideration this will 
be found to be a great deal less than it is with a cored knuckle, and 
since it cannot bend as much it must do the next thine — that is, 
break. A strong and stiff knuckle is one very desirable to have in a 
coupler. As knuckles in service are subjected to very severe blows 



24 Railway Master Mechanic 

and jerks the excessively cored or light knuckle will very quicklv 
find its way to the scrap pile, while the solid and heavier knuckle will 
last longer and give better service. Under these blows and jerks in 
service the cored knuckle will stretch or bend back and forth, which 
will result in a "fatigue" of the material to an extent that it will very 
quickly show a crack and will subsequently break; while the solid 
knuckle will be firm until it receives a blow severe enough to break 
it — and this is far better than to have it bend. A bent knuckle has 
been the cause of cars uncoupling and also of a great deal of trouble 
in making couplings, through this latter injuring the bars as well as 
draft rigging and frequently causing a breakage of buffer blocks. 
The limit the knuckle has to bend in either way so as to make it 
unsafe while coupled, or troublesome in coupling, is so small that it 
is difficult to notice it by the eye : and it will not be discovered until 
it causes some accident. Inspectors cannot very well detect bent 
knuckles without the aid of a gage. The materials that knuckles 
are made from must receive close attention, for a solid knuckle can be 
made of so soft a metal that it will bend nearly as badly as a cored 
knuckle, and that gives the same trouble. The best knuckle to place 
in service is the one that will stand the greatest amount of blows and 
the biggest load and give the least deflection. The table submitted 
herewith shows the difference between a cored and a solid knuckle 

PULLING TEST MADE TO SHOW THE DEFLECTION BETWEEX A CORED AND SOLID KNUCKLE 

OF THE SAME KIND AND MAKE. 

Solid knuckle weighed 4QV2 pounds and the cored knuckle 42 pounds. 

Deflection. 

Load. Solid Knuckle. Cored Knuckle. 

Pounds. Inch. Inch. 

5.000 03 02 

10.000 04 06 

20.000 05 10 

30.000 06 14 

40.000 09 21 

60.000 14 29 

8o.coo 25 45 

100.000 46 71 

141.200 Broke 2.42 

The measurements were made as follows : A small center punch mark was 
put on the top of coupler head and another mark on top of the outer end of the 
lug of the knuckle and at half of its thickness. A pair of dividers was then used 
to take the measurements between these two points. The knuckle pins of either 
coupler were badly bent. 

in a pulling test. Under a drop test the deflection of a cored knuckle 
will be i-)4 inches, while the deflection of a solid knuckle will be about 
1 inch under the same given amount of blows. Knuckles that are 



Strengthening the M. C. B. Coupler 25 

now placed in service are made of three distinct kinds of material, 
namely, wrought iron, malleable iron or semi-steel as some call it, 
and steel. The largest number are made of steel, and as increasing 
the strength of the knuckle must be effected by the use of high tensile 
strength material it is very important that all buyers of couplers 
should know if the knuckles are made of the strongest metal that is 
available, and when that is done the cost of replacing broken knuckles 
will be found to be greatly reduced. 

There are a few points as to the construction of the bar that ought 
to be considered as well, and these are as important as those referred 
to in regard to the knuckles. There has developed a considerable 
inclination to make the bar larger. This is a questionable move, for 
it cannot be said that we have reached the limit in the way of strength- 
ening the present bar with a 5-inch stem. Would it not be better to 
first find out what can be done with the present size of bar before 
changing, that is, before changing to a larger size of stem, for enlarg- 
ing the stem means additional expense in the way of necessary chang- 
ing of draft rigging on old cars. Whatever change is made in the 
bar will make it heavier, and that cannot be avoided, in fact this is 
necessary, for the trouble of the present bar is that it is too light 
through its section. 

The greatest trouble with bars that break through the face is 
that the section at that point is too light ; and of course if they are 
made thicker that trouble will very quickly disappear. Naturally 
some couplers will always be weak through the head on account of 
the large amount of metal cut out for the working of the lock 
mechanism, yet there is room to strengthen these bars at this point 
by making the upper or lower sections thicker. 

The breakages in the guard arms have been greatly reduced of late 
and they will gradually diminish as the link-and-pin drawbar is done 
away with, and as buffers are more generally applied on cars. The 
guard arm can be strengthened some by adding more metal, that is 
making the section through that point thicker. 

I do not see why the stem cannot be made the strongest part of 
the bar, and it seems unnecessary for us to have so many bars broken 
in the stem. The stem can be strengthened without changing its 
size from 5 inches to 6 inches, as has been suggested. As a general 
rule the plates forming the stem are all made of an equal thickness, 
and are about ^-inch thick, some being as light as V§ -inch thick. 
This practice might be all right if all the four sides of the stem played 



26 



Railway Master Mechanic 



a similar part, but such is not the case, for a part or side of the bar is 
subject to more wear than the other part or side, and some parts are 
subjected to greater strains at times than others. If provision is 
made for these strains and wears the stem can be greatly strengthened 
without adding so much metal after all. This is well demonstrated 
by the accompanying illustration, in which are shown two bars taken 
from the scrap pile. The square hole worn through the bottom of 
the stem of the coupler at the right is i */£ inches deep and about ^V\ 
inches long. This hole was worn through by reason of rubbing on 
the carrying irons while in service. In the bar at the left it will be 
seen that the upper plate, which was the bottom plate of the bar in 
service, is worn down to a thin film which extends backward to a dis- 
tance of about 4^ inches. The first noted coupler was removed 
from service on account of the wear shown letting the head of the 
bar drop down too low ; while the other bar was broken in service. 
The section of the plate of these two stems is as follows : worn bar — 
bottom plate, Y\- 
inch thick ; top plate, 
^g-inch thick; plate 
on guard arm side 
3^ -inch thick; plate 
on opposite side 
1 3- 1 6 inch thick. The 
plates of the broken 
bar, taken in the 
same rotation, are : 
bottom, Yz inch ; 
top, 11-16 inch; 
guard arm side and opposite side, 9-16 inch thick each, all plates hav- 
ing a small rib. 

These two examples may perhaps show an exceptional amount of 
wear, yet they prove, for one thing, that we must expect to find more 
metal worn off on the bottom side of the stem than on any other of 
the three sides, and on that account the bottom plate should be made 
thicker than the top to allow for wear. 

The guard arm always receives a kind of glancing blow when 
making a coupling, and as that blow is not a central one it affords 
quite a leverage to help to break the stem, and it is generally just 
such blows that break the stem. If we examine into the effects that 
such a blow has on the stem it will be noticed at once that the side 




Strengthening the M. C. B. Coupler 2/ 

plate of the stem on the guard arm side is subjected to a compression 
strain, while the opposite side plate is subjected to a very severe ten- 
sional strain, and for that reason the latter plate should be made 
stronger. The illustration, I think, shows very plainly the superior- 
ity of a well-designed stem, the design of which takes into considera- 
tion the points just made. 

The superior strength of a stem constructed like No. i, as com- 
pared with a stem constructed like No. 2, can easily be demonstrated 
in making drop tests on the guard arm — which is the best test to 
find the strength of a stem. At one time I was testing couplers 
according to a specification requiring a guard arm test of three blows 
at 3 feet, and three blows at 5 feet, and had no trouble in getting bars 
to stand these tests ; but after a short time the requirements were 
raised to three blows at 3 feet, and five blows at 5 feet, and at once I 
found I had to make lots of re-tests. But the firm making the 
coupler which I was testing very quickly overcame the necessity of 
making so many re-tests by making the plates of the stem opposite 
to the guard arm side a little thicker. 

The necessity of testing and inspecting couplers cannot be too 
strongly urged. Such practice is bound to produce good results, as 
lias been amply demonstrated to both manufacturers and railroad 
companies that have followed that practice. Manufacturers who 
have favored tests and have kept improving the shape of the coupler 
and the quality of the material that is placed in it can to-day sell 
couplers under guaranty that they will stand a guard arm test of three 
blows at 3 feet and five blows at 5 feet, and that they will stand a pull- 
ing test of 150,000 pounds. In fact, such firms have made couplers 
that will stand three blows at 3 feet and seven blows at 5 feet, and 
one or two blows at 10 feet on the guard arm, and that will stand a 
pull of 190,000 to 200,000 pounds without breaking. Again, we 
find the opposite to be true with some of the firms that have objected 
to tests and some such firms cannot to-day sell couplers and guar- 
antee them to stand three blows at 3 feet and three blows at 5 feet, or 
to stand a pulling test of 135,000 pounds. 

As soon as couplers are generally sold and bought upon their own 
merit the expenses and troubles we have been put to will be greatly 
reduced. When all companies that buy couplers test them and give 
them the same close attention that they do to axles, car wheels, boiler 
steel, etc., the number of couplers we now have on the market will 
be greatly reduced : in fact, the same result will follow to the coupler 



Railway 31 aster Mechanic 

as did to the air brake after the great Burlington brake tests of 1886 
and 1887. But so long as there are companies that will buy poor 
material and defective couplers and accept for a first-class article what 
another company has refused on account of not meeting the require- 
ments of a fair and just specification, so long we will bear the saying 
that the M. C. B. coupler is "no good," and that it is "a failure." 
There are some couplers in service to-day that certainly are no good 
and never will be ; but there are others that are good and that can be 
improved, the same as has been done with the air brake. 

Some of the past troubles have been due to poor materials, but 
for that we ought not to condemn all materials. Let us by all means 
insist that we get good material. It is made by some firms and can 
be made by more if they will only try. But a general effort to pro- 
duce good material will not be made so long as it is not asked for or 
until couplers are generally bought only on rigid inspection. 

I cannot recommend too strongly the necessity of getting the 
different parts of a coupler well fitted together, without lost motion. 
Such practice is necessary to make the coupler work satisfactorily 
and also to make it last longer. The necessity of getting this good 
work on couplers has not been looked after as it should have been, 
nor has it been appreciated by either railroad or coupler companies. 
But one thing that will bring this practice around quicker than all 
possible talk, is the adoption of a gauge for wear, and a recommenda- 
tion that all couplers that are so worn, or are so loose, that they will 
not pass the gauge should be scrapped. We ought to realize that we 
have in a coupler a piece of mechanism, and that the good working 
of it depends upon the way it is fitted up, as is the case with any other 
piece of machinery. I think that the day is not far off when we shall 
see all the working parts of a coupler machined like any other piece 
of mechanism. Again, when the coupler is in service we must give 
it the same attention and treat it as we do any other piece of machin- 
ery. It would be a great help in the way of improving the coupler 
if all defects or breakages should be systematically reported, and 
broken or defective pieces sent to the superintendent of motive 
power, who should call in the manufacturers and point out the defects 
or breakages, so that they may know how and where to make the 
necessary improvements. 

Thanks and credit are certainly due to the Master Car Builders' 
Association for the good it has done so far in improving the coupler, 
and it is to be hoped that that association will still keep giving this 



Pneumatic Blacksmith Tools 



29 



question its special attention. As a general rule manufacturers make 
especial efforts to meet the requirements of the Master Car Builders' 
Association and to cooperate with that association in the effort to 
attain perfection in the M. C. B. coupler. 



PNEUMATIC BLACKSMITH TOOLS— ST PAUL 
& DULUTH RAILWAY. 

On the St. Paul & Duluth road Mr. Geo. F. Hinkens, master 
blacksmith of that road, has for some time been doing some most 
excellent work with a pneumatic bulldozer, built at the shops, for 
which has been designed a wide range of dies. This bulldozer is a 
portable machine, made entirely of iron. It carries a 14-inch air 
cylinder, capable of producing an effective pressure of 20,000 pounds, 
the shop pipe line carrying 125 pounds air pressure. Provision is 
made for transverse movement of the cylinder, as is indicated in 
figure 1. The machine is shown here fitted with a die for bending the 
stirrup end of a brake hanger. This die is shown in detail in figure 2. 




Figure i — Pneumatic Bulldozer — St. Paul & Duluth Railway 



30 



Railway Master Mechanic 





Figure 2. 



Figure 3. 



It will be seen that it consists of swinging arms or levers connected 
with an equalizer by links, the equalizer being connected with the 
piston rod. The operation of the die is made clearly apparent by 
figure 2. 

A number of dies and the parts that they make are shown lying 
about the bulldozer. One of these dies — that shown at the extreme left 
— is a hand tool, operated by hand levers, and is designed for making 
"S" links, one of which latter is shown resting on the tool. In this 
tool the revolving part consists of two handles, having two gauge 
arms standing transversely with the handles. On the handles are 
pivoted two gripping levers. The stationary or inner cylindrical 
body is provided with two pins around which the "S" link is formed. 
The gripping levers are adapted to engage the material by means of 
revolving the outer part to which the handles are attached. This 
tool is very valua- 
ble, insuring as it 
does perfect dupli- 
cation and having a 
large capacity for 
producing work. 

Recurring to the 
dies for use in the 
air machine, we give 
in figure 3 a view of 
a device for bending 
the loop end of 
brake hangers. In Figure 4 . 




A New Dynamometer Car 



31 



this tool the link is connected to the piston by means of a jaw and 
pin and is also connected to a swing attachment carrying a roller, 
the attachment being carried around the former, thereby giving the 
proper form to the loop. The purpose of the roller is to overcome 
friction and facilitate the bending of the iron by not dragging the 
material along. With this die 100 hook ends an hour is a fair rate 
of output. 

In figure 4 is given a view of a tool for bending brake lever car- 
riers. This operates upon the same principle as the tool shown in 
figure 2. The parts are made adjustable, to provide for varying 
lengths. The two bends are made simultaneously, and the ends are 
flattened in a suitable die at the steam hammer, both operations being 
completed in one heat. The output of this tool is about 400 a day. 

Mr. Hinkens has a large number of other dies for use on this 
machine — for forming pipe clamps, bending unlocking pin levers, 
bending draw bar yokes, quarter twisting iron bars for various pur- 
poses, lapping ends of car transoms, and forming links, corner irons 
and fulcrum brackets. The machine is also used for punching key 
ways, upsetting light iron, etc. We here show enough, however, to 
reveal the possibilities of this machine in the way of rapid, convenient 
and economical shop work in handling a wide range of shop product. 




A NEW DYNAMOMETER CAR. 

For some months past the department of Mechanical Engineering 
of the University of Illinois has been, at times, working on the road 
with a dynamometer car of its own design. This car we are enabled 
to illustrate quite fully through the courtesy of Professor L. P. Breck- 
enridge, who is at the head of the department mentioned. The car 
was the outcome of negotiations between the university authorities 
and the officials of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, 



32 



Railway Master Mechanic 



the parties in interest agreeing that the road should build the car and 
that the university should equip it with the special apparatus, and 
that it should be used for their mutual benefit. From data furnished 
to us by Professor Breckenridge we have prepared the following 
account of this car : 





< 

u 

a 

H 
W 

s 

o 



— 



a 






o V 



C 



•./) 



O ' 



O 1- 



o - 

.2 2 



^~ 5 « 



v .H<Ou£^ 

I z I I I IT" I 



^ 



— K 

J ^ J* 

o o o 

41 o> w 

i - - 

J «i in 

«i t" w 

£c£ £ 

CL*""Dh Dh 



biti 



z M 



«"2 

« o 

be &£ d' 



- CTu 
a; en D 

« o « 

Sac 
o . o 

-; t/I — 

Etj c 



« P5 t£b£ 

Oo « c 

<U o u <* 

. 2 bt'^c/) x c 

CT C C u u O)" - ' 

1- F u jr >> £■ bt 



4) 

u 



o 

ea 

.sg 1 

■3-s 

8.1 

"You 



<: B u cmo sJ,. 



A New Dynamometer Car 



33 




Figure 6 — Interior View. 



The prime feature of the car — the dynamometer — by which the 
pull at the drawbar is transmitted to the automatic recording appara- 
tus, consists of a cylinder fastened to the center sills,' and carrying a 
piston whose rod is attached to the drawbar through a cross head. 
The position of this dynamometer relative to the other apparatus is 
shown in Fig. i, and in Fig. 2 its detail of construction is given quite 
fully. This detail has been very carefully worked out with the result, 
we are assured, of a piece of mechanism that answers its purpose 
admirably and stands up to its work fully in every particular. The 



34 



Railway Master Mechanic 



attachment of the cylinder to the 
drawbar is such that when the 
chamber in front of the piston is 
filled with oil none of the load is 
carried by the buffer springs, but 
when this oil is discharged the 
pull is then taken by the springs 
in the normal way The arrange- 
ment is, furthermore, such that 
the piston never strikes the cylin- 
der head under any circum- 
stances. As will be seen by refer- 
ence to Fig. 2 the piston is 8 
inches in diameter and is packed 
with a cup leather, the piston rod 
being packed with a U-shaped 
leather. 

In operation the drawbar pull 
is taken by the oil in the chamber 
in front of the piston. This 
chamber is in communication, 
through piping as shown, with 
the recording apparatus (see Fig. 
ing tons and pounds per square 





Figure 3— Gage and Recorder. 

1) — A, being a pressure gage show- 
inch ; B, a pressure gage showing 
pounds per square 
inch, and C, the re- 
cording drum, which 
latter is operated 
from the axle, as 
shown in Fig. 3, the 
motion being trans- 
mitted to the drum 
by specially de- 
signed gearing. 
Thus the pressures 
corresponding to 
the varying pulls on 
the drawbar are 
brought directly be- 
fore the eye of the 
operator, and are at 



Figure 4 — The Hand Pimp. 



A New Dynamometer Car 



85 



the same time automatically recorded. When the apparatus is lying 
idle the oil is raised to the reservoir L, Fig. I, by air pressure obtained 
from the auxiliary air reservoir P, and piped into the dynamometer 
cylinder in the maimer shown in Fig. I, piping being also provided 
for forcing up any oil that may leak past the piston. In the air pipes 
are placed two vent cocks which during tests are kept open to pre- 
vent possibility of air pressure being exerted on either side of the 
piston. A duplex air gage, F (Fig. i), is connected with both train 



* l <~o0~ » v >&9 + •% **£. O.v 



TestNo? Loeo«o54-0 ■, o e , 

Sh*e)>4o+ Gr, Tons -I Jo A 




Nov 19.1898 



A/ew Cpsf/e. Hil/ Sh^A No.25 Ry ~ P o^e^ o Big4ftt.F>i 



TestMo O No Cans 36 

Uoo.Mo.523 Gr-fc,sl228 




Figure 5 — Sample Records. 



36 



Railway Master Mechanic 



pipe and auxiliary reservoir. When it is desired to place the dyna- 
mometer in use the oil is forced into the cylinder by a hand pump, 
M (Fig. i), shown in perspective in Fig. 4. 

This is all there is to the apparatus for obtaining and recording 
the drawbar pull. The records produced are quite interesting. We 
give in Fig. 5 a reproduction of representative diagrams obtained. 
A remarkably even record line is shown. The usual experience so 
far is that the variation of the recording pen does not exceed 5 pounds 
at speeds over 12 miles per hour. These cards indicate with notable 
delicacy the variations of drawbar pull, and they frequently indicate 




.... — ' 
< 



Figure 2 — The Dynamometer. 



the manipulation of the reverse lever and of the throttle valve of the 
engine — at slow speeds the revolutions of the drivers are told by the 
graphic line ; especially is this true of a later form of record obtained 
and of which we will speak presently. In one of the cards shown 
here the story of an attempt to get over a hill with too many loads 
is graphically told. Not only does the record given by this dyna- 
mometer reflect conditions with remarkable sensitiveness, even 
asserting itself when the dynamometer car alone is being hauled, 
but the dynamometer operates with extreme steadiness, as shown 



Automatic Cost Accounting 37 

by the even record line, and by the steady movement of the gage 
pointer. 

Of late another form of record has been obtained, the mechanism 
being so speeded that a record 13 inches to the mile is given. This 
so attenuates the record line that in the dimensions of our page a 
reproduction would not be profitably available. It is a handsome 
line and one that permits very accurate reading. It is also readily 
comparable with the road profile, which is carried in the car at W 
(Fig. 1), on suitable rollers. 

This car carries a number of other pieces of apparatus by which 
the following information is indicated to the eye or automatically 
recorded : Locomotive boiler pressure, steam chest pressure, weight 
of water delivered to the boiler, driving wheel revolutions, train pipe 
and auxiliary reservoir pressure, speed, time of passing mile posts, 
etc. Our view of the interior, Fig. 6, shows quite clearly the com- 
pact grouping of the main pieces of apparatus. 

Taken altogether, it is a very completely fitted out car; and its 
practical work has proved most satisfactory. Some criticism has 
been made to the effect that the principle of the dynamometer was 
such that errors of record would arise through indeterminate friction 
losses; but Professor Breckenridge is confident that this position is 
incorrect, although he has not proved the machine by calibration. 
We may add that the professor does not feel that he has the ideal 
dynamometer car as yet, and that he expects to make further improve- 
ments in due time. 



AUTOMATIC COST DISTRIBUTING AND 
ACCOUNTING PLAN.* 

USED BY THE BALL-BEARING COMPANY, BOSTON, MASS. 
BY W. S. ROGERS, GENERAL MANAGER. 

The method of cost-keeping now used by the Bail-Bearing Com- 
pany is not the one installed by the writer when he assumed control 
one year ago. Nor is it the same he has used in other factories dur- 
ing his ramblings of the past 25 years. Realizing for years how diffi- 
cult it is for the workmen to write down all the details of each day's 
work and give accurately the time upon each operation and factory 
order, my aim and desire has been to eliminate, if possible, all clerical 

*Copyrighted, 1899, by W. S. Rogers. 



38 Railway Master Mechanic 

work for foremen and employes which is so distasteful to them, and 
also gain, if possible, absolute accuracy in the daily distribution of 
the working time that there might be no discrepancy between the 
hours worked and those paid for. 

Not until I saw the Rochester Time Recorder did I feel that the 
problem could be perfectly solved. With it and a properly arranged 
working card I believed that the difficulties surrounding the usual 
methods of endeavoring to honestly charge time to the proper factory 
orders without having expense time added to them would vanish 
like mists before a summer's sun. 

Experiments covering a period of five years in different places 
demonstrated clearly that a hearty cooperation of the wage workers 
was always assured, and the obstacles are to be found : First, from 
foremen who know nothing of the importance of keeping down fac- 
tory expense to the minimum, and elevating hours of production to 
the utmost ; second, from those in authority who have hobbies to ride 
or else care nothing for costs, value of expense and reduced produc- 
tion, and who have the faculty of explaining away their losses in busi- 
ness at the end of the year by using the scape-goat "competition, high 
wages, and expense of materials," or else charge the deficiency to 
that easy excuse, "experimental work." 

I also realized that the method of transferring the work from the 
individual cost cards to the different divisions of production and 
expense must be simplified to such a degree that any person of intel- 
ligence and fairly good calculating ability could manage it, thus 
eliminating the bugbear of high-priced bookkeeping with all its 
mysteries ; in fact, I knew that any method devised must not detract 
from the value of dividends earned, but in truth be a dividend-increas- 
ing element. To make the safety of the plan surer I have separated 
the pay roll time-keeping from the cost-keeping, thus avoiding all 
possibility of "balancing" the accounts at the end of each month by 
additions or subtractions to obliterate any clerical errors. 

To prove the simplicity of our present plan, first let me say that 
the factory of The Ball-Bearing Co. works to-day upon 150 different 
orders, embracing those for stock, for customers wanting goods out 
of the ordinary, and orders for jigs and special appliances; while the 
manufacture of ball and roller bearings necessarily means a multitude 
of small unit parts to be handled from raw material in the stock room 
through the various phases of machining, tempering, hardening and 
grinding, to final inspection and shipping, thus making the labor of 



Automatic Cost Accounting 



39 




Fh.ire i. 



separating all the minutes of time an arduous task unless the method 
used was of simplest form. That it is so, the picture in Fig. i of the 
young lady at her desk with the cost distribution rack back of her, 
proves. 



40 



Railway Master Mechanic 



Her first duty every morning, from 8 o'clock until 10, is to match 
the red, or cost, cards of the previous day with the white pay roll 
cards to see that every minute of time for which the workman 
receives pay has been devoted to objects enhancing the company's 
interests: second, to calculating the cost of each man's time fo.r each 
operation on each factory order as shown by the red cards ; third, dis- 
tributing the red cards in the cost rack shown in the picture according 
to their proper factory order numbers or letters; fourth and last. 




Figure 2. 



abstracting the cards from rack for completed orders, totalling up 
the hours and minutes expended, also the cost thereof, adding the 
general expense load, obtaining cost of materials from the blue 
material card from stock keeper, transferring same to back of factory 
order and in proper page of the cost book, in the last column of which 
is placed on the same line the selling price, if a custom order, or its 
stock valuation if intended for the stock-room shelves. The balance 
of her day's work is spent indexing her letter book, dictation of letters 



Automatic Cost Accounting 



41 



and preparing the day's mail, for she is stenographer and valued office 
assistant as well as cost accountant. 

When it is borne in mind that we care for and calculate the cost 
of thirty thousand minutes per day, and that a woman is fully capable 
of doing it accurately in two hours' 
time, the man who "don't believe" 
in such things, and his more ignor- 
ant brother who excuses himself on 
the grounds that the surroundings 
and conditions of his own particu- 
lar line of manufacture makes it 
"impossible" to adopt such meth- 
ods, need to don nurse caps and 
aprons and cease posing as manu- 
facturers, and blaming their com- 
petitors for their business losses. 

My reasons for adopting the 
Rochester Time Recorder was not 
owing- to any personal acquaint- 
anceship with its makers, but solely 
because it was of superior excel- 
lence in workmanship, required no 
attention except winding once a 
week, possessed features preventing 
any alteration of the time regis- 
tered, gave the opportunity of each 
workman to personally note his ar- 
rivals and departures for the entire 
week and thus calculate his own 
time, and permitted the abandon- 
ing of the system of daily transfer 
of time to the individual pay roll 
book or sheet with chances for error 
and dispute, thus dispensing with 
the services of a clerk for this purpose, whose salary adds to the gen- 
eral expense account and in many cases is a luxury. 

To illustrate to my employes that no hardship is asked of them 
that I would not assume myself, every person connected with the 
workings of the company's affairs carries a white time card; and I 
find, for my own personal convenience, this to be an advantage, as 



- - 

Week ending., ..«WV. ..^^..1897 

No 156 _ 

Name. 






Day 


IN' 


LOST OR 
OVER TIME. 


Out 


Total. 


OUT 


IN 


M 


A.M. 


1)58 

** CO 






12?° 




P.M. 


1211 






er 




T 


A.M. 


£58 
DS9 






121 




P.M. 


mi 






6!? 




W 


A.M. 


6S 






121 




P. M. 


I2ii 






Q29 
t>30 


^ 


T 


A. M. 


52 
l)S3 






12? 




P. M. 


12" 






6b 




F 


A. M. 


730 

I 31 






122 


4-& 


P.M. 










O 


T 


A. M. 


611 






12?, 




P. M. 


n 






6? 




s 


A. M. 












P M. 












Total Time, . .. s£ *k£ .... hrs. 

*"- y ^V JW7 • 



Figure 3. 



42 



Railway Master Mechanic 



our bookkeeper or others wanting me at any time can tell by the clock 
whether I am at the works or elsewhere. The clock occupies a cen- 
tral position in the factory within easy access of every one, as shown 
in Fig. 2. The double card racks on either side, as seen in the picture, 
have numbered pockets, each representing a workman; the two out- 
side ones are for the pay roll, or white cards, illustrated in Fig. 3, and 
when each employe arrives for duty he takes his card from the "OUT" 
rack, registers in the clock and places the card in the pocket bearing 



WORKING TIME 



OF 



No. 



Name 



THIS SII313 OUT. 

COST CARD 

Factory Order >J» JLscT. 

Price, $2-,M 

Commenced !m....~../.£.~..j£.u£... 

Finished. .<1d..S*3 ... 



DAY 


IN 


OUT IN 


OUT Total 


M 


,.,, 7 4 | 






jr 


P.M. 






2 SO 




T 


A.M. 












P.M. 












W 


A.M. 












P.M. 












T 


A.M. 












P.M. 












F 


A.M. 












P.M. 












S 


A.M. 












P.M. 












s 


A.M. 
P.M. 






















Total 
Rate 


Hours ... ? 3° 


per H 


our. a* a 


Total Cost, 


t 






Z 


to 



X 


WORK 


PIECES | PARTS 


X 




Annealing 


Axles 






Assembling 


Balls 






Balling 


Bands 






Boring Bearings 






Broaching Belting 






Cleaning 


Boxes 






Converting 


Cages 






Cutting off 


Cage Ends 






Drilling 


Casings 


X 




Facing 


Collars 


r I 




Filing 


Discs 






Forging 


Furnace 






Grooving 


Jigs 




?L 


Grinding 


* 


Light 






Hardening 




Machines 






Inspecting 




Material 






Laying Out 




Office 






Milling 




Patterns 






Planing 




Posts 






Polishing 




Races 






Repairing 




Rollers 






Riveting 




Shop 






Shipping 




Sleeves 






Slotting 




Spools 






Snagging 




Stockroom 






Tapping 




Toolroom 






Threading 




Tools 






Turning 















Correct. 



8upU 



PATXHT AJTL.11D FOR. 



Reverse. 



Figure 4. 



Front. 



Automatic Cost Accounting 43 

the proper number on the "IN" rack; reversing the operation when 
he leaves the factory. During working hours we can easily see which 
particular ones are absent and as the men employed in the different 
departments are grouped together the strength or weakness of any 
department is quickly seen and arrangements made tc equalize con- 
ditions tending to delay the daily output. There is also such a 
moral atmosphere surrounding the clock from the open honesty of 
the conditions that the employes improve in their desires to be 
prompt in registering before the beginning of working hours. 

The two outside racks and the white cards are wholly under the 
control and direction of the bookkeeper, who changes them on the 
proper days and makes up the pay roll. After they are figured for 
total number of hours and the pay roll check covering the amount 
called for is made out, they are filed in weekly rotation in a case where 
they can be easily found should occasion require. 

The clock having performed all the functions of a $400 per year 
clerk, and in much more intelligent manner, this ends all there is to be 
said on this point and we will note the two inner divisions of the racks 
marked "red cards only;" the front and reverse sides of these cards 
are illustrated by Fig. 4, and are similar to any other time card for 
keeping the record of the workman's daily toil, excepting that the 
foremen perform what little clerical work is required in filling them 
out at the time the workman goes to work upon the order, and their 
labor in this respect is limited to writing the order number, the num- 
ber of pieces and the workman's number. A cross before the work 
to be performed and another after the parts worked upon completing 
their story. 

The workman has no clerical work to do whatever, but goes to 
the clock and registers "in" when he begins work, placing the card 
in the pocket bearing his number on the "IN" side of the clock. 
When the job is completed he goes to the clock, takes the card 
from the rack and registers the time he was through or "out" and 
places it in the "OUT" rack for the red cards. The clock is doing 
for him with absolute exactness what he would have to guess at two- 
thirds of the time ; and it is at this moment that a foreman shows his 
weakness or stands prominent above every other feature of shop 
economics. To give his employer full value for the ten hours' pay 
he receives every day, the workman's red cards must match the ten 
hours called for on the white cards. There must be no lapse of time 
between the registering "out" of one card and the registering "in" 



44 Railway Master MECHANIC 

of the next one. There can be but one excuse for any gap in the 
workman's time, and the foreman must have another job for the 
workman waiting before he completes the one under way and before 
he registers "out." The foreman who does this may be ever so 
modest and retiring in manner, but he is one of the most prominent 
factors when the cost sheets are balanced at the end of the month ; 
and the workman relieved of the responsibility and bother of endeav- 
oring to keep books with an old slippery pencil, is elevated to a posi- 
tion where he can develop his full mechanical power in producing the 
results that earn profits. 

Should it be necessary to "switch" a workman from one job to 
another before completion the red cost card must be registered "out" 
at the same time he begins on the new one and at night ALL red 
cards must be registered "out" and placed in the "OUT ,fc rack at the 
same time the white cards are registered after the close of working 
hours — the foreman having new cost cards prepared for his men for 
the following morning. 

This plan is also possessed of a certain amount of elasticity, as all 
good things should be, and the shipper, tool makers, subordinate fore- 
men and factory lumper have single cost cards designated by the 
alphabetical letter pertaining to the division of time to which their 
labor is charged, running through the whole week ; they register only 
morning and night of each day except, when they are "switched" on 
to producing work, under which circumstances, they are given a cost 
card for the special job, registering the same as other workmen and 
registering out and in during the interval on their weekly cards. 
When cards for production come in to the cost accountant from these 
men she goes at once to the clock and notes if they have propeiiy 
closed and opened the time on their weekly cards to match the ones 
sent in. 

Thus she calculates and balances the working time of each man 
daily with his paid time and the loss in production if any is found and 
located at once and a reason given instead of waiting for the grand 
finale of estimates, approximates and excuses made at the end of each 
fiscal year when production shortages are either padded out or 
charged to profit and loss with promises of reform for the ensuing 
year. 

That the recorder has developed a plan of vast value and utility in 
giving a manager constant knowledge of his cost of production the 
following monthly statement of production will illustrate. These 



Automatic Cost Accounting 45 

statements are arranged every month and can be obtained at any time 
within twenty-four hours' time. 

FACTORY PRODUCTION STATEMENT PER MONTH. 

Work — 
Fac. Ord. completed. . 
Stk. Ord. completed. . 
Stk. Ord. under way. . 
Fac. Ord. under way. 



Cost of 


Time, 


Cost 


Selling 


Minimum 


Material. 


Hrs.Min. 


of Labor. 


Cost. 


Selling Price. 


.$267.57 


2,974:17 


$489.13 


$1,245.83 


$1,488.88 


. 9.09 


128:58 


17.91 


5I-I5 


56.20 


• 67.36 


512:20 


82.01 


234-85 


250.00 


. 274.19 


1,201 :i5 


208.03 


666.97 


874.57 



Totals $638.21 4,816:10 $797.08 $2,198.80 $2,669.6; 

Cooperative labor 1,184:19 $208.16 



Total time and labor 6,000:29 1,005.24 (red cards). 

Pay-roll time and cost 6,000 :oo 1,005.30 (white cards), 



Loss in production :29 .06 

Production rate, per hour 167 cents. 

Expense labor rate, per product hour 041 cents. 

Supervision rate, per product hour 022 cents. 

Office salary rate, per product hour 07 cents. 

Factory expense rate, per product hour 03 cents. 



Total cost of production, hour 327 cents. 

The production rate is obtained by dividing the total cost of 
product labor by the time of producing labor ; the expense labor rate 
is obtained by dividing the amount paid for it by the time of produc- 
ing labor; the same divisor being used for obtaining rates of super- 
vision, salary and all factory expenses for the month. The wise man 
will readily see that, providing he has the ready capital to carry him 
along, the easy way to reduce cost of production is to add all hours 
possible to the producing time and wages without increasing the 
hours or cost of cooperative labor and other items of fixed expenses. 

The important item in the above statement is the closeness of the 
totals of time and labor as shown by the red cost cards to the pay roll 
time and cost as shown by the white cards, the loss of only 29 minutes 
and 6 cents being a small factor compared with other methods of cost 
accounting when balancing the books at the end of the year. This 
feature of keeping cost of production by the clock, added to the fact 
that all writing, calculating and "guessing" of time worked upon dif- 
ferent jobs on the part of the workmen and foremen is completely 
obliterated, and accuracy obtained without a mass of red tape and 
without increasing the fixed charges, comes almost to the author's 
ideal of cost accuracy and honest accounting whereby one customer 
is not charged with time pertaining to another, nor with work that 
really should have been charged against factory expense. 

One might ask if there is not danger of collusion between fore- 



4<i 



Railway Master Mech.wk 











SHIPPING ORDER No. 280i 

Sheet No. No. of Sheetl 




Dale 






PicUb) 


- 


Shin .fa 






SkfcMrfb, 


T 
Si 











OMi- 


r*tf !.»«. 


JWi 







Hn. 


Bextt 
Bbl*. 


1 

C 








Bd 


k. 






— 




WL 


Stmt 


- 






Tern* 


P« 

s 




__«» '•!» 




Entered by 




, Charged by 








.... 


.... 


.... 


... 


■M .. 


...... 








































































































































, 



























Fl(,l'RE 5. 



factory Order <J 6 / 

Shipping Order . 

Drawing 



S*H 



'eoi'd jad isoq 

' S8D»ld JO -ON 

3SN3dX3 
&08V-I 



Enter time, material and colt on back of this ticket. 

Front. 











'•>t«M 























































































































iKinowv 


11*11 


iwiiimw 


'Aj.iiNvno 


«n 


31Vfl 



Flfrl'RE 6. 



Reverse. 



No. Pieces. 



Kind of Material. 



Weight. 



No. Feet. 



Cost. 



MATERIAL 
Order no. 



issued 



COMPLETED 



Stock Clerk. 



Figure 7. 

men and workmen in the registering in and out of the time, and I 
would answer, yes, if the managers and superintendents were of the 
easy-going element who start a method and have no care for its 
safety afterward and were there no esprit du corp among the employes ; 



Automatic Cost Accounting 



47 



but I am not explaining the plan to that class of men, as they are 
few and far between in manufacturing to-day. 

When an order is received from a customer that requires a factory 
order to be issued the bookkeeper at once makes out the shipping 
order upon the blank shown by Fig. 5, and hands it to the distributing 
clerk, who makes out the factory order shown by Fig. 6 ; at the same 
time making out a blue material card, see Fig. 7, which is the same 
size as the red cost cards, on which is a complete list of materials 
needed for the fulfilling of the work. The shipping order goes to the 
shipping department, the blue card to the stock room and the fac- 
tory order, with any drawings needed, to the factory foreman, who 
draws on the stock keeper to the extent of the demands of the blue 
card, but no more, and should any material be spoiled or lost he must 
obtain an order from the office before the stockkeeper will deliver the 
material. This plan eliminates possibilities for waste. He then 
issues the red cards to the workmen who are to perform the work, 
which reach the young lady in the routine way previously described. 
When the order is completed and inspected the factory order and 
material card are returned to the office with the shipping order. The 
bookkeeper invoices the goods, the cost accountant enters cost of 
materials, time and labor with proportion of expense or load, the total 



Cost of Material 
Dolls Cts. 



TIME. 
Hrs. Mm 



Cost of Labor. 



Selling Cost. 



Selling Price. 



./T&1 



J-t^\ 



6-2. 



-2U. 



Z2- 



■ ? 



2sd 



±_a. 



d/Z 



_£££/ 



6LIL 



y£ 



%2\ LL 



*£. 



1* 7t?JL± 



7Xr<*0 < c, 



Figure S. 

StocT* tpr</cluct. 



s. 0. 



F. 0. 



8Z2. 

£22 



^ £ /n<s 



Cost of Material. 
Dolls Cts. 



±2\ 



CIV 

122. 
12- 



tv 



±z. 

1SL& 



& 



3/ 



3Sr 



Si 
2J- 



65- IS. 03. 






Minimum 
Selling Price. 



±X 



vv 



/a? tin . 



Figure 9. 



4s 



Railway Master Mechanic 



of which makes the selling cost, on reverse of factory order shown in 
Fig. 6, makes an entry in the production book under "sales product" 
as shown by Fig. 8, and files the red cards covering the itemized cost 
with the blue material card in the filing case. If it is a stock order 
the process is the same except that the entry in the production book 
is under the head of "Stock product," as can be seen in Fig. 9. 

Once every month the cost cards covering cooperative labor are 
closed up and the entries made in the production book under the 
heading of "Cooperative labor expense," as illustrated in Fig. 10. 
There is also a part of the production book set aside for "Sales from 
stock," as shown in Fig. 11. These methods, in conjunction with 
the clock's accurate and honest recording of the time of beginning 
and ending of each different operation or item of work performed, 
will make a manager sure of his ground every month of the year 
without waiting for the annual judgment day to "see how he comes 
out." 

Such a plan in vogue in railway shops where the requirements are 
not so onerous as in manufacturing will develop itemized costs with 
ease and of interest to all. 



&o- 



Of>eraf-/l/e 



l&A 



or* frX^e^.re 



NOTES 



Cost of Mater. 4 
Dolls. Cts 



Selling Cost. 



Minimum 
Selling Price. 



A 



<?Afj 



ifa/3'rrf 



&Jt, 



1 3 $ y s 



JUL 



<£rr«t*<&> 



JJL 



/ ( 



9JA 



Cleopr/*+f /gf><^ 



.?/fl 



1A 



/J.-ZJL 



m. 



-Z? y o u, t 1, 



-$l taoia. 



> r /Z 



6c 00 



£_ 



j£± 



■i/)f y//;»r/;/J 



£L 



/r<*r,Toc *> s 



5Q 2Q 



/3 



>y 



cT 



<Jf<rs &? Te,e7.x 



ALL 



?* 



88 



6L± 



£L 



t/Q7>e o^r 7coZ.s 



no 



iLLL 



1A 



(LO- 



TH. 



^o/Zeft* J'e/va/r- 



L± 



&± 



7y £~rrc>/rr 9 Sm., V&or. t 



1A 



3 



OB. 



o 



£oo>'/j rrrr-r*r g ggfljfc j 



/ 3 



OJ 



2 



±±. 



z. 



Z?o/r C »Ur7>/«rrr/*i 



JVot ?-/S Tf /or ovor^ . 



ZJL 



2JL 



€jl 



S 



J£/tUU££JL££Ut 



760 



(L± 



/oo 



L-£- 



<fcr?a 



r/es. 



2M 



Jtc 



( ( 



out. 



Sitrf/a"? ^/g, 



Zo 



to 



1A 



(_C_ 



003 



1A. 



IS6Z 



91 



2£A 






Figure 10. 



Automatic Cost Accounting 



49 



»f/?//r.r jfrw/ <tTr<?c7x 



Cost of Maico.il 
Oolls Cts. 



Cost of Labor 



Selling Cost. 



Selling Price 



/3*j? 



2* 



in. 



3A 



/*-. 



/4/f 



?s 



?o 



/v / > 



7Hr,r, 7*jx 



AJL 



LUL\. 



AV1A 



tz 



4^£ 



/ 6 



6xli 



jj: 



QA 



uXtii- 



4"» // ;?gj *S ; o x>^ » 



Figure ii. 

The cards may be arranged for either piece work, premium plans, 
or day work as the users desire, but the writer's experience, covering 
many years, is that the best results are obtained by having loyal, 
honest, and earnest workers and pay them for a day's work, and get 
it. The world is full of them. A piece worker, with a bold bluff, can 
outwit the shrewdest manager to the disadvantage of the weaker 
workman; while any man without the slightest knowledge of 
mechanics, or of the time required to perform labor, or experience in 
handling men, can work a premium plan that is theoretically heaven 
to begin with, but develops into an octopus in the end. 

The writer has been an enthusiast upon several different methods 
in the past years and has ventured into this with the Rochester 
recorder carefully, well remembering the pitfalls of the past, but the 
even balancing of the cost time and pay roll time for the past seven 
months in the works of The Bali-Bearing Company has led him to 
say "Eureka." And should he have control of a plant with many 
floors or departments, a recorder would be used in every one, that all 
the horrors of cost-accounting by experts with $10,000 systems could 
be avoided. 

As this article would not be complete without an account of the 
business debits and credits made, the schedule is as follows : 

GENERAL EXPENSE ACCOUNT. 

Salaries : 

Office force. 

Supervision. 
Wages: 

Producing labor. 

Cooperative labor. 
Office operating expense: 

Furniture and fittings. 

Stationery and supplies. 

Postage. 



50 m Railway Master Mechanic 

Freight, express, and cartage. 

Telephone, telegraph, and messengers. 

Interest, insurance, taxes, etc. 

Incidents, accidents, and charity. 
Sales advertising: 

.Magazines and catalogues. 

Samples and traveling. 
Manufacturing expense: 

Power, rent, light, and fuel. 

Incidental Manufacturing supplies 

Defective materials and workmanship. 
Merchandise stores account: 

Raw materials purchased (charge). 

Finished factory product (credit). 
Production account: 

Merchandise sales. 

Factory order sales. 

Stock manufacturing orders. 
Plant and equipment: 

New machinery. 

Belting and pulleys. 

Small tools, jigs, dies, etc. 

Permanent fixture. * 

Patterns. 

Our monthly statement gives us a clear conception of how we 

stand and is as follows : 

General expenses. 

Production. 

Sales. 

Raw materials. 

Plant and equipment. 

Bills payable. 

Bills receivable. 

Receipts. 

Disbursements. 

Cash on hand. 

Thus everything is simplified and made as near automatic as 
possible so that should any part of the human plan that has part in its 
workings drop out another with ordinary intelligence could be 
quickly fitted to the place and the entire mechanism continue in uni- 
son with the ticking of the Willard and Frick recorder requiring 
only the winding key to maintain the tension on every part alike. 

COMMUNICATIONS. 

ASH PAN DAMPERS AND COAL SAVING. 

Vallejo, Cal., May 6, 1899. — To the Editor of the Railway Master Mechanic. — 
The consumption of coal is a big item in the running expenses of railways, and it 
appears to me that one of the first places to start saving coal would be in the back 
shop. A damper is an air valve attached to the ash pan. Unless a valve is tight, 
wherever it is, it cuts a poor figure as a valve. The dampers of an ash pan should 
be as nearly air tight as it is possible to make them, but they are not so. I have 
seen engines go out on the road after a general rebuilding, with scarcely any work 
having been done on the ash pan. About the last thing that the boiler makers do 
is to dig the ash pan out of the snow, drag it into the shop, and hand it up in any 
old way. "It is only an ash pan." Old split keys are picked up, and if they do 
not draw the pan up, a lot of washers, with parts cut off, are put on the stud to fill 
up. The dampers are hung up in a slipshod way, and the whole thing, when done, 
is a careless, shiftless job. The dampers not only do not fit, but they are in many 
cases cut away for the shaker rod and what not. 



New Western Passenger Locomotives 



51 



An engine that is continually popping at a station is not doing it on an empty 
stomach ; she is burning coal, and the pull of the air pump exhaust is helping burn 
coal, and the leaky dampers and ash pan are helping burn coal, and the general 
foreman who allows the engine to go out in that condition is helping to burn coal. 
Do I hear some say that it is the foreman boiler maker's place to make the ash pan 
right? So it is, and it is the master mechanic's place to see that the foreman boiler 
maker attends to this important duty. It is a plain case of "the house that Jack 
built." It comes back to the master mechanic, and he cannot shirk the responsibility 
for the carelessness of his subordinates. If you want your engines to stop wasting 
coal, make the start in the back shop. No; I am not "talking through my hat." 

W. de Sanno. 

[Some comment upon the subject matter of the above is made in our editorial 
columns. — Ed]. 



TWO NEW WESTERN PASSENGER ENGINES. 

Two fine examples of modern locomotive design are shown in 
perspective on pages 52 and 53 of this issue. We append here the 
more important data concerning these locomotives, and also a few 
memoranda as to the character of service which they perform upon 
their respective roads — the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the 
Chicago & North-western. 



COMPARATIVE DIMENSIONS. 

Burlington. 

Type Atlantic (compound) 

Weight on drivers 85,850 pounds 

Weight, total 159,050 pounds 

Cylinders 13^ and 23 x 26 inches 

Drivers 84^ inches 

Heating surface, fire box 186 square feet 

Heating suface, tubes 2 «3 2 4 square feet 

Heating surface, total 2,510 square feet 

Grate area 33.6 square feet 

Boiler pressure 210 pounds 

CHARACTER OF SERVICE. 

Burlington. 

Service Heavy fast passenger 

West bound Chicago to Burlington 

Length of run 206 miles 

( 5 hours (including 8 

Schedule time j station stops and 2 

( crossing stops) 

Train load, average 371 tons 



North-western. 
Eight wheel 
87,000 pounds 
137,000 pounds 
19^ x 26 inches 
75 inches 
179 square feet 
2,313 square feet 
2,507.75 square feet* 
30.33 square feet 
190 pounds 



North-western. 

Heavy fast passenger 

Chicago to Clinton 

138 miles 

3 hours (including 6 
station stops and 3 
crossing stops) 

370 tons 



* Water tubes, 15.75 sq. ft. 



VJ 



Railway Master Mechanic 




< 

> 
o 

s 

a 

>; 



Oh 



6 E 



a, j3 



o 

7^ <l) 



(72 

CU 
> 



U G fi 



c o 



O vn g 

o 
u 

2 



<D 



O £ 



to > 



T3 — 



5 ° 



I— i 



5 rt rj 

to w ^ 



CO Q 



C P P 



CO 
CD 

> 



O "So 

CU •— ' 

> s 






x - 



u 



H 



^ re" 

<u bio 

+-» ci 

'to «U 



New Western Passenger Locomotives 



53 



I ■§ 

^j to 

> c 

■^ o 

o •£ 

O in i£ 

S « 



o 



<d h-> 

5-i IT} 

o 

C <D 

S bJO 

<D ccj 

rC Oh 

o 






*v3 co 
c3 CD 



no*- 1 

rt £ <d 

>. o *2 

<D - 

G •** ^ 

• O u ., 

53 CO 5 

a„ = 

c£ ^ 

o 5 s^ 

CO ^2 



.o 

o 
x 

O 



co 
O 

o 



> 

'So 

<v 
u 



u S 



° 2 

CD O 



bJO 



bJO 



o 

<D £1 



u 

Oh 
CD 

o 

"3 
-a 

CD 
CD 



o 

bJO ji; 

-O n cd 

<-> ~.s 

<D F So 

5 5 8 

* 8 S 



<D 



byo 



CD 
CD 

i— 1 

o 

CD 

"cd 

-a 



o a 

co «5 

C tn 

b/) O 

'cO ^ 

CD 



eg 



X 

co 



.a o 




O 



i 



54 



Railway Master Mechanic 




Mr. JOHN W. CLOUD, 

The Retiring Secretary of the Master Car Builders' and Master 
Mechanics' Associations. 



Railways at the Paris Exposition 



.m 



k 



I 












- ■ i i 1 1 1 

- i 




BHHHBH 



Entrance Palace of Transportation, Paris Exposition, 1900. 



RAILWAYS AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION. 



BY WILLARD A. SMITH. 



I. 



The international success of the original department of transpor- 
tation exhibits of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, made 
it certain that subsequent world's fairs would follow the example. 
No other department of the Chicago fair was as attractive to for- 
eigners and none was the subject of so many elaborate reports and 
monographs. Up to that time there had been no opportunity worth 
mentioning, of comparing the transportation machinery, appliances 
and methods of Europe and America. Its results upon the foreign 
trade of American manufacturers and inventors was not immediately 
noticeable, but it was none the less certain. It has been as marked 
as the effect of the Centennial Exposition of 1876 was upon American 
taste in art and architecture. 

American locomotives are now shipped to nearly all parts of 
the civilized world. Questions of efficiency no longer stand in the 
way — time of delivery and price being now the chief consideration. 
Ten years ago it was considered possible, but hardly probable, that 
America might supply motive power for railways in the so-called new 
countries. No one would have predicted that before the end of the 



56 Railway Master Mechanic 

century, half a dozen or more American manufacturers would be ship- 
ping locomotives not only to South America, Africa and Asia, but to 
Russia, Sweden, France, and even England. 

In 1893 engineers and traffic managers of European railways 
came to this country in large numbers. They were heartily welcomed 
by the railway fraternity here and were hospitably entertained. 
Credentials presented at the office of the chief of the transportation 
department secured not only every possible facility for studying that 
exhibit at Chicago ; but also invitations and passes to visit all parts 
of the United States. 

The greatest surprise which awaited our guests, was not, as might 
be supposed, the unequal ed comfort and luxury of travel on our trunk 
lines. They had heard of this before coming, and while many were 
enthusiastic in praise of American ideas in this respect, others con- 
servatively held to the superiority of their own methods as best suited 
to their own countries. As a matter of fact, the chief superiority of 
the American system is in long distance journeys. For the short dis- 
tances which are the rule in European travel, many Americans prefer 
the European style of cars. It is noticeable, however, that practice 
there is gradually approximating American ideas. Toilet conveni- 
ences in cars are much more common than they were a few years ago ; 
and corridor cars are supplanting the small and close-locked com- 
partments. The French government has recently ordered that 
'"wagons couloir," or corridor cars, be supplied on all main lines and 
express trains before 1900; giving as a reason that the French travel- 
ing public can no longer be cramped up and deprived of the oppor- 
tunity of circulating and using toilet conveniences when trains are 
in motion. This is perhaps the most marked example of the influence 
of American methods in passenger matters. French railway officials 
rather deprecate the idea of an exhibit of an American passenger 
train at the Paris Exposition, on the ground that it will be likely to 
breed discontent among the traveling public which will prove expen- 
sive to the railway companies. On the other hand, the growing pop- 
ularity of compartment sleeping cars in this country shows that Euro- 
pean ideas of privacy can be successfully provided for in American 
cars; and that these ideas are influencing American practice. 

The fact that that American "abomination," the chilled cast iron 
wheel, is now manufactured in several European countries, and that 
other American appliances are gaining consideration and trial is an- 
other direct result of the exposition of '93. 



Railways at the Paris Exposition 57 



But the great surprise of our foreign visitors at that time was the 
fact that American railways handle freight or ' 'goods traffic" at 
much smaller cost and charge than any other railways in the world. 
This fact led to serious investigation ; the power of American loco- 
motives, capacity of cars, influence of air-brakes, etc., were investi- 
gated. The ultimate result will undoubtedly be that important rail- 
ways all over the world will join in the tendency which, although 
already strong here in 1893, has gained in strength every year since. 
Powerful locomotives were indeed exhibited at Chicago; but there 
are a score in use now to one at that time. Sixty thousand pounds 
was then the limit of freight car capacity ; while now there are many 
thousands of cars of 80,000 and 100,000 pounds capacity. Steel 
trucks were then beginning their successful career and there were 
indications of the future in steel cars and underframing. 

The circulation of American railway and engineering periodicals 
and other publications in foreign countries received new impetus in 
'93 ; as well as the attention to and respect for American railway 
machinery and appliances in foreign technical publications. As a 
further result the last session of the International Railway Congress 
was attended by a respectable American contingent ; and the session 
at Paris next year will not only be largely attended by Americans, 
but they will participate in an important manner in its proceedings. 
The real extent of this new community of thought and interest will 
be best appreciated by reading the Bulletin of the International Rail- 
way Congress ; and especially noting its indexes of the current tech- 
nical literature of the world and the large space accorded to that of 
this country. 

The markets of the world are now open to American manufactur- 
ers of railway machinery, materials and appliances. Will they enter 
in and "possess the land"? Just at the present time they seem to 
have about all they can do to supply the home demand. But condi- 
tions now are abnormal. If the demand keeps up as is hoped by all, 
and believed by many, capacity will be rapidly increased. If the 
home demand subsides there will be surplus capacity. In either 
event, therefore, it would seem to be the part of wisdom to enter 
the foreign doors now open and obtain such a foothold as to insure 
future export business on a large scale. Never was a greater business 
opportunity offered. Neglect of opportunity is not characteristic of 
American manufacturers. 

With these conditions prevailing, comes the Paris Exposition of 



58 Railway Master Mechanic 

1900 celebrating the close of the most wonderful of centuries. ''Time's 
noblest offspring is the last." The world-fame of American machin- 
ery antedates the recent fame of American arms. It is much more 
worthy of celebration. Patriotic motives should therefore unite with 
those of business and personal interests to secure an important, cred- 
itable and adequate American exhibit at Paris. 

Manifestly it is the duty of the American commission to secure 
all possible credit for this country at the "World's Assize" of 1900. 
There are some serious hindrances ; not to securing enough in quan- 
tity, but to obtaining a complete representation of the best, which should 
be and is the real aim. One of these is the present universal pros- 
perity. Many feel constrained to refrain from exhibiting because they 
cannot see their way to prepare their exhibits in the rush of orders 
now flooding their works and straining their capacity; or to spare 
a competent man to take charge of the work. Another hindrance 
is found in the fact that many important American inventions will 
masquerade at Paris under foreign colors. The foreign patents have 
been sold to local companies who will exhibit American devices 
"made in Germany" or some other European country. Unless the 
American makers claim the credit for their country by participating 
in the American exhibit, it will be lost. The place of manufacture 
governs under the exposition rules. The efforts of the commissioner- 
general and his assistants are now directed, not to the general pur- 
pose of procuring additional applications for space, but to rounding 
up the exhibit in the matter of quality, so that it may be representa- 
tive. 

It is the intention of this brief series of articles to convey a fair 
idea of the plans and prospects of the American exhibit of transporta- 
tion and civil engineering. This article is merely introductory. But 
as time is passing and final conclusion must be reached very soon, 
it is important to state that applications for space will yet be consid- 
ered, although the total amount at command is more than all applied 
for. Application, early or late, will not insure space. Regard must 
be had solely to merit of the proposed exhibit and its relation to the 
whole. Full information may be had by writing to the Director of 
Civil Engineering and Transportation, Paris Exposition of 1900, 
Auditorium Building, Chicago. 

In future articles full information will be given regarding the 
plans of the transportation and engineering department, the build- 
ings, location and division of spaces, etc. It may be said, at this time, 
that the American exhibit will be large and creditable and will sur- 
pass any yet made, except the great one of '93. 



Parting of Trains 



59 



THE CAR FOREMEN'S ASSOCIATION OF 

CHICAGO. 

MAY MEETING. 

The regular meeting of the Car Foremen's Association of Chicago was held 
in the rooms of the Western Society of Engineers, 1741 Monadnock Building, 
Chicago, May II. 

President Morris called the meeting to order at 8 p. m. Among those present 
were : 



Alderson, A. P. 
Anderson, Geo. 
Blohm, Theo. 
Brazier, F. W. 
Bundy, C. L. 
Bond, L. E. 
Bell, W. A. 
Cather, C. C. 
Callahan, J. P. 
Cook, W. C. 
Constant, E. J. 
Dana, E. W. 
Depue, James. 
Deen, C. 
Etten, L. 
Earle, Ralph R. 



Fritz, Chas. 
Gehrke, Wm. 
Goehrs, Wm. H. 
Gruhlke, E. " 
Green, C. E. 
Gardner, Lewis. 
Godfrey, E. 
Grieb, J. C. 
Groobey, Geo. 
Guthenberg, Bruno. 
Holtz, Chris. 
Hansen, A. P. 
Johannes, Albert. 
Jones, R. R. 
Krump, M. 
Kroff, F. C. 



Keebler, C. F. 
Kehm, H. C. 
La Rue, H. 
Mathis, W. A. 
Manthey, H. H. 
Morris, T. R. 
Mattes, J. 
McGrath, Chas. 
Nordquist, Chas. 
Nightengale, H. 
Olsen, L. 
Prickett, J. 
Richmond, Alex'r. 
Rieckhofr, Chas. 
Ryder, John. 
Snyder, R. H. 



Schutt. W. F. 
Saum, C. 
Shannon, S. 
Schmidt. M. P. 
Saum, G. N. 
Shaw, M. 
Spohnholtz, C. J. 
Thi verge, J. C. 
Utt, A. Y. 
Williams, Thos. 
Wolfe, Chas. 
Weaverson, F. 
Wentsel, Geo. 
Weschler, H. 
Wensley, W. H. 
Wharton, R. 



President Morris : The first order of business is the reading of the minutes 
of the previous meeting. They have been published in the last issue of the 
Railway Master Mechanic, and if there are no objections we will dispense with the 
reading, as usual. The next order of business is the reading of the names of new 
members. 

Secretary Cook : The following have made application for membership : 

D. G. Roy, L. S. & M. S. ; R. D. Smith, C, B. & Q. ; Jay G. Robinson, Brown 
& Co., Pittsburg; H. C. Hopkins, Thresher & Co., Dayton; W. A. Mathis and 
E. W. Dana, I. C. ; John Brandt, Lipton Car Lines ; M. Shaw, C. & E. I. ; C. E. 
Warde and D. Thompson, C. & N. W. 

President Morris : The next order of business is a report of the committee 
appointed at the January meeting, on the parting of trains. Mr. Groobey is chairman. 

Mr. Groobey presented the report, as follows : 

REPORT ON PARTING OF TRAINS. 

To the Members of the Car Foremen's Association: 

Your committee, appointed at the January meeting to report on trains parting 
and remedy for same, beg leave to submit the following : 

We feel that we should first ask your indulgence for the delay in presenting 
this report, but will say it has been through causes entirely out of the hands of 
your committee. 

i Your committee have asked quite a number of railroads for data, which, they 
anticipated, would show the number of trains parting, and causes, but, we regret 
to say, we received a very limited number of replies. We will now express our 
appreciation to those railroads who did furnish your committee with the data on 
which this report is based. 

The subject of uncoupling of trains has been gone into so thoroughlv by 
committees of different railway clubs that it is difficult to say anything new on 
the subject. One very important point is the deviation from the M. C. B. contour 
line by manufacturers, which allows them to uncouple with much less wear than 



60 Railway Master Mechanic 

if the M. C. B. contour line had been strictly followed. There is a startling 
lack of uniformity in the length of the guard arms, a careful measurement of 
twenty-nine different makes showing a variation of I 7-16 inches, but as there is 
no limit, given on the M. C. B. drawing, the manufacturers are not altogether to 
blame. But the coupler with the shortest guard arm will certainly make the best 
showing as regards broken guard arms. Short uncoupling chains and weak and 
short draft springs contribute no inconsiderable part to the trouble. Probably the 
one thing which causes as many parted trains as any other is projecting locks, which 
are thrown back by receiving a sudden blow from the other coupler. This is a 
very weak point in some couplers, and should receive immediate attention from the 
proper persons. 

There are some couplers which depend on springs to keep the locks in place. 
This is very well until the spring weakens or breaks, in which contingency the 
knuckle opens and the train parts. In view of this, your committee thinks that 
the use of springs for this purpose should be condemned. 

There are several couplers made which give no external evidence as to whether 
the lock is in place or only partly caught, owing to the presence of ice or dirt. 
This is a prolific cause of trains parting. 

With suitable gauges, it seems that couplers could be kept free from uncoupling 
due to wear, and after they reach a certain limit, as indicated by the gauge, they 
should be either condemned, or new knuckles or new knuckle pins applied, or 
bushing applied to knuckle pin hole in the knuckle or lugs of couplers, or both. 

Quite a number of reports received by your committee were under the head 
of "unknown causes." This, your committee believes, is due principally to the 
lack of mechanical knowledge, in some cases indifference, on the part of trainmen 
and switchmen. We are particularly impressed with the large number of trains 
parting under this heading. Of the total number of trains parting and reported 
to this committee, we find 35 per cent are under this heading. 

Your committee will say, further, that the cause of a number of trains parting 
is due to conditions for which the coupler — and, we will add, the car department — 
are in no way responsible, and we would recommend that some means be devised 
to obtain information from those who are handling the trains or cars at the time 
the parting occurs. 

Why should there be such a large proportion of unknown causes? We will 
answer that by saying that if a proper system be adopted, this mysterious feature 
can be practically eliminated. The car department men are not in a position to 
throw light on this matter, for the reason that they do not. see the coupler until a 
terminal is reached, and by that time the local conditions have changed. 

Your committee would refer briefly to a paragraph in the report of the com- 
mittee appointed by the Western Railway Club to report on M. C. B. couplers. 
In paragraph 6 they allude to the present uncoupling device as being unsatisfactory. 
Your committee would strongly indorse this, and thinks that some improvement 
can be made over the present extremely crude uncoupling arrangements. 

We have previously alluded to the wear of parts, meaning particularly the 
knuckle, and your committee are of the opinion that some limit of wear on the inside 
face of the knuckle should be established. 

Another feature we would draw attention to is the one of using a little oil 
on the movable parts of the coupler. We think you will all admit that the coupler 
is made up of mechanical parts, and, taking into consideration the immense amount 
of money invested in them, a little more care and attention should be given in this 
respect. And your committee recommend that oil be used on the locking-pin or 
lock-block, and, in their opinion, this attention would eliminate, to a great extent, 
the common defect known as creeping lock-pins or blocks. This defect is of 
a gradual development and if the block or pin was lubricated, it would be enabled 
to take advantage of any slight reduction of tension, and would resume its normal 
position. 

We would like to see some progressive road make this experiment and report 
results. The very cheapest kind of lubricant could be used for this purpose, and 
your committee believe the result would fully justify any slight increase of expense 
in connection with this. 

George Groobev. 
R. W. Burnett. 

President Morris : You have heard the report of the committee. What shall 
be done with it? 



Responsibility for Broken Sheathing 61 



Mr. Prickett: I make the motion that the report be received and placed on 
file, and the committee discharged. 

The motion was seconded and carried. 

RESPONSIBILITY FOR BROKEN SHEATHING. 

President Morris : The next in order is the discussion of the questions as 
printed and distributed among the members. The first question relates to the respon- 
sibility for broken sheathing on the side and end of cars. 

Mr. Grieb: Possibly the President knows who is interested in this. It does 
not seem to me, if there is a case of this kind, that it could be decided except in 
one way. I would like to inquire if it is a hypothetical or an actual case? 

President Morris : An actual case. 

Mr. Grieb : It seems to me that there can be no question but that the responsi- 
bility rests with the party that delivers the car with the sheathing or siding in the 
condition mentioned. I take it for granted that the damage was sufficient to warrant 
the removal of the parts in question. 

President Morris : The parts were removed. 

Mr. Grieb: And the defense made by A that the sheathing was only slightly 
broken or simply shoved inward would not cut much figure, so far as the removal of 
the boards are concerned, would it? 

President Morris : The party making the defense removed the material. That 
in itself was pretty good evidence that it was necessary to do it. 

Mr. Grieb : Then again, it seems to me that his argument that he has no record 
of it, and thoroughly investigated the case, is entirely too indefinite. He is arguing 
from the negative to the positive, whereas the other party produces the best evi- 
dence possible. It seems to me that there is no question but that the line delivering 
car in that condition is responsible. 

Mr. La Rue: I would like to ask if the sheathing is on end, or side, or door 
of car? 

President Morris : I believe it states it is on the end and side and door — three 
different points. 

Mr. La Rue : It seems to me the M. C. B. rules define what is unfair usage. 
They give us the privilege of breaking certain parts. Now, end posts can rarely 
be broken without siding. We are allowed to bill against the owner for the siding 
as well as the end post. Possibly the sheathing in the door was broken by the 
loading. It seems to me that would be possible. 

President Morris : I think, Mr. La Rue, that it is stated very clearly that it was 
shoved in. The party making the repairs acknowledged that. 

Mr. Kehm : I think Mr. Grieb's expression is correct, so far as the side sheath- 
ing and end sheathing are concerned. I might take some exception to the side door. 
If the door was broken through cornering, I should say unfair usage, just as stated. 
If the door sheathing was broken on account of door falling off, or anything of 
that kind, it would be fair usage. 

Mr. Wentsel : I do not think there is a bit of doubt but that the party doing 
the damage is responsible for the repairs. We issue cards for all sheathing that 
is stove in, either on side door or siding or end sheathing. I think the party 
doing the damage is responsible. 

Mr. Goehrs : It occurs to me there is no argument on this, as everything indi- 
cates that the sheathing was broken in from the outside, and you will note that 
the sheathing was on the end of car, which shows it might have been done by 
a projecting load; on the side it would be difficult to say how it was done. It 
appears to be certainly a case of unfair usage. 



02 Railway Master Mechanic 

Mr. Deen : I think it is a very clear case. I can't see why A would not be 
responsible for the whole thing. He admits in each case that the siding was only 
slightly broken — or. in other words, shoved in. That shows plainly that the 
damage was done from the outside. If it had been done from the loading, why, I 
think B would be responsible. 

President Morris : I would like to ask what you base your argument on — 
the construction of any rule, an arbitration case, or custom, or what? 

Air. Grieb : I do not recall any specific rule in the M. C. B. code or an arbi- 
tration case. It seems to me to be one of those self-evident cases where common 
sense ought to dictate. 

President Morris : Of course there are two parties to this dispute, and if we 
put ourselves on record as indorsing one side, we should like to bring as much 
proof as we can to substantiate the position we take, and if anyone has anything 
the}- can use as a basis, we would like to hear it. 

Air. Bundy: Inasmuch as A admits that the sheathing was stove in from the 
outside, I do not think there is any doubt but that A is responsible. There is a 
difference where the sheathing might be broken in fair usage. For instance, shift- 
ing load, broken end post. Broken sheathing would be chargeable. I think there 
is no doubt but that A is responsible for the entire damage on car. Any man that 
has had any experience in car work knows that sheathing cannot be stove in under 
fair usage. Still, it has been customary with all the roads in Chicago that I have had 
anything to do with to consider owners responsible for sheathing that is broken by 
shifting of the load, and that is the way that I look at the matter. When you come 
to sheathing stove in from the outside, why, you can't do it under fair usage. 

Mr. Schmidt : I have got it into my head that sheathing cannot be stove in 
from the outside on the ends of a car by fair usage. If we should take, say, two 
box cars in a train and a flat, car in between them, the flat car being loaded with 
telegraph poles and the box car loaded with planed lumber or any other kind of 
lumber, we know if the lumber shifted in the box car and shoved the end out, the 
owner of that car is responsible. We have no point, as I see, in the rules, where 
it says just how much that end must be pushed out. Now, suppose we have next 
to that box car with the end shoved out, a car that belongs to the same company, 
and the end of the car that is pushed out is pushed out far enough to damage the 
end of the next car, I claim that that damage is done by fair usage. Or, if you 
take the flat car into consideration, there being a box car ahead of it and another 
one back of it, and the same motion of the train that shifted the load in the box 
car would also shift the load on the flat car, why should it be fair usage to shift the 
load on the flat car and not in the box car? 

Mr. Brazier : I want to go on record in this case. I claim it never can be done 
in fair usage — sheathing broken in. Mr. Schmidt's argument that he has just made 
is entirely wrong, according to my way of thinking. If you have a car loaded with 
rails or telegraph poles, and the load shifts and runs into the end of a box car, 
the party handling the car is responsible ; that is unfair usage. If the load shifted 
inside of the car and breaks the end out. the owner is responsible for the load 
shifting, as I understand it. I am one of the kind that thinks there are too many 
things charged as unfair usage which are fair usage. 

Mr. Grieb : Before the discussion is closed I would like to direct attention to 
the argument of Mr. Schmidt, where he draws the simile between a load shifting 
in a box car and a load shifting on a flat car. It seems to me that the horses are 
of an entirely different color. The load in the box car has nothing to retard its 
shifting movement but the end, whereas, in a flat car, they usually have stakes and 
means of wiring or fastening the load down that are supposed to be adequate. The 



Responsibility for Wrong Arch Bars 63 



M. C. B. Association has made definite recommendations as to what they consider 
proper means for loading cars with such a class of freight, and if these recom- 
mendations are complied with, I think we are safe in assuming that nothing but 
unfair usage will cause that load to shift to such an extent as to damage the neigh- 
boring car. 

Mr. Prickett : I make the motion that A is responsible. 

Seconded. 

President Morris : It has been moved and seconded that in the case of damage 
to sheathing, broken inwardly, that the party doing the damage is responsible — in 
this case, A. 

The motion was carried. 

RESPONSIBILITY FOR WRONG ARCH BARS. 

President Morris: The next question concerns wrong arch bars. I think 
we have all been at one time or another put to considerable trouble searching for 
the responsible party who applied wrong arch bars to our cars, and the absence 
of a repair card makes it very difficult for us to determine who is responsible. This 
is something that I think ought to be very thoroughly discussed, and we ought to 
be put on record as to the position we take. 

Mr. Callahan : I think that the party delivering this car with wrong arch irons 
should be held responsible for them. While the rules say that the party making 
wrong repairs is solely responsible to the owners, in the absence of a repair card 
to show where they were made, I think the delivering company should be held 
responsible, and let them go back on the party they got the car from. If the oil 
boxes fit the original arch irons and take an M. C. B. wedge, I do not think you 
could claim anything. This, in my opinion, is the way it should be handled in regard 
to arch irons in the absence of a repair card showing who did the work. 

President Morris : What would you do with Section 34 of Rule 3, which 
says that the company making improper repairs is solely responsible to the owners, 
with the exception of cases provided in this rule? 

Mr. Callahan : I think that while the rules say the party making the repairs 
is solely responsible to the owners, yet, in the absence of a repair card on the car 
and a defect that can be detected as easily as wrong arch irons, I think the deliv- 
ering company should be responsible. B received that car from C, and if he didn't 
protect himself, then he should be responsible to the owner when he delivers the 
car home. That is, in my judgment, the way it should be handled. 

President Morris : Don't you think, in case you asked a delivering line for a 
defect card, he would refer you to that rule? 

Mr. Callahan : Yes, sir ; I have had cases of the same kind. But I say, in my 
judgment, that is the way it should be handled. 

President Morris : But, you know, we should settle these cases in accord- 
ance with the rules, not what we consider equity. 

Mr. Callahan: Well, I don't think we could hold him to it, but I think that 
is the just and right way it should be done. 

Mr. Deen : I think the just and right way is for the party making repairs 
to put on a repair card, and that, of course, makes them solely responsible for the 
wrong repairs. By their negligence or wanting to slip the matter through without 
paying for them they missed a repair card, in order to get the responsibility on 
someone else. Now, persons inspecting cars will frequently miss such defects as 
these, where an arch bar has only a difference in thickness. If the difference is 
in the width, it is more easily detected. Take a i-inch arch bar, and one i^-inch, 



64 Railway Master Mechanic 



and if the difference is in the thickness you would probably not notice it ; but if the 
difference is in the width, you would very quickly notice it. 

President Morris : But the question is, Who is responsible, and to whom 
should A look for protection? That is the meat in the nut. 

Mr. Deen : When a case of that kind is taken up with me, I take it up with 
the road we received the car from, and trace on back until I find who did make 
the repairs. It is not everybody that is dishonest. 

Mr. Richmond: The question of wrong repairs is perhaps of more interest, and 
has been of more interest since the promulgation of these new rules, than any other 
question that we have had. Mr. Deen says if he has a case of that kind he usually 
starts tracing, and it generally occurs that he finds the guilty persons. I think, 
perhaps, that in the handling of such matters, or such questions as these, that the 
Armour Car Lines have a larger percentage than a good many other companies. 
I want to say for the information of this club, and I am prepared to substantiate 
the same as being a fact, that of all the tracing that we do in just such cases as 
this, we don't locate 10 per cent of the responsible parties. Now, the spirit of the 
rules is that the party making the repairs shall be held responsible. But after due 
tracing has been made, and none of the roads who handled the car admit making 
the wrong repairs, I think it can be clearly taken as the intention of the framers 
of the rules that the party from whom the car was last received should be held 
responsible — namely, he is the one that does not show responsibility with any other 
company handling the car. If a man loses a lot of goods, he probably does not 
find the thief, but if he finds the party holding the goods or in possession of the 
goods, he is going to hold him. Now, if you trace a car over half a dozen roads, 
as a rule every road replies by using the stereotype phrase, "that he has traced it 
over his road, and finds no record of the car having been in any accident or derail- 
ment." That, in fact, has become the stereotyped answer with all roads where 
there is no desire to admit making the repairs. We have a number of positive 
cases of roads denying making repairs, after we had proven conclusively that the 
repairs were made at their works. I recall a case now which amounted to about 
$197 — a matter of wrong repairs to only three or four cars at that. We traced over a 
number of roads, and we were satisfied of the road that made repairs. That road, 
however, positively denied making the repairs until we had conclusive evidence 
showing that the cars were in the shop of that company and were repaired there, 
and that it was their material that was on the cars when they came home, and then 
we got them to admit and accept our bill for that amount. It may seem that 
this is an improbable figure. It is true, nevertheless, and the whole trouble lies 
in the fact that you cannot get railroads who make wrong repairs to admit it. I do 
not know why it is. It seems rather strange. Mr. Deen's theory is all right if 
you could always locate the responsible party, but you can't. 

Mr. Kroff : Arbitration case 394 covers a decision in this case. 

President Morris: The secretary will please read a synopsis. [Reads case.] 

Air. Bundy: I am of the same opinion. I think that arbitration case fully 
covers this case, and delivering company is responsible. 

Mr. Kehm : The arbitration case referred to was rendered under the 1896 
rules. The rules have been changed since that time, and the decision has no bear- 
ing under the 1898 rules, or the rules in effect at the present time. At the time 
the decision was rendered the joint evidence card was final, and authorized a bill 
rgainst the party making the repairs, or the party whose card was found on the 
car. Under the present rules the joint evidence card is not final, but it is final 
so far as locating that wrong repairs were made, but not sufficient authority to 
warrant holding the party whose card is on car. Section 3c of Rule 5 states that 



Responsibility for Wrong Arch Bars 65 



the ioint evidence card shall be sent to the company whose card is on car, and it 
shall furnish a defect card covering the wrong repairs, if it made them. I would 
say you cannot hold a delivering company under those conditions. You might 
tie a car up on a transfer and allow it to remain there, and the delivering company 
would say they would not card. 

Mr. Richmond : What are you going to do with that section that says that 
roads shall deliver cars in as good general condition as they receive them? If a 
car is delivered with proper repairs, why should not the company be held respon- 
sible if it returns it with wrong repairs? It would show to the company owning 
the car that it is not responsible by other means than simply asserting that it is not. 

Mr. Kehm : I will answer that, Mr. Richmond. Each and every inspector is 
not familiar with all the standards of everybody's car, and the delivering company, 
or the receiving company prior to delivery of the car to you, might have a record 
of wrong arch bars, and the company delivering to them would not card the car, 
and they could not hold them under the present rules, unless they could prove that 
they had made the repairs ; then they might compel them to put on a defect card. 
Now, it resolves itself into one thing, and that, in my judgment, is this: Each 
and every railroad company should live up strictly to the rules. They all claim 
they apply repair cards to the cars ; possibly they do, but there is a provision to 
send repair card stubs for all repairs made, showing whether owner's defect or 
delivering company's, and we can very easily look up who made the wrong repairs. 

President Morris : Mr. Richmond, I would like to ask if you have ever tried 
to settle such a case by falling back on this decision 394? 

Mr. Richmond : Well, we did, so long as it was applicable to the rules in 
effect. It has the same effect as the decision of a court based on a statute. If a 
change is made in the statute, the decision of the court is not in effect ; and this 
decision of the arbitration committee is of no effect under the rules now. I differ 
with Mr. Kehm. While it may be true that an inspector cannot become familiar 
with all the different parts and different constructions of the various line of cars 
that pass over their road, it is nevertheless a fact that any inspector can tell 
whether or not the arch bars are uniform on the car ; and, as I said before, I 
believe it is the intention of the framers of the rules that if the responsibility is 
not shown by the delivering company to rest on some other company, they must 
be held responsible, inasmuch as it does not deliver the car to the owning company 
in the same condition it received it from the owning company. 

Mr. Wensley : The gentleman claims that you could catch a wrong arch bar. 
Two inspectors go over a train in the night with a torch — possibly there are two 
or three trains in the yard — and they go over that train pretty lively, and inspect 
it for safety only. I would like to see the man that could tell the difference in arch 
bars. 

Mr. Brazier: The gentleman hit the nail on the head. There is one private 
line that we do business with that rejects cars on account of the trucks being 1-16 
inch out of standard. I would like to see the man that can tell 1-16 of an inch. It 
is just such microscopic men that we do business with that make so much trouble. I 
do not believe intermediate roads are responsible for repairs they do not make. 
Until I became connected with the Illinois Central, I thought that everybody was 
honest. I used to say that our repair men put repair cards on every car, but 
Mr. Kehm, who has traveled over the road more than I have, came back with the 
story to me that when he was in New Orleans he saw the goats go up and eat the 
repair cards off the cross-tie timbers. If you don't find them, I'll tell you one 
thing, if you can trace it back to us without any question, we will give you a defect 
card. But we have some private-line companies that stand out on 1-16 of an inch 



66 Railway Master Mechanic 

on arch bars. I have done everything on a railroad, from laying track (when I 
had to) up, and I can't tell 1-16 of an inch without measuring it. When you come 
down to 1 -16 of an inch on springs, even my friend Mr. Richmond can't do it. 

Mr. Richmond : I want to say, in regard to the question of responsibility, that 
because an inspector inspects a train at night time under adverse conditions, and 
is unable to say whether or not an arch bar is 1 inch or 1^ inch, is no reason why 
the owner should relieve the company from responsibility, or simply because the 
inspector has two or three trains to inspect, and has to do it under unfavorable 
circumstances, is no reason why, because of that inadequate inspection, the 
owning company should suffer for it. As to the microscopic inspection, I 
should hardly think that the gentleman who just sat down refers to the Armour 
Car Line. I believe they are the most liberal company he has to deal with. Some 
railway companies are very peculiarly made up. Somehow or other they have the 
notorious habit of saying that they did not do a thing when they did. They are 
a good deal like the little boy who said he never got whipped but once, and that 
was when he told his father the truth. The other fellow told him that his father 
must have whipped the truth all out of him. I think it is about so with the Illinois 
Central. 

Mr. Brazier : I think the gentleman never referred a case to us in the world 
but that he got justice. It is almost impossible to get repairmen to admit that 
they made wrong repairs. They generally come back to you with the story that 
they put back the same stuff they took off. If everybody was as pleasant to deal 
with as the Armour Car Line, the arbitration committee would have nothing to do. 

Mr. La Rue : I think that Rule 1 comes pretty near covering the case. [Reads 
it.] I don't think any inspector would miss wrong arch bars on his own car. 

Mr. Bell : I think we are about as far from determining the real issue in this 
case as we were at the start. It seems that the fellow that made the wrong repairs 
was ashamed of them and he didn't card for them as provided by the rules, and we 
are trying to find out who is responsible for those wrong repairs. I do not think 
we could determine that if we argued all night, because a man making wrong 
repairs and not putting a repair card on is not living up to the M. C. B. rules, and 
is not doing the fair thing. There is only one way to reach him, and that would 
be to get joint evidence and hold the joint evidence until the bill shows up for 
repairs, and then produce it. 

President Morris : We do not seem to have arrived at any decision as to who 
is responsible or to whom we should look to for protection. This is an actual case, 
and the parties interested in it would like to see it settled, especially the one party, 
and if they can get. any information from any of you gentlemen they would appre- 
ciate it very much. Mr. Grieb, I would like to ask what the common practice is 
on the road you represent? 

Mr. Grieb: I think if we had a case of this kind we would do pretty nearly 
as we have done in the past. I am almost positive we have never had a case of this 
kind since the last revision of the rules ; but if there were such a case, we would 
take it up with the connecting line, and if they stated that the repairs were not 
made by them, we would ask them to sign a joint evidence card corroborating the 
statement of our inspector, and then proceed to trace the car from the time it left 
us prior to its return. We have met with good success in handling these cases 
in that manner, and tracers from the car accountant's office will always reveal 
the fact whether a car is moving or lying idle, and if you find it is at some 
station where some line has car repairing facilities, it is a pretty good scheme 
to take it. up and find out if they did not make some repairs, and in a blanket form 
ask what repairs they did make. It is assumed that you have not repair card or 



The Use of Buffer Blocks 67 



•stub in your office. Most generally, by looking up stubs, you will find a little clue 
that will greatly assist you, but in the event of not having any information, I think 
you will get at the bottom and strike the right party by tracing it from the car 
accountant's office. If a motion is in order, I would like to see my remarks pre- 
sented in the shape of a motion, in order to get it before the house. 

Seconded. 

President Morris: As I understand it, Mr. Grieb's motion would be to the 
effect that the proper course would be to have the owners get a joint evidence 
■card to cover the wrong repairs from the connecting line, assuming that, the 
delivering company had not made the wrong repairs, and for the owner to then 
trace with a view to finding out, if possible, where the repairs were made, or to 
hold the joint evidence card in the office waiting for a bill. 

Mr. Grieb : To trace by means of what stubs they have on file, for repairs 
to that car, and also by means of the movements furnished by the car accountant. 
We find the latter method a very useful one in such cases. 

The motion was carried. 

THE USE OF BUFFER BLOCKS. 

President Morris. The next question is No. 3 : Is it advisable to use buffer 
"blocks on freight cars, from the points of protection to car, economy, etc. ? 

Mr. Bundy: The Rock Island road adopted buffer blocks some three or four 
years ago. It has been well pleased with them. On its equipment that has buffer 
blocks I do not think there has been the amount of draft timbers broken there usually 
is on cars that do not have buffer blocks. Of course, there is a great deal of its 
equipment that has not got buffer blocks. Probably only one-fourth of their equip- 
ment is so equipped. 

President Morris: Did you notice any less breakage of draw-bars or couplers? 

Mr. Bundy: Well, yes. You see, these buffer blocks set so that just before 
the spring would shut up tight, the blow would come on the buffer casting; that 
would direct the blow on a straight line with the sills, relieving it from the draft 
timbers. I think, from a point of economy on freight cars, that buffer castings 
are certainly a good thing. Of course, the trainmen are more likely to get hurt. 

Mr. Wensley: We have a great, number of cars equipped with buffer blocks 
or castings ; the old wooden blocks we have about done away with. We have one 
class of 500 cars, that are five years old this summer, with buffer blocks. I will say 
that in twelve months we haven't replaced a coupler in Chicago in these cars, and 
no end sills whatever. We have 1,000 cars that are three years old this summer, 
and we have only put in one or two end sills and very few couplers in that time. 

Mr. Brazier: I am in favor of buffer blocks, or will be, when all the cars are 
equipped with M. C. B. couplers. 

Mr. Bell : We are not using buffer blocks. I do not think that buffers are a 
good thing to use until all the cars are equipped with automatic couplers. 

Mr. Schmidt: I have had no experience with buffers at all. I asked a man 
from the C, B. & Q., and he said they were putting them on as fast as they could. 
They claim that they have noticed a great saving to the guard arm on couplers, 
yet they admit that it increases the space between the cars thirteen or fourteen inches 
where a man is liable to get caught. That is the only bad point, and their foreman 
talked against it. 

President Morris: From the remarks made it seems that it is advisable to 
use buffer blocks, and, in order to close the discussion, I would ask if you would 
vote on its being advisable to use buffer blocks in connection with M. C. B. couplers? 

The association was unanimously in favor of their use. 



68 Railway Master Mechanic 



CREDIT FOR M. C. B. COUPLERS AND KNUCKLES. 

President Morris: There is one other question that has been presented here: 
What represents proper credit for broken M. C. B. couplers and knuckles removed 
under Section 10 of Rule 5?" 

Mr Grieb : It has been our practice on the St. Paul Railway to interpret that 
rule literally. I am not prepared to defend the rule as it reads ; I do not think it 
reads right. But we haven't much choice in the matter. We are bound to observe 
these rules and live by them for one year, and it seems to me that they are so very 
explicit that credit for nothing more than the actual weight and kind of metal you 
remove is to be allowed in the case of broken M. C. B. couplers and knuckles. It is 
not a question of equity at all. Don't put it on that basis. It is what the rule says, 
and a literal interpretation, it seems to me, can only result in giving actual credit. 

Mr. Kehm : The question is one that we have argued considerably, and one 
that I think we could construe in any way that we saw fit. We take for granted 
the link and pin drawbar. The rules provide for that very plainly, and say if we 
remove malleable we shall give the actual weight of it. But in the case of M. C. B. 
couplers, I think they mean that where you remove a Lone Star, Hien, or Janney, 
you shall give credit, for instance, for the metal that was in the Lone Star, etc., 
head. If you break a coupler on your own line, you have got the scrap ; either 
scrap it at the time repairs are made, or it is on your line somewhere and will be 
eventually picked up and brought to the scrap pile, and I think full credit should 
be allowed for the coupler removed, and, if steel or malleable iron, at the rate 
for steel or malleable, but full weight should be given. The same would apply 
to knuckles. 

Mr. Wentsel : Suppose another company should break the coupler and send 
the car off on a chain, and you applied a standard coupler. Where would your 
scrap come from then ? 

Mr. Kehm: The broken part would certainly be missing, and the delivering 
company should furnish a defect card for the value of the missing scrap. 

President Morris : Is that your practice at Chicago ? 

Mr. Kehm : We have furnished full credits ever since this rule went into 
effect. We have had two cases of this kind in the last six months. 

Mr. Wensley : I have had several cases of this kind — all foreign cars. I asked 
the gentlemen to return the scrap and they refused. I had to make repairs. I got 
out of one something like seven pounds, and fifteen out of the other. 

President Morris: What is the practice out West, Mr. Schmidt? 

Mr. Schmidt : Our practice out West has been this : If we get one of our 
cars from the U. P. that has a guard arm broken, we allow actual scrap credit. Of 
course we don't receive the broken guard arm, and I don't see why we should 
allow scrap credit for it. 

Mr. Deen : I think, in a case of that kind, the full amount should be allowed 
for the coupler that is broken. As a gentleman stated, if it is a Lone Star coupler, 
full weight of the Lone Star coupler shank should be allowed, or, in other couplers, 
malleable, steel, or wrought, whatever the coupler is made of, the full amount should 
be allowed as scrap credit. It evens up in some way. 

Mr. Grieb: Can we get a decision on this point? I would make the motion 
that credit for the actual amount of the material removed, as provided by Section 
10 of Rule 5, is correct in the case of the M. C. B. couplers and knuckles. 

The motion was seconded and carried. 

The meeting here adjourned. 



Plant System Locomotive 69 



ii Jl i ■» * im¥i' ! '-^.... 


v * l T ,,J, 


7iTff£rT IJfiif (tiff 




■ 


'•' • ' T ,t— -i. V *" •V * 


- 


\ m ~??**: - f jv »i r^rf 


Lr.' ) 1 •. } *...- 


*■»:■•-■ r 


| 





NEW EXPRESS LOCOMOTIVE, PLANT SYSTEM. 

The Plant System received some time ago, from the Richmond 
Locomotive Works, six ten-wheel express engines built from the 
designs and specifications of Mr. W. E. Symons, superintendent of 
motive power of that system. Through the courtesy of Mr. Symons 
we are enabled to present a perspective view and a diagram of this 
engine, together with some detail drawings of its parts, and complete 
data of its performance in service. 

This engine has 19x26 cylinders, 69 inch drivers, and a 60 inch 
wagon top boiler, designed to carry 200 pounds steam pressure. It 
has 2,038 square feet of heating surface, and a grate area of 28 )/\ 
square feet. It weighs 135,000 pounds, of which 102,000 pounds 
are on the drivers. The boiler is of Jvg and 9-16 inch steel; all the 
horizontal seams are butt joint, sextuple riveted, with welt strips 
inside and outside. The boiler carries 258 tubes 2 inches in diameter, 
and 13 feet 6 inches long. The crown sheet is supported by i J /g inch 
radial stay bolts, screwed through the crown sheet and shell, and 
riveted over, except the six central rows, which have button heads 
under the crown sheet, and the three front transverse rows are expan- 
sion or sling stays. The brick arch is supported on tubes. A rock- 
ing finger grate is used. 

The frames are of hammered iron, machined all over, 4 inches 
wide, and are made in two sections, the main frame in one section 
forged down back of main drivers not less than 8 inches, to allow 
additional depth of fire box, and with braces welded in and planed 
full length. The front rails are bolted and keyed to main frames, 
and with front and back lugs forged into cylinder connections, with 
stiffening casting between top and bottom rails. 

The cross-heads are solid cast steel, in one piece, with wearing- 
surfaces tinned. The axles are steel, with journals 8^x11 inches. 



70 



Railway Master Mechanic 



Cast or pressed steel is also used for the following parts, among 
others, for the purpose of making the engine as light as possible: 
Smoke box front and door, engine truck center casting, cylinder cas- 
ings, piston rods, guides, cross-heads, driver centers, and connecting 
and parallel rods. 

A special form of transmission bar is employed by Mr. Symons to 
obtain a longer link radius than could be otherwise secured, and the 
details of this are very completely given in the accompanying draw- 



ing. 



Mr. Symons does not claim this as original, but feels that he 

1 



ny/ 



■ZS'A 



/S'£- 



/6fe H 




.VE TRAVEL 6' 
RA UL/C P/PE j 



HYDff/WUC PrPE 



Transmission Bar — Plant System Locomotive. 

has made a slight improvement over similar designs on the Southern 
and other roads in that the point of suspension is reversed. 

We also show the form of variable exhaust nozzle used on this 
engine. This, as will be seen, is a neatly worked out method of 
bridging the nozzle at the will of the engineer at any time on the 
road. The effects of its use, on the horse power, is shown by the 
indicator diagrams and data given on another page. 

We also give a profile of the division over which this engine is 
running, and with it a record of a month's performance in everyday 
service. A Boyer speed recorder on this engine, on this run, has 




> 

i— < 

H 

O 
% 

o 

J 
o 



Oh 

X 

W 

2 
w 

H 

73 

H 
Z 
< 

o 

s 
< 

CD 
< 



72 



Railway Master Mechanic 




Brass 
Variable Exhaust — Plant System Locomotive. 

frequently indicated 80 miles per hour, while the engine was hauling 
eight vestibule Pullman cars, which, together with the weight of the 
engine, would exceed 500 tons in weight. 

The special equipment on these engines includes : National Tube 
Works tubes, Falls hollow stay bolts, McKee Fuller engine truck and 
tender wheels, French springs, Nathan lubricators, United States 
metallic packing, Richardson balanced valves, Latrobe steel tires, 
Monitor injectors, Crosby steam gages, Janney couplers, Coale muf- 
flers, Leach sanders, Star headlights, Golmar bell ringers, Chapman 
jacks, Franklin asbestos lagging, American Steel Foundry Com- 
pany's tender trucks, and Westinghouse brakes and train signal. 




The Cylinder Fastening. 



Plant System Locomotive 



73 



The tender frame is of 10 inch channel iron, with collision angle, 
and the tank is of steel, U-shaped, with a capacity of 4,200 gallons of 
water and & l / 2 tons of coal. 




Mi/es /3 26 39 32 65 78 9/ /04 1/7 /30 /*3 /56 

Profile of line over which runs below were made. 



/69m 



RECORD OF ENGINE 522, FOR PERIOD MARCH 21 TO APRIL 20, 1899. 

WEST-BOUND TRAINS: 



Date. 


Train. 


Left 
Savh. 


Arrd. 
Wayx. 


Left 
Wayx. 


Arrd. 
Jax. 


Dlyson 
Line 
Mins. 


Running 
Time 
Mins. 


Average 

per 

hour. 


Cars in 
Train. 


Mar. 
21 

23 
25 

29 

Apl. 

2 

5 

7 

9 

13 

18 


35 
35 
35 
37 

37 
37 
37 
37 
35 
Spl 


8:45a 

9:52a 

8:44a 

10:34a 

11 :11a 
9:56a 
9:18a 
9:19a 
8:43a 
3 nop 


11 :10a 
11 :44a 
10:59a 
!2:45P 

1:259 
i2:o7p 
11 :26a 
11 :20a 
1 1 :03a 

5:02p 


11 :20a 
11:59a 
11 :16a 
I2:5ip 

i:3ip 
I2:i3p 
1 1 :30a 
11:23a 
11:15a 


I:20p 

i:28p 

i2:5op 

2:25 P 

3:°5P 
i: 4 2p 

1 :oop 

1 :oop 

i2:5op 


25 
10 

7 

11 

8 

5 

10 
6 


230 
191 
222 
231 

217 
212 

213 

2l8 
225 
IO6 


44.87 

54 
46.48 

44.68 

47-56 
48.68 

4 8 -45 
47-34 
45-87 
54-9 


6 
6 
6 

8 

8 
8 
7 
7 
6 
8 



EAST-BOUND TRAINS. 



Mar. 

22 

24 
26 

28 

30 

Apl. 

I 

4 

6 

8 

11 

H 
20* 



32 
32 

32 
38 
38 

38 
38 
38 
38 
38 
32 
Spl 



8:20a 
8:20a 
8:20a 
3:i8p 
3 :22p 

3: 2 7P 
3:23p 

3 :I 5P 
3 :I 5P 
3-I5P 
8:20a 
1 1 :03a 



1 0:00a 
9:58a 
9:58a 
4 : 59P 
4 : 59P 

4=59P 
5:o6p 

4 : 59P 
4 : 59P 
5:iop 
10:10a 
1 :oop 



10:11a 

1 0:08a 

10 :06a 

5:02p 

5:02 P 

5:02 P 

5 ; HP 
5:02p 
5:o2p 

5=i7P 

10:19a 

i:i 4 p 



12:23? 
12 :i9p 
I2:i5p 

7:22 P 
7:22 P 

7:22p 

7:3°P 
7:22p 

7:22 P 

7=3 8 P 
I2:i5p 

3 :o5P 



13 


219 


5 


224 




227 




241 




237 




232 


3 


239 




244 




244 


37 


219 


12 


214 


4 1 


201 



47.12 

46 

45-16 

42.8 

43-58 

44.48 

43-22 

42-3 

42-3 
47.12 

48.22 

51.34 



7 
8 

7 
8 
8 

8 
8 
8 
S 

7 

9 

11 



*This is the best record that has ever been made between Jacksonville and Savannah, or over this 
division, with this number of cars. 



74 



Railway Master Mechanic 



INDICATOR DIAGRAMS FROM PLANT SYSTEM LOCOMOTIVE. 

Taken from Engine No. 522. Weight of engine, 115 tons; drivers, 69 inches; 

piston 19x26; scale of spring, So. 






_ 2 


.j 


V, » 


■— 


t/i M IT 




T.P. 


Ratio 


Ratio of 


Miles 


Gal. of 


Ratio in 


z 


^Hg 


zJi 




0J — 


m. c. 


I. H. P. 


per 


of 


ext. flue 


run per 


water 


lbs. coal 


— 
U 




;«*! = 
SW.5 


— - 
■- - 
« . 


. 3 
> C 

ii = 


Is 

- : 
a 

160 


pres- 
sure. 
Lbs. 

42.5 


of 
engine. 


lb. of 

M. E. 

P. 


G. A. 

to 
H.S. 


area to 
f. box 
area. 


ton of 
coal 
used. 


usedp'r 
mile 
run. 


used to 
water 
used. 


I 


325 


440 


47 


229 


721.28 


133.64 


1 to 73-25 


11. 8 to 1 








2 


" 


■* 


t;i 


249 


170 


44.0 


615 














3 


" 


" 


W 


170 


r* 3 ^ 


932.86 








c 


s 


d 


4 


" 


«• 


45 


219 


170 


5 44.6 c. 
? 4S.6 0. 


\ 727.30 c. 
) 792.320. 








u 





y 


5 

6 


.. 


11 


60 

30 


292 

146 


170 
165 


51.5 

94.0 


1119.46 
1020.84 










O 





7 


885 


1000 


2- 


132 


156 


71.9 


706.70 








C 


C 


a 


8 


.. " 


•• 


37 


1S0 


17S 


92.0 


T 233.00 








•*■» 


rt 


** 


9 


" 


" 


3o 


146 


163 


94.0 


IO22.46 








re 

Q 


Q 


Q 


10 




" 


27 


\\2 


165 


98.0 


963-24 








11 


11 


" 


*2 


1S6 


160 


106.0 


1231.30 














12 


" 


" 


2; 


122 


170 


118.S 


1081.2; 




















Q 
LJ 

CD 
O 

_J 
O 

u 
o 

> 

LJ 

Q 

U 
_l 
N 
N 
O 



LJ 
_J 
DO 
< 

% 

IE 
f- 



U 

? 

LJ 

or 

LJ 

<: 

o 

z 

CO 
O 

or 
< 
u 

Ld 

r- 

O 









Plant System Locomotive 



75 



INDICATOR DIAGRAMS FROM PLANT SYSTEM LOCOMOTIVE. 

Taken from Engine No. 522. Weight of engine, 115 tons; drivers, 69 inches; 

piston 19x26; scale of spring, 80. 





z 




t*h 2 




u 


en 


M. E. 




• a c 


S^ 5 


■0 c 


. 3 


•" rr. 


pres- 


•a 

— 

U 


ggS 


a; c 

— - 


> c 


CQ <u 


sure. 
Lbs. 


I 


325 


440 


74 


361 


165 


33-3 


2 


" 




70 


34i 


170 


41.0 


3 


" 


" 


65 


3i7 


16; 


39-o 


4 




" 


bo 


292 


170 


39-o 


5 


" 




bo 


292 


170 


42.0 


6 


" 


" 


5« 


283 


170 


41.0 


7 


375 


490 


74 


3bi 


170 


34-0 


8 


" 


" 


74 


3bi 


170 


38.0 


9 


" 


" 


74 


36i 


I bo 


38.5 


10 


" 


" 


73 


35b 


1 bo 


38.0 


II 






7o 


341 


170 


39-0 


12 


* * 




b8 


33i 


170 


44-5 



I. H.P. 

of 
engine. 



1041 
920 
847 
912 
8bo 
907 

1021 

1034 

1007 

990 

1099 



T.P. 

per 

lb. of 

M. E. 

P. 



135.81 



Ratio 

of 
G. A. 

to 
H.S. 



1 to 73-25 



Ratio of 

ext. flue 

area to 

f. box 

area. 



11. 8 to 1 



Miles I Gal. of 

run per water 

ton of usedp'r 

coal mile 

used. run. 



35-oo 



:2 



53 



Ratio in 

lbs. coal 

used to 

water 

used. 



1 to7.i 



1 to 7-4 









Q 
Ld 

if) 

3 

O 

o 
> 

Ld 
O 

LJ 
_J 
N 
N 
O 



LJ 

_l 
CQ 
< 

cr 

1 

r- 



LU 

LJ 
DC 
LJ 

<: 

o 

z 

to 
a 

LT 

< 
o 

LJ 

h 
O 

2 









76 



Railway Master Mechanic 



^ 



1 <o ^ 



i fT 







CONSTRUCTION OF THE BRAKE LEVER. 

BY THEO. H. CURTIS. 

Formula for Pin Hole: When, w = weight applied at pin hole; 
d — diameter of pin hole; t = thickness of lever at pin hole; b = bearing 

w 



vv w 

value of metal in pin hole: then, - — = b = — = d 
1 ' ' d t b t 



bd 



= t t x b X d = w. 



To Determine Dia?7ieter of Pin Hole: When, w = 15,000 lbs.; 

b = 1 2,000 lbs. ; t =: 1 ". 

15000 
Example: 



Formula for End of Lever 



— &• 



= i.2s", diameter of pin hole. 
1 12000 

> d o d e 

— = e — — =<>• — 

4 8 ° 2 

Formula for Lever at Intermediate Hole: When, f = maximum 
fiber stress in extreme fibers of lever; a, c, h, and 1 = their respective dis- 
tances; d= diameter of intermediate hole; w = weight applied at inter- 
mediate hole; t = thickness of lever at hole; then, 

6 a c \v _ a /6 a c w 



t f 1 (V - d 2 ) 



6 a c w 



= f 



d 2 =h. 



6ac ~" tl(h 2 -d 2 ) fl(h 2 -d 2 ) tfl 

To Deteriniiie Weight w: When, f = 18,000 lbs.; a = 7"; c = 21"; 

i> 2 S"; h = 3 3/T; d=iy 8 » + y 8 » = ii{"; t = i'. 

_ , I ISOOO 28 (3.7S 2 — 1. 2S 2 ) n 

Example: 7 ^-L2 ±1— ni±? lbs. 

^ 6 7 21 ' ™ 

To Deter -mine Width h at Intermediate Hole : When, f = 18,000 lbs. ; 

a = 7";c= 21"; d= iy 8 " +%" = ii("; w= 10,000 lbs.; t = i';l = 28". 



T7 i A/6 10000 721 

Example: V '- 1- I.c6 = ±.Xl\ 



I I8OOO 28 



Construction of the Brake Lever 77 

Formula for I?zter mediate Sections of Lever : When, w = weight 

applied at intermediate hole; f = maximum fiber stress in extreme fibers 

of lever; t = thickness of lever; a, c, 1, h p h a , o and p, represent their 

6 vv a p 6wco tflh? 

respective distances; then, — . , = f — , , 9 = t -? = w 

v t 1 hf t 1 h| 6 a p 

tf lh i =w \/ 6wa P - h 4/ 6 w c o 

6c o v tfl » tfl ~~ 2 * 

To Determine Width h f : When, w = 13,500 lbs.; a = 7"; p = 18"; 
f = 18,000 lbs.; 1 = 28"; t = 1". 

-r^ , a /6 i^soo 7 18 ,„ 

Example: V — —\ X A . 

1 18000 28 T/ 



d 2 for i*4 = 1.27 
i5/ 8 = 2.64 

h 2 for 2^= 5.06 
31^ = 10.56 
41^ = 18.06 

5^ = 2 7-5 6 



TABLE OF SQUARES. 

I r i= I.56; I^= 1. 89; I^"= 2.25 
I#= 3.06; I# = 3.52; 2 =4 

2^ = 6.25; 23^ = 7.56; 3 =9 

3% = 12.25; 3 3 / = h- 06 ; 4 = i6 
4 ^ - 20.25; 434: = 22.56; 5 =25 

5^ = 30.25; 53^ =z 33.06; 6 =36 

The full lines show a lever designed as per formulas for a uniform 
fiber stress f, of 18,000 lbs. per square inch; l 1 /^" diameter of intermediate 
hole; 1" uniform thickness of lever; 13,500 lbs. weight at intermediate 
hole. In a lever having a straight taper, as per dotted lines, the weight 
produces an unequal stress in the extreme fibers of lever. For satisfactory 
service the bearing. value b should not exceed 12,000 lbs. per square inch. 

With 1 " thickness of lever, bearing value of metal not over 12,000 lbs. 
per square inch, and applied weight at intermediate hole — 

From 00000 lbs. to 13500 lbs. use i%" pin hole and 1^" pin; 

From 13500 lbs. to 15000 lbs. use i}{" pin hole and ife" pin; 

From 15000 lbs. to 16^00 lbs. use i3/£" pin hole and i^J" pin; 

From 16500 lbs. to 18000 lbs. use 1^" pin hole and ilj" pin. 

The Master Car Builders have adopted 1 " thickness of lever, 1 % " 
diameter of pin hole, and 1 3^" diameter of pin, as the minimum size to be 
used. For wrought iron the fiber stress f can be assumed to be from 
15,000 to 18,000 lbs. per square inch for "emergency application" of 
brakes, and this will allow 12,500 to 15,000 lbs. stress for "service applica- 
tion." If the car is equipped with "high speed brakes," then use 12,500 
to 15,000 lbs. for "emergency application." From the second example it 
will be seen that a lever having centers 7" and 21", and 3^" width at 
intermediate hole, 1 ^ " pin hole, and 1 " thick, should not be subjected to 
over 7,143 lbs. at intermediate hole. 



78 Railway Master Mechanic 

HANDLING ENGINE-MEN ON THE BALTIMORE 

& OHIO. 

A new policy of handling engine-men has been inaugurated on 
the Baltimore & Ohio — a policy the results of which will be awaited 
with considerable interest. On May i Mr. Harvey Middleton, gen- 
eral superintendent of motive power of that road, announced the new 
plan in the following words : 

"Mr. W. C. Hayes has been appointed locomotive superintendent, 
and will have charge of all engine-men and engines when on the road. 
His instructions as to their handling, etc., shall be final. 

"The positions of supervisors of engines and trains are abolished; 
in their places will be appointed, by the locomotive superintendent, 
as many traveling engineers as may be necessary, who shall report 
to the locomotive superintendent and perform whatever duties are 
assigned to them, by him. 

"The traveling engineers will be appointed from any division of 
the road for service on the same or any other division without regard 
to their rights in locomotive service, but if, for any reason, they are 
returned to locomotive service, they will take their positions on the 
division from which employed, to which they are entitled by age in 
service. 

"The locomotive superintendent will not directly administer dis- 
cipline to engine-men, but will make recommendations to the master 
mechanics, or traveling engineers, in case of violation of instructions, 
incompetency, etc. Upon the recommendation of the master me- 
chanic, or traveling engineers, the offender shall be given a further 
trial, but if no improvement is made, or if he still fails to perform 
his duties to the satisfaction of the locomotive superintendent, or 
traveling engineers, he shall be relieved on the grounds of incom- 
petency. This shall not apply to men who are obviously incompe- 
tent. 

"All locomotive firemen shall be employed by the traveling engi- 
neers, subject to the customary physical and educational examina- 
tions now in effect. 

"On May i, 1899, a traveling engineer shall be employed for each 
of the following territories : Philadelphia to Washington, Baltimore 
to Brunswick, Brunswick to Cumberland, Cumberland to Grafton, 
Grafton to Benwood and Parkersburg, Pittsburg to Cumberland and 
Wheeling, Wheeling to Sandusky and branches, Chicago to Akron 
Junction. " 



PERSONAL MENTION. 



In the death of Mr. C. M. Higginson, assistant to the president of the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe, who passed away at his home in Riverside, 111., on May 6, the 
railway world lost one of its most valuable members. Mr. Higginson was a most 
remarkable man in many ways. He possessed in marked degree the enviable quali- 
ties of untiring industry, extreme thoroughness, notably methodical habit and rigid 
integrity. These severely business-like characteristics were, however, always light- 
ened by a warm geniality, and a form of light joviality that was peculiarly his own, 
and that made it difficult for the moment, sometimes, for one to realize how 
tremendously in earnest he always was. He always wanted exact facts, and if he 
did not at once find them he would "dig" for them — to use one of his own favorite 
terms. Thus it was that he developed, as he passed upward through his railway 
career, the faculty of finding out where things in railway administration were amiss. 
If he had no remedy him- 
self to offer at once for the 
trouble, he would secure one 
from some source. It was 
his mission, in his railway 
life, to stop leaks and to ex- 
pand productive agencies. 
He browsed around in all de- 
partments — (save that of 
traffic, which he left severely 
alone, for the good reason, 
as he expressed it, that he 
did not know enough about 
it to meddle with it) , and he 
produced results. For the 
past nine years he had been 
officially assigned to such 
duties — to reform ways and 
means wherever he saw need 
for it. On two great systems 
— the Burlington and the 
Santa Fe — he did this kind 
of work, and he did it so 
well that he attracted the 
favorable attention of the 
great railway capitalists of 
the East. He had produced 
such remarkable records of 
economies that his business 
future was assured beyond 
peradventure, and held allur- 
ing possibilities. Mr. Hig- 
ginson was a leading au- 
thority on combustion, and 

his small work on "Soft 
Coal Burning," published by this journal, has gone through several large editions. He 
was, for several years, a frequent contributor to the railway press upon this and other 
topics involving railway economy. Mr. Higginson was a born natural scientist, and 
his recreation always took the form of work upon some branch of that science. He 
had been for years an active member of the Chicago Academy of Sciences, of which he 
was for a long time president. He was a fellow of the Royal Society of Great Britain 
and a member and contributor to the work of the Western Railway Club. He loved 
his home, and there the gentle side of his nature came out at its truest, and was evi- 
denced, among other ways, by his fondness for flower culture, the careful breeding of 
choice fowls and allied pursuits. He possessed one of the finest private mineralogical 
collections in the country, and was especially fond of, and a connoisseur in, opals. Mr. 
Higginson was a truly unique character ; he accomplished great things ; but always 
very quietly and smoothly; the present writer has sat by his desk manv times, but 
he never saw anything on the desk— it was always clean. A mystery was, always, 
to his visitors as to how he discharged the vast amount of work that he was known 

79 




Mr. C. M. Higginson. 



80 



Railway Master Mechanic 



to without a sign upon his desk of what was going on. Mr. Higginson's business 
career may be briefly sketched as follows : He entered railway service in 1865, in 
the engineering department of the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad; in 1875 
he was purchasing agent for the Toledo, Peoria & Western Railway, and in 1876 
was appointed purchasing agent for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. During 
this connection he started the testing laboratory of that road at Aurora. In 1879 be 
was transferred to the position of assistant auditor of the same road, in charge of 
statistics, and in 1890 was made assistant to the vice-president, where he remained 
until the reorganization of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, when he was made 
assistant to the president of that system. 

Mr. F. W. Brazier, assistant superintendent of machinery of the Illinois Cen- 
tral, has resigned to accept the position of assistant superintendent of rolling stock 

of the New York Central 
& Hudson River, vice 
Mr. S. A. Crone, re- 
signed. Mr. Brazier was 
originally an Eastern 
man, his twenty-one 
years of active railway 
service having been com- 
menced with the Fitch- 
burg Railway. He was 
with that road for fifteen 
years, during eight of 
which he was general 
foreman car department. 
In 1893 he resigned that 
position and was ap- 
pointed superintendent of 
the Chicago, New York 
& Boston Refrigerator 
Company, at Elsdon, 111. 
In 1896 he resigned this 
position to become gen- 
eral foreman car depart- 
ment of the Illinois Cen- 
tral, at Burnside, 111. In 
October of 1896 he was 
appointed assistant super- 
intendent of machinery 
of the same road, holding 
that position until called 
to his new position in the 
East. Mr. Brazier has 
made many friends dur- 
ing his stay in the West, 
who, while regretting to 
see him go East again, 
are greatly pleased that 
he has been given such an 
Mr. F. W. Brazier. important position. 

Mr. James Slavin has 
been appointed master mechanic of the Spokane Falls & Northern, Nelson & Fort 
Sheppard and Red Mountain Railways, with office at Spokane, Wash., vice Mr. C. H. 
Prescott, resigned. 

Mr. F. J. Pease, formerly acting master mechanic of the Toledo, St. Louis 
& Kansas City, has been appointed master mechanic of the Milwaukee, Benton Har- 
bor & Columbus, with headquarters at Benton Harbor, Mich. 

Mr. R. F. Kilpatrick, general foreman of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
at Horton, Kan., has resigned to go to the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western. 

Mr. W. H. Garlock has been appointed master mechanic of the Port Angeles 
Eastern, with headquarters at Port Angeles, W*sh. 




Personal Mention 



81 




William A. Dewey, formerly superintendent of locomotive service of the Chicago 
& Eastern Illinois, died at Goshen, Ind., on May i, of Bright's disease. 

Mr. J. S. Chambers has resigned as master mechanic of the Buffalo division of 
the Lehigh Valley to accept the position of division master mechanic of the Central 
of New Jersey, at Elizabethport, N. J., vice Mr. N. E. Sprowl. 

Mr. Thomas Fildes, who recently resigned as division master car builder of the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern at Chicago, has been appointed assistant superin- 
tendent of motive power and equipment of the Long Island Railway. This should be 
a very congenial connection for Mr. Fildes, for, while he has been of late years 
employed distinctively in car work, he is also well trained in locomotive work. 
Mr. Fildes learned his trade in the Lake Shore machine shops at Elkhart during the 
years 1872 to 1876. From 1877 to 1882 he was in the shops of the Indianapolis, 
Peru & Chicago at Peru, Ind. 
For the next three years he was 
general foreman of the Wabash 
at Indianapolis, and in 1885 he 
went to the Monon as general 
foreman at Lafayette. In 1886 
he was appointed general fore- 
man of the Lake Erie & West- 
ern at Peru, remaining there 
until in 1888 he came to Chi- 
cago as general foreman of the 
Chicago & Erie. This position 
he held until 1891, when he was 
made master car builder of the 
Lake Shore at Chicago. Mr. 
Fildes, in joining the rapidly 
growing colony in the East of 
Western men, leaves many 
warm friends behind him who 
wish him well in his new field 
of work. 

Mr. Waldo H. Marshall, as- 
sistant superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the Chicago & 
Northwestern, has, we under- 
stand, accepted a proposition 
from the Lake Shore & Mich- 
igan Southern to assume 
charge of its mechanical de- 
partment, vice Mr. G. W. Stev- 
ens, resigned. Mr. Marshall 
will, we further understand, 
have control of both the motive 
power and car departments of 
the Lake Shore. The new ap- 
pointee has held his present position on the Northwestern for just about two years. 
Mr. Marshall's first work in connection with railways was with the Rhode Island 
Locomotive Works. He later for a number of years was mechanical editor of the 
Railway Review, then editor of the Railway Master Mechanic, and then editor of 
the American Engineer, which latter connection he left to enter the service of the 
Northwestern in the position that he will soon relinquish. 

Mr. C. J. Clifford has resigned as master mechanic of the Chicago, Lake Shore 
& Eastern Railway, the occasion being the virtual consolidation of that road with the 
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern under the recent operations of the Federal Steel Company. 
Mr. J. Horrigan, master mechanic of the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern, becomes superin- 
tendent of motive power and car departments of the two roads. Mr. Clifford is 
one of the very few who have had foreign railway service, having been mechanical 
superintendent of Henry Meiggs' railways in Peru and of the government railways 
of Costa Rica. He has also seen service in Spain, going there in the service of the 
Rogers Locomotive Works to set up locomotives at Barcelona. 




Mr. Thomas Fildes. 



82 Railway Master Mechanic 

Mr. William A. Foster has resigned as superintendent of motive power and 
machinery of the Fall Brook Railway, on account of the absorption of that road by 
the New York Central & Hudson River Ry. Mr. Foster has had a long and most 
honorable record in railway service. He served with the Fitchburg Ry. for many 
jears, working up from the shops to the head of the mechanical department of 
that road. In 1885 he went to the Fall Brook Ry. to take the place which he now 
resigns. 

We learn as we go to press that Mr. Frank Thomson, president of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, died suddenly on June 5th, aged 58 years. Mr. Thomson was a 
graduate of the mechanical department of that road, and in our next issue we will 
give some account of his interesting career. 

Mr. George W. West, superintendent of motive power of the New York, Ontario 
& Western, has been appointed American Reporter on Brakes and Couplings for 
the International Railway Congress, which meets at Paris next year. 

Mr. Joseph Elder, whose resignation as superintendent of motive power and 
machinery, and master car builder of the Rock Island & Peoria we noted in our 
last issue, has accepted the position of Commissioner of Public Works at Peoria, 111. 

Mr. J. L. Whitsitt has been appointed master mechanic of the Central of Georgia, 
with headquarters at Savannah, Ga., vice P. J. Milan, resigned. Mr. W. E. Chester, 
hitherto foreman of machine shops of the same road, at Columbus, succeeds Mr. 
Whitsitt as master mechanic at Columbus. 

On the Mobile & Ohio Mr. M. T. Carson, superintendent of machinery, has been 
given the title of superintendent of motive power and car equipment, and Mr. J. D. 
Gurganus, master car builder, has been given the title of assistant superintendent of 
motive power and car equipment. 

Mr. G. W. Stevens, purchasing agent of the Mobile & Ohio, has resigned and has 
been succeeded by R. H. Duesberry, as acting purchasing agent. 

Mr. E. M. Roberts, who for the past four years has been connected with the 
St. Louis Southwestern at Jonesboro, Ark., has been appointed master mechanic of 
the White & Black River Railway, with headquarters at Brinkley, Ark. 

Mr. M. T. Phillips has been appointed master mechanic of the St. Louis & 
Hannibal, with headquarters at Hannibal, Mo. Mr. Phillips has hitherto borne the 
title of general foreman mechanical department of this road. 

Mr. R. L. Herbert, master mechanic of the Southern Pacific (Atlantic System) 
at Victoria, Tex., has been appointed master mechanic of the same company at El 
Paso, Tex., vice O. De Young, deceased. Mr. A. Verhelle succeeds Mr. Herbert at 
Victoria, with the title of acting master mechanic. 

Mr. C. Colmey has been appointed road foreman of engines of the western 
division of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago, vice Mr. P. Ray, transferred. 

Mr. C. F. Winn, hitherto master mechanic of the Ei Paso & Northeastern, has 
been appointed master mechanic of the Chesapeake Beach Railroad, with head- 
quarters at Washington, D. C. 

Mr. A. McCormick has been appointed master mechanic of the Rock Island & 
Peoria, with headquarters at Peoria, 111., vice Joseph Elder, resigned. 

Mr. William H. Whalen, of the purchasing department of the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific, has been appointed general purchasing agent of the Delaware, 
Lackawanna & Western, vice Mr. W. D. Hager. 

Mr. George Thompson has been appointed division superintendent of motive 
power of the Pennsylvania division of the New York Central & Hudson River, 
extending from Lyons, N. Y., to Newberry Junction and Mahaffey, Pa. He will 
have supervision of the repairs and maintenance of motive power and rolling stock 
on his division, with headquarters at Jersey Shore, Pa. The appointment dates 
from May 18th. Mr. Thompson has hitherto been master mechanic of the Beech 
Creek road. 

Mr. Edwin T. James has been appointed master mechanic of the Lehigh Valley 
at Wilkesbarre, Pa., vice H. D. Taylor, who has resigned to enter private business. 



The Jones Car Door 



s:5 



Mr. De F. Lillis, who was private secretary to Presidents Newell, Caldwell and 
Callaway, of the Lake Shore, and who has been a clerk in the auditing department 
of the same road lately, has accepted a position as private secretary to A. M. Waitt, 
superintendent of motive power and rolling stock of the New York Central. 

Mr. William Hays, for some time gang foreman in the Monon machine shop at 
Lafayette, has been appointed foreman of the Monon round house and shops at 
Bloomington, vice Arthur Orr, deceased. 

On the Baltimore & Ohio, Mr. W. C. Hayes has been appointed locomotive 
superintendent, in charge of all engine men and engines when on the road. He has 
appointed the following traveling engineers : W. J. Duffy, Parkersburg and Wheel- 
ing division ; W. B. Blackwell, second division ; M. Carey, Pittsburg to Cumberland 
and Wheeling; D. E. Fisher, third division. 

Mr. H. M. Wissimer, for many years connected with the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, has been appointed master mechanic of the Ohio Southern vice Mr. S. C. 
Sehart. 



THE JONES CAR DOOR. 

The Jones car door, the successor of the Moore car door, has some late improve- 
ments of marked merit. As the Moore door it has in long service demonstrated 
its mechanical worth ; but the late developments give it added practical value. The 
present construction is shown in our engravings. Figure I shows the door closed, 
and held tightly between the stop and the permanent cleat. It is so held when in 
this position that it is practically a flush door, cinder, rain, and dust proof. The 
door is held tight through the combined action of the hanger, shown at the top of the 
sectional view, and by the inclined face of the lower brackets, gravity doing the work. 

In opening the door, see figure 2, the handle of the vertical connecting-bar is 




~m 



% NU l II I I H II H| I M—» — »— - 



1 I ! 




Figure i. 



The Jones Door. 



Figure 2. 



pulled down a few inches. This operates the top levers, throwing the door in bearing 
on the wheels. The door in moving up to this bearing engages the wedge and is 
thus thrown out clear of the cleat to the position shown in the sectional view in 
figure 2. The hanger has a lip lying on the top of the door and the edge of this lip 
forms the wearing surface opposed to the wedge. The opening between the top arm 
of the hanger and this lip is such that the door cannot leave the rail. The vertical 
connecting-bar is in one piece, with a three-link chain and handle, which latter is con- 
cealed in the center bracket, as shown, when not in use. This door is, it will be 
seen, very simple, almost entirely without mechanism, and easily applied. The well 
known burglar proof bracket of the old Moore door is retained. The castings are all 
of malleable iron. This door is sold by the Jones Car Door Company, Gaff building, 
234 LaSalle street, Chicago. 



SUPPLY TRADE NOTES. 

By an arrangement recently made, the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company have 
arranged with the National Pneumatic Tool Company to sell the entire output of their 
factory in connection with the large line of pneumatic tools now handled by the Chi- 
cago Company. This gives the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company control of the sales 
of the Phoenix rotary drills, the new Haeseler piston drills and the appliances manu- 
factured by the National Pneumatic Tool Company, as well as the Boyer riveters, 
hammers and piston air drills. Orders to the National Company will receive prompt 
attention as heretofore, and the Chicago Company are prepared to supply any tools 
wanted in either line. The arrangement is amicable on both sides, and is for the 
purpose of reducing selling expenses on both lines of tools. The Chicago Pneumatic 
Tool Company has purchased the patents formerly owned by the Consolidated Pneu- 
matic Tool Company, now defunct. These patents include all the Keller and 
YVolstencroft types of tool construction and in addition several new applications 
which have not yet been taken out. These patents are said to have originally cost 
the Consolidated Pneumatic Tool Company about $40,000. 

A pamphlet that is not only amusing, but pleasing, comes to us with this title : 
"A Lecture upon a Remarkable Example of American Developments and Processes 
in the Production of Hematite Malleable Iron and Steel Castings. Delivered before 
the British Society of Uncivil Engineers by Sir Ponsonby Hawkesworth. A.R.A., 
K.C.B., etc." A good many attempts to make humorous trade circulars and booklets 
are dead failures ; but this particular one is a success. The reading matter is good 
and the pictures are excellent. The Pratt & Letchworth Company is to be heartily 
congratulated for getting up a "skit" which is really funny. That they do make 
good steel and malleable iron is known to everybody, and their position as manu- 
facturers is so well established that they can safely make a little fun of themselves 
and a lot of it for other people. Those who have not received this "lecture" should 
send for it and assure themselves of a half hour in which the cares of life will be 
forgotten. It is hardly necessary to add that the address of the Pratt & Letchworth 
Company is Buffalo, N. Y. 

The Pneumatic Supply & Equipment Company has been organized under the 
laws of the State of New York, and has opened an office at 120 Liberty street, New 
York. It is the purpose of this company, as its name implies, to deal generally in 
compressed air equipment, and it will make a specialty of the installation of complete 
plants, eliminating the division of responsibility which has heretofore existed in the 
trade. Those who decide to use compressed air for any purpose whatever can, 
through this company, secure promptly a complete installation, ready for service, 
of the best and most approved equipment suited to the special work to be done. 
The company is bringing out several specialties in the compressed air line, such as 
pneumatic oil rivet forges and quick acting hose couplings and has, in addition, closed 
agencies for several standard types of compressors. Mr. J. W. Duntley, the president 
of the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, is the president of the new company. Mr. 
E. B. Gallaher, formerly with Messrs. Patterson, Gottfried & Hunter, is the vice- 
president and engineer, and Mr. W. P. Pressinger, formerly manager of the Clayton 
Air Compressor Works, is secretary and treasurer. The rapidly widening scope of 
compressed air application opens a large field of usefulness for the new company, 
and the character of its incorporators is an assurance of its ability to meet the 
requirements of the trade. 

The Magnolia Metal Company has opened an office in Montreal, Canada, for the 
benefit of its Canadian trade. The office is located at room 524, Board of Trade 
building. 

At a meeting of the board of directors of the Ajax Metal Company, May 31st, 
Mr. F. J. Clamer resigned as director and vice-president of the company. On the 
same date the following officers were elected : J. G. Hendrickson, president ; J. R. 
Neison, first vice-president and treasurer; G. H. Clamer, second vice-president and 
secretary. The retiring vice-president has been actively associated with Mr. Hen- 
drickson for nearly twenty years in the work of building up the business of the 
Ajax Company to its present high standing, and while he now gives up his active 
part in the work he still retains his former interest in the company. 

A report just made by the Julius Pintsch Company, of Berlin, shows in detail 
all the cars equipped, on each railway in the many countries of the world, with the 
Pintsch system of car lighting ; also the locomotives, gas buoys and beacons and gas 
works. This report shows that there are 90,890 cars, 3,650 locomotives, and 892 gas 
buoys and beacons using the Pintsch system, with 303 gas works to manufacture the 
gas required for the illumination of these equipments. 

84 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 

WALTER D. CROSMAN, Editor. EDWIN N.LEWIS, Manager. 

Vol. XXIII. CHICAGO, JULY, 1899. No. 2 



THE CONVENTION WORK of both associations at Old 
Point Comfort was marked by two leading features: one the 
presentation of a fine lot of reports, and the second the absence 
of extended discussions thereon. The reports were as a whole excep- 
tionally "clean cut," and decisive in their conclusions. The discus- 
sions were meager, largely for the reason that the reports, in most 
cases, were so thorough that little was left to be said — little at least 
that could be presented off-hand on the floor of the convention. 
These conditions at the conventions were contributed to undoubtedly 
by the excellent work of the railway clubs. These clubs do clean 
up a wonderful amount of underbrush during the year, particularly 
in all those matters relating to the interchange rules. 



The coupler committee did a noble piece of work. Much of the 
merit of this report is due to the fact that Chairman Atterbury detailed 
Mr. William Elmer, jr., a special apprentice in his shops at Altoona, 
to undertake various lines of original investigation of the coupler 
question. The existing situation was quite thoroughly covered, and 
then the results were carefully digested, with the result of a report 
that presented well-defined recommendations. The reasons for these 
recommendations were fully given in a series of admirable appendices 
to the report. The whole forms a monograph on the M. C. B. coupler 
situation that rivals the reports of years ago on automatic brakes. A 
strong second to the coupler report was Mr. Manchester's report on 
water purification, which covered this important topic in an exceed- 
ingly thorough way; and Mr. Lyons' report on the generally 
unfamiliar topic of nickel steel is also worthy of special commenda- 
tion, for bringing into compact form a mass of valuable information. 
This latter we comment upon more fully on a later page. Other 
reports were particularly thorough and able, such as Mr. Lawes' 
report on stay-bolt practice, but those above mentioned were rather 
distinctive leaders. 



The master car builders did well when they moved the air brake 
testing matter along a peg. It is not well for the association to take 



86 Railway Master Mechanic 

the action that it has in prescribing air brake tests, and then continue 
to quietly pass by without notice the introduction of brakes that have 
not officially met these tests. The New York Air Brake Company 
has placed its apparatus in service to some considerable extent, and 
is offering it on all sides; and there has been not a little wonder that 
it has not submitted its triples for test by the master car builders' 
standing committee assigned to such work. It transpired at the con- 
vention that it had reasons for not submitting its triples to that com- 
mittee, and these reasons were apparently considered by the com- 
mittee as possessing some weight. The association graciously voted 
to undertake to remove these objections if possible. It now remains 
to be seen how this magnanimous act will be met. The committee 
and the association have evidenced a desire to be entirely fair in the 
matter, and the New York company may be expected to meet their 
action in the spirit in which it is offered. Of late the standing com- 
mittee on brake tests has been something of a figure-head — a fact 
that is very distasteful to that committee, especially to Chairman 
Rhodes, who has devoted some of the best work of his prime to the 
development of the modern air brake. It is felt that if the committee 
is to be given no work to do it might as well be dispensed with. It is 
known that there is work that it should be asked to do ; and it is hoped 
that that work will be soon presented to it. 



The work of the first week's convention would have been sadly 
impaired by the extremely hot weather, were it not that railway men 
are accustomed to attend strictly to business, no matter if the heavens 
threaten to fall. That first week was something dreadful. It is liable 
to be hot almost anywhere in this country in June, but at Old Point 
when it is hot it is d — esperately hot. The members did good work 
in the convention hall, though they had to grit their teeth to do it; 
but the exhibits drew few callers the first week, for the first time in 
many years. It was risking life to go to the exhibits during some of 
those days. The experience had this year should definitely bury all 
chance of Old Point Comfort ever again entertaining our conventions 
— in June at least. That first week's torture brought out many 
expressions to the effect that Saratoga was the place for future 
conventions. 



The presidents' addresses were both models in their way. Air. 
Schroyer dwelt particularly upon the immediate work of the associa- 
tion, and fearlessly expressed his views on some of the points that 



Merging the Associations 87 

were to come up. Mr. Ouayle, on the other hand, entered upon a 
review of the past year's developments in railway motive power. 



The project of merging the two associations, which some thought 
to be quite imminent, appears to still belong to an indefinite future. 
A majority of the executive committees of both associations are not 
in favor of it, and it is apparent that there is a strong feeling in both 
associations against the proposed consolidation. Plans have, how- 
ever, been adopted by both associations which will in all probability 
insure the transaction of all convention business in one calendar week, 
the master car builders having the first half and the master mechanics 
the second half of that week. This should meet the chief desires of 
those moving for a consolidation. As a matter of fact, the two 
associations, although representing very largely the same interests, 
have their distinctive lines of work (the master car builders working 
particularly for uniform practice and the master mechanics working 
largely as an educational body as do the mechanical and civil engi- 
neers) and there is thus good reason for the associations to maintain 
their separate identities. 



The committee report on standard sections for car sills was so 
thoroughly prepared, that its recommendations were, practically with- 
out discussion, ordered sent out to letter ballot for approval as 
standard. This was one of the distinctively happy outcomes of the 
convention work of this year. There is no question but that the 
ballot should be in favor of those who thus consistently urge true 
reforms. It is with pleasure that we recall that early in the discussion 
of this important matter the Railway Master Mechanic placed 
itself on record in favor of standardizing these parts. We then gave 
— for the first time, we believe — a tabulation of sizes of car sills, and 
pointed out the desirability of securing greater uniformity in these 
parts, it was stated at the convention this year that there was prob- 
ably nothing to be gained in price by using more uniform sizes, but 
that the lumber dealers were agreed that such practice would result 
in better grades and more prompt deliveries. It was suggested that 
uniformity in section of siding and roofing would also be a good thing, 
and it may be noted that the committee on subjects for next year has 
recommended that this topic be considered. 



The dummy coupling for air brake hose seems to have lost almost 
all of its friends. The committee on air brake appliances found from 



88 Railway Master Mechanic 



replies to its circular letter of inquiry that there was only a small 
majority of those reporting- remaining in its favor. Those represent- 
ing- about one-half of the cars reporting have discarded the dummy 
coupling. In this connection, this committee offered the opinion 
that if a coupler for air brake hose could be devised that would be 
automatic, so that it would not be necessary for operators to use it, 
such a device would be of undoubted advantage. We may add that 
we feel that there is little doubt but that the time will come when the 
coupling up of train pipes, air signal pipes, and steam hose pipe must 
be effected automatically, as is now done with the car coupler proper. 



The customary complaint of lack of replies to circulars of inquiry 
was made this year. But there was one shining exception "to prove 
the rule" in the responses to the committee on standard sill sections. 
This committee was favored with forty-eight replies, and they were 
from leading roads, too. The replies represented 853,014 cars of 
50,000 pounds capacity and over, out of a total of 1,252,219 cars. 



The loyalty of members of the Master Car Builders' Association 
was indirectly appealed to by the committee on uniform car sill sec- 
tions. This brings up the threadbare question of why will members 
go to conventions with the avowed purpose of securing unison, vote 
with hearty unanimity for reference of a proposed standard to a letter 
ballot, go home and vote aye on this ballot, and then calmly disregard 
the standard thus supposedly established. The naive appeal modestly 
slipped into the phraseology of the report referred to should have 
its effect. The standing committee on supervision of standards, we 
may add here, gave some slight comfort in regard to this matter, for 
it reported finding that 17 of the 25 standards were in general use, 
as were 14 of the 2.7 items of recommended practice. 



The information given by the committee on the causes of trains 
parting was interesting as far as it went, but, unfortunately, it covered 
a comparatively small field of service. The committee gave one par- 
ticularly interesting tabulation, however, showing that in about 1,500 
cases of trains parting that were equipped with M. C. B. couplers, 
defective locks were responsible for 17 per cent of the cases, worn 
knuckles, 13 per cent, and broken knuckles, 14 per cent — other fea- 
tures contributing very much smaller percentages. It will be seen 
that troubles with the locks were the chief causes for trains parting. 



Fifty-ton Box Cars 89 



It is thus quite evident that the lock to the lock is a feature in couplers 
that requires continued close attention, as does the design and loca- 
tion of the lock. 



The question of allowing" a differential in car repair prices in the 
far West was settled very definitely in the negative. The question 
came up, it will be remembered, last year, and was presented in a 
rather aggressive manner by the Western contingent. It then 
received no favorable attention, but was accorded the courtesy of a 
committee of investigation. The committee reported adversely this 
year, and the Western men thereupon gave up the contest, although 
they very properly retired facing their adversaries, making a very 
dignified retreat from the arena. 



Fifty-ton Box Cars. 

For a time it was thought that 60,000 pounds was the maximum 
limit for wooden cars, and that, when larger capacities were required, 
they- would be constructed with steel underframes, and possibly 
entirely of steel. Coal, tiat and box cars of 70,000 and 80,000 pounds 
capacity have been built of wood in large numbers in the past year, 
but some roads have drawn the line at 80,000 pounds, and built 
their coal cars of that capacity of steel. A bold step has now been 
made by a California road in contracting for a large number of grain 
cars 40 feet long and of 100,000 pounds capacity, with the frames built 
almost entirely of wood, with numerous truss rods in the side and end 
posts. The body transom is of ordinary width and the draft timbers 
are of usual construction. The surprising thing is the light weight 
of the car, which is actually lower than that of a good 30-ton car. 
The saving in weight is largely obtained by using sills and posts of 
small section, depending on light truss rods for requisite strength. 

The service of these cars will be watched with interest, for if they 
are found adequate for so large a lading, and repairs are not expensive, 
they will demonstrate that much useless timber has been used in 
wooden cars in the past. We believe, however, that wood is not the 
proper material for cars of 50 tons capacity, and that such cars will 
soon fail in the underframe, as well as in the superstructure. The satis- 
factory performance of 50 -ton steel coal and ore cars should soon lead 
to the construction of steel underframes for box cars. How a light 
box shall be built so as to carry 50 tons of grain successfully and with 
light repairs is one of the interesting problems now before our car 
builders. Shall it be of wood or steel, or a combination of both? The 
wooden box is alreadv on trial. 



90 Railway Master Mechanic 

The Master Mechanics' Report On Nickel 

Steel. 

IT is surprising- that the report on nickel steei in locomotive con- 
struction, at the master mechanics' convention, excited so little 
interest, and no discussion from members of the association. 
The only remarks on it were made by a representative of a manu- 
facturing concern, and in the interest of that company. 

The severe service now demanded from the machinery of modern 
locomotives is equal to, if not greater than, that of marine engines. 
Xickel steel is now regularly specified for all important engine forg- 
ings used in the United States Navy, and the same reasons which 
have led to its use in marine service apply with equal force to loco- 
motive service ; but the necessity for using high strength steel does 
not seem to be so well appreciated by railroad men. The rapid strides 
which locomotive construction is making in this country in the direc- 
tion of greater power and higher speed, will create a demand for 
such a high grade in steel forgings that it can only be met by nickel 
steel, oil tempered and annealed. 

As the merits of good nickel steel become better known its use 
for locomotive machinery will grow rapidly and will soon become 
the general practice. Mr. Lyon's report has done a good service in 
presenting a general introduction of the subject, in which the physical 
qualities of nickel steel are described, and representative tests are 
tabulated in compact shape. The peculiar quality of nickel steel is, 
that high ultimate strength and elastic limit are obtained without 
increasing the content of carbon beyond 0.25, the use of 3 per cent 
nickel securing a strength greater than that of ordinary steel con- 
taining .50 carbon. The brittleness due to high carbon steel is thus 
avoided and the usual elongation is obtained. The valuable feature 
of nickel steel is its remarkable toughness, due to this high elastic 
limit, combined with good elongation. 

The elastic limit of nickel steel will average 70 per cent of its 
ultimate strength, and it is possible to obtain machinery forgings of 
this material with an elastic limit of 65,000 pounds. This is about 
equal to the ultimate strength of ordinary steel forgings and double 
the elastic limit of such material. When such strength is combined 
with an elongation of 21 per cent in two inches it will be understood 



Nickel Steel for Locomotives 91 

why nickel steel is so well adapted to resist alternating stresses of 
great magnitude. 

The specifications given in the report as recommended by an 
American manufacturer as proper for locomotive forgings, are sub- 
ject to criticism in several respects. Here was an opportunity for 
members of the association who are experts in test room work to 
add a valuable discussion to this interesting report. The timidity 
which has so long been evidenced by users being content with steel 
of ordinary strength, and by their hesitation to use high strength steel 
on account of its brittleness, seems to extend to the use of nickel steel, 
and accordingly we find strength specified for nickel steel which is 
actually lower than that of carbon steel which has been used for 
years by some of the more progressive builders. The specification 
calls for steel of the highest strength for crank pins and piston rods, 
the limits being 78,000 minimum, and 84,000 maximum, with 25 per 
cent elongation in two inches. The next grade is for driving axles — 
74,000 minimum and 80,000 maximum, with elongation of 30 per 
cent in two inches ; and still lower we have a grade of nickel steel 
proposed for side rods, where the minimum strength is 60,000 and 
maximum 68,000, and the elongation 25 per cent in two inches. 
These figures, we understand, are all for oil-tempered steel. 

The objections to the specification are that there is no good 
reason for grouping these different details as they are and requiring 
much lower strength for side rods than for piston rods, and lower 
strength for driving axles than for crank pins. The highest strength 
required by the specification is not as high as it should be and not too 
high for any of the parts mentioned. The elastic limit required is 
one-half the ultimate strength, which would admit steel having an 
elastic limit of only 34,000 pounds for side rods. The specification 
as a whole can easily be met by ordinary carbon steel, and we regard 
it as one not calculated to secure good nickel steel, which should 
have an elastic limit equal to 70 per cent of the ultimate strength. 

Contrasting this specification for locomotive machinery with the 
government specification for nickel steel for marine forgings, given 
in the committee's report, we find the latter requires a minimum of 
95,000 pounds, an elastic limit not less than 65,000 pounds, and an 
elongation of 21 per cent in two inches for steel oil tempered and 
annealed. Such steel is required for marine engine shafts, cross-head 
pins, connecting rods, piston rods, valve steins, links, eccentric rods, 
etc., and we believe it is a more suitable grade for similar parts of 



92 Railway Master Mechanic 

locomotives than that recommended by the "prominent American 
manufacturer" quoted. 

The report closes with the record of a few samples of nickel steel 
which have been used experimentally on locomotives, for piston rods, 
crank pins, and rod bolts, showing that the experience thus far has not 
been vrery favorable. It is possible that some of these tests have been 
made with parts of poor design or insufficient sectional area, and 
others with a poor grade of nickel steel, or that the heat treatment 
has not been correct. Such experiences are unfortunate, as they 
tend to give nickel steel a "black eye," as the speaker at the conven- 
tion expressed it. It is the principle object of this article to try to 
counteract if possible, even to a slight extent, the bad effect which 
statements like those at the end of the report may have. 

We are strong in the conviction that good material, like good 
character, will be ultimately successful, and a material which possesses 
such remarkable qualities as good nickel steel must give results in 
service, when properly used, superior to anything which can be 
obtained from carbon steel. The fact that some tests of nickel steel 
have been disappointing, shows that there was something wrong with 
the test, and we can only say, with Faraday : "The experiment has 
failed, hur. the principle remains the same." 



THE MASTER CAR BUILDERS' CONVENTION. 

The Master Car Builders' Association met in its thirty-third 
annual convention at Old Point Comfort, June 14th, with a very large 
attendance and President Schroyer occupying the chair and Secretary 
Cloud at his desk. The sessions lasted through three days and the 
work done was, in sequence, as follows : 

GENERAL OPENING BUSINESS. 

After the opening prayer by Rev. J. J. Gavatt, the convention was 
addressed by Hon. Charles T. O'Ferrell, ex-Governor of Virginia, 
whose remarks took the form of a ringing address on patriotism. 
President Schroyer followed with his address. 

The financial reports showed the present membership of the 
association to be 458, of which 260 are active members, 191 represen- 
tative members, and 7 associate members. It was shown that there 
is now a total of 1,348,171 cars represented in the association. It 



Standards and Recommended Practice 93 

was also shown that the association has now in its treasury a balance 
of $8,893, with all bills paid. 

Mr. J. A. Gohen, representing the Master Car and Locomotive 
Painters' Association, addressed the convention briefly, asking the 
Master Car Builders' Association to extend indorsement and aid to 
the work of the former association. 

Topical discussions were then taken up, as they were on each 
succeeding day of the convention, but we are obliged to defer an 
account of these valuable discussions until a later issue. 

The report of the committee on supervision of standards and 
recommended practices of the association was then presented. We 
append the recommendations of this committee as follows: 

SUPERVISION OF STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 

OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

[A. M. Waitt, G. L. Potter, William Apps, Committee.] 
This committee had given members an opportunity to suggest any desired modi- 
fications of the standards and Ihe various recommended practices of the association, 
and had made inquiry as to the extent to which the various standards and recom- 
mended practices are used, and after reporting in detail upon the various items, it 
closed with the suggestion that the following recommendations be submitted to the 
association for adoption by letter ballot : 

1. That drawing for standard journal boxes, 3^4 by 7 inches, show size of bolt- 
hole 1 1-16 inch instead of 1 inch, to provide for the i-inch bolt ordinarily used. 

2. That Sheet 15, showing journal box in details, for journals 5 by 9 inches, 
give the general dimensions only for journal bearing, eliminating the general con- 
struction of bearing, with lead lining. 

3. That the word "coupler" be substituted for "drawbars" in the title and 
description of the standard height of draivbars. 

4. To eliminate guarantee for cast-iron wheels from the list of recommended 
practice. 

5. Substitute the word "couplers" for "drawbars" in the title and text in con- 
nection with the recommended practice "Adjusting height of drawbars." 

6. Eliminate the drawing and description of the Fletcher journal box lid for 
80.000-pound capacity cars from the recommended practices. 

The committee also suggested that the following subjects be referred to com- 
mittees to investigate and report at the next convention : 

1. Design for wheel circumference measure. 

2. Revision of specifications for car wheels. 

3. Design for the journal bearing and wedge gauges for 80,000 and 100,000- 
pound capacity journals. 

4. Revision of rules for loading poles, logs and bark on cars. 

5. Revision of recommended practice on springs for freight cars, including 
the consideration of designs for springs for 100,000-pound capacity cars. 

The convention indorsed the first, third, and fifth recommenda- 
tions and ordered the second and sixth recommendations sent out to 



94 Railway Master Mechanic 

letter ballot for standards. The five suggested subjects for discussion 
were ordered referred to the committee on subjects. 

TRIPLE VALVE TESTS. 

Air. G. W. Rhodes then reported for the standing committee on 
triple valve tests, stating that the association's testing plant had been 
removed from Altoona to the Purdue University at Lafayette, Ind., 
and stating further that no tests of triple valves had been made during 
the year. Air. J. N. Barr wanted to know why tests had not been 
made and went on to state that the New York air brake was now 
being offered on the market generally, and at a lower figure than 
the Westinghouse brake, and stated that if tests would show that the 
Xew York brake was as good as the Westinghouse brake there should 
be some authentic information to that effect. Mr. Rhodes replied, 
stating that the New York Air Brake Company's triples had not been 
tested because that company had objected to submitting their triples 
for test. The New York company had based its refusal on two points. 
One was that its triple would not meet the requirements of test No. 2, 
where it is specified that the final maximum pressure must not be less 
than 15 per cent nor more than 20 per cent above the pressure given 
by the same brake in full service application. The company, more- 
over, did not consider this as a vital or essential feature of standard 
brake specifications. This company's second objection to having its 
triples tested was that on the present committee on tests there was no 
representation from any road which had experience in the use of the 
New York triples. Mr. Rhodes considered that both of these points 
were legitimate objections. Upon motion of Mr. Barr it was voted 
that there should be added to the present committee two members 
who are familiar with the practical workings of the New York air 
brake in actual service and in considerable quantities. Mr. Barr made 
this further motion, which was adopted, namely, "that the committee 
on tests of triple valves be instructed to carefully consider the present 
recommended practice with a view of determining if any modification 
of the same is allowable, that they obtain sets of triple valves and make 
such tests of same, both on rack and on trains, as may be necessary to 
give this association full information as to the construction, and that 
they be authorized by and with the consent of the executive com- 
mittee to make the necessary expenditures from the funds of the 
association, the same not to exceed $5,000." 



Western Repair Prices 95 

INTERCHANGE RULES. 

The convention then took up its annual revision of the interchange 
rules, basing its work upon the reports of the committee on arbitra- 
tion, of the committee on prices in master car builders' rules and on 
the report of the committee on compensation for car repairs done 
west of the 105th meridian. After a discussion of something like 
two hours the rules were adopted as modified in convention. As is 
our custom, we omit the first two named reports, but we append the 
conclusions of the committee on the last topic as follows : 

COMPENSATION FOR CAR REPAIRS DONE WEST OF THE 105TH 

MERIDIAN. 

[J. N. Barr, S. P. Bush, L. C. Haynes, T. B. Kirby, Committee.] 
This committee presented an exhaustive report accompanied by elaborate tab- 
ulations showing the costs of labor and of the various items of car repairs on over 
thirty roads in various sections of the country ; the freight car mileage and amounts 
paid for same ; the amounts paid and collected for repairs ; freight earnings per ton 
per mile and percentages of cost of maintaining equipment to whole cost of operat- 
ing, etc. The committee carefully considered all these factors in their bearing upon 
the request made by the Western lines for a differential to give them relief from the 
condition which imposes a loss upon them in repairs, and closed its report as follows : 
"In conclusion,- in view of the complexity of the differential question, of the 
variation in remuneration and cost of repairs, which varies in all sections of the 
country, your committee feels that it cannot recommend any change in the estab- 
lished policy of uniform prices for all parts of the country." 

Mr. J. H. McConnell, a member of this committee, declined to sign the report. 

The conclusions of the committee upon this subject were formally 
adopted by the convention, and this ends the matter as far as the 
association is concerned. During this interchange discussion a report 
on the passenger interchange rules was submitted by Mr. H. J. Small 
of the special committee on this subject. This committee recom- 
mended the insertion of a paragraph in the rules providing for the 
furnishing by the receiving road of an M. C. B. defect card as 
authority for bill for gas in the reservoirs of cars interchanged. This 
recommendation was referred to a committee to investigate and 
report upon next year. 

STANDARD WHEEL AND TRACK GAGES. 

Mr. J. N. Barr then reported for the committee on standard wheel 
and track gages (to confer with the American Railway Association). 
The substance of Mr. Barr's report was that he had communicated 
with the American Railway Association, that there had been certain 
figures adopted by that association and that the matter had been 



96 Railway Master Mechanic 

referred back to the Car Builders' Association without any apparent 
idea of further conference. It appears that the master car builders' 
figures were satisfactory. There is still a proposition to have a train 
U st of fifty cars on the Muskingum Valley Railroad. On motion this 
report was accepted and the committee was discharged. 

The next business was the presentation of the report of the stand ■ 
ing committee on brake shoe tests, the substance of which follows: 

BRAKE SHOE TESTS. 

[S. P. Bush. R. P. C. Sanderson. Geo. Gibbs. Committee.] 
At the last convention this committee reported that arrangements had been 
made for the transfer of the brake shoe testing apparatus to Purdue University, 
where it was to be properly cared for by the University and protected from loss 
by insurance, under a written agreement. The transfer of the testing apparatus has 
been effected, and it is now in operation at the Purdue University, which is using it 
for instructive purposes and will be glad to make tests for any manufacturers that 
may wish to have tests made, upon the payment of a nominal fee which will cover the 
expense that the University may be put to. 

Since the original tests made by the committee there has been considerable 
activity in the way of developing brake shoes to produce greater efficiency, with the 
view particularly of obtaining greater durability of brake shoes in service. This 
effort has been in the direction of composite, or composition shoes, and while greater 
durability is very much desired, it is also important to the railways in general that 
durability should not be obtained at the sacrifice of proper braking power. There 
are perhaps three or four new shoes being produced to-day which it might be well 
for the association to have tested under the direction of its committee, with the view 
of determining their frictional values, comparing them with the original tests of 
hard and soft cast iron, and the committee recommends that it be instructed to test 
such brake shoes as may be presented to it for that purpose and which may seem 
to have made sufficient departure from those previously tested to have affected their 
efficiency or durability. 

This report was received without discussion and the committee 
continued. 

The committee on trains parting then presented its report, the 
substance of which follows: 

TRAINS PARTING. 

[G. N. Dow, John Hodge, D. Hawkesworth, J. M. Holt, Committee.] 
The committee's circular of inquiry was answered by 8 roads, representing 
130.074 cars, or 4.23 per cent of the roads and 10.38 per cent of the cars represented 
in the Master Car Builders' Association. Following is a summary of the reports 
received : 

Total number of cases of trains parting between December 1, 1898. and April 1. 
1899, 2.606. There were 47 per cent of the break-in-twos caused by the forward car 
of the two between which train parted. There were 46 per cent of the cases that 
occurred when trains were pulling out. and 25 per cent when trains were slacking up. 
There were 21 per cent of the cases that occurred through draft rigging breaking, 



Square Bolt Heads and Nuts 97 



10 per cent through knuckles breaking, 1.28 per cent through difference in height of 
cars, 1.41 per cent through foreign matter, such as ice, gravel, etc., in coupling, 9 
per cent through worn condition of knuckles. 

Of 2,342 of the cases of trains parting reported, 66.90 per cent were with cars 
equipped with M. C. B. couplers, and 41.75 per cent with cars equipped with link- 
and-pin drawbars or with one link-and-pin drawbar and one M. C. B. coupler. 

Cause for trains parting that were equipped with M. C. B. couplers in detail 
for 1,506 cases, as follows : 

1. Defective locks 263 cases, or 17.46 per cent. 

2. Worn knuckles 197 cases, or 13.08 per cent. 

3. Defective uncoupler attachment 84 cases, or 5.58 per cent. 

4. Broken coupler body 120 cases, or 7.97 per cent. 

5. Defective draft rigging 147 cases, or 9.76 per cent. 

6. Broken knuckles 208 cases, or 13.81 per cent. 

7. Miscellaneous causes 487 cases, or 32.34 per cent. 

[The committee presents a mass of other miscellaneous information which, 
however, is of no conclusive value because of its varying nature ; and then closes as 
follows — Ed.] 

In view of the information. obtained your committee would respectfully submit 
the following recommendations : 

Maintaining spindles not less than 2 inches diameter, and keys not. less than 
y 2 by 2 inches. Also more care to be used in making pockets, avoiding sharp corners 
on rear end of pocket. 

In the inspection of cars a close inspection to be made of knuckles and locks, 
with view of reducing unnecessary play in knuckles and locks. 

The committee believes that it is necessary to make a systematic inspection of 
couplers in service, with a view of limiting the variation from the M. C. B. contour 
line, using a special gauge for the purpose. 

Committee would recommend M. C. B. buffer blocks on all cars to relieve the 
shock to draft rigging in slacking up, thereby reducing to a minimum break-in-twos 
induced from such causes. (Mr. Hodge excepted.) 

Consideration of this report was deferred until such time as the 
report on car couplers be taken up. 

Mr. B. Haskell then presented the report of the committee on 
square bolt heads and nuts. The substance of this report follows : 

SQUARE BOLT HEADS AND NUTS. 

[B. Haskell, W. H. Lewis, Thos. Fildes, Committee.] 
In outlining the work of this committee it was thought best to work jointly with 
a committee from the American Mechanical Engineers' Society, and the Bolt Manu- 
facturers. We were not successful in getting the American Mechanical Engineers' 
Society to take up the subject, but succeeded in getting the Bolt Manufacturers to do 
so. The subject was taken up with individual members of the Manufacturers' com- 
mittee, and all claimed that they should have to charge from ten to fifteen per cent 
more for bolts made with M. C. B. heads than for those with Manufacturers' heads, 
on account of the increased amount of metal in the head and the extra labor and 
time consumed in making them, and in changing dies. It was also claimed that there 
was very little call for bolts with M. C. B. or U. S. standard heads, but that the 
Manufacturers' standard was just as strong and serviceable and answered all require- 
ments. 



98 Railway Master Mechanic 

In order to determine whether or not this was true it was thought advisable to 
arrange for a comparative test of both standards. 

This test was made at Purdue University, through kindness of Professors Goss 
and Hatt, to whom the thanks of the Association should be extended. It is a valuable 
report and the only one of its kind that has ever been made. [Here follows Professor 
Hatt's valuable report, covering elaborate tension and eccentric tests of bolts. Pro- 
fessor Hatt's final conclusion was that the Manufacturers are correct in their state- 
ment that the Manufacturers' standard head is better than the larger U. S. standard 
head. — Ed.] 

It will be seen from Professor Hatt's report that there is evidently ample strength 
in the smaller heads, and that as far as the question of strength is concerned, there 
is no reason why a smaller head than the M. C. B. or M. M. standard cannot be used, 
and we recommend the following standard for square bolt heads : 

The side of head shall be one and one-half times the diameter of the bolt, and 
the thickness of head shall be one-half the side of the head. 

As regards square nuts, we recommend that no change in present standard be 
made, as it is believed that there is no demand for it, and the replies from the different 
roads show that there is no difficulty in getting them of M. C. B. standard. 

While it is true that there may be some disadvantages in having bolt heads and 
nuts of different size on account of difficulty in using wrenches. «t is believed that 
wrenches can easily be made in "S" form, fitted at one end for the nut and at the 
opposite end for the bolt head. It is also believed that it is not safe to make the 
short diameter of the nuts any less, as this would result in greater liability of the nut 
splitting. 

In support of our recommendations, we submit the following: 

First. The statements of Professor Hatt that the test shows that the Manu- 
facturers are correct in their statement that the Manufacturers' standard head is a 
better head than the larger U. S. standard head. The results of the test show that 
this recommended standard is amply strong, and that therefore the extra amount of 
metal in the M. C. B. standard is uncalled for and that the extra amount of labor 
and loss of time necessary to make the M. C. B. standard is uncalled for. 

Second. The evident fact that it is impossible to maintain the present M. C. B. 
standard, due to extra cost of bolts, and inability at times to obtain them. 

Third. The evident fact that the results of tests made and information contained 
in this report will make it more difficult to maintain present M. C. B. standard, as 
car builders and bolt manufacturers will be in a position to claim and prove that 
the M. C. B. standard is uncalled for as far as strength is concerned, and to 
substantiate their claims in regard to increased cost of M. C. B. standard. 

[This committee also suggested the use of a standard bolt head and nut gauge, 
and submitted a sample gauge, a cut of which we expect to give later. — Ed.] 

It was voted to refer this report to the American Society of Civil 
Engineers and to the Mechanical Engineers' Association, and it was 
also voted to refer to letter ballot for recommended practice the 
recommendations of the committee, which committee was then dis- 
charged. 

COUPLER PRICES. 

A supplementary report from the committee on prices was then 
received. This committee recommended that for all malleable or 



M. C. B. Couplers 99 



wrought iron parts of couplers the price be 3^2 cents per pound, and 
for all steel parts of couplers \]/ 2 cents per pound, while the price of 
the shank and the coupler complete should remain as now in the 
rules, namely, $4.50 and $7.50. The committee also recommended 
4.y 2 cents a pound as a price for steel castings and that the rules be 
changed where necessary to conform to this figure. Upon vote these 
recommendations of this committee were formally adopted. 

JOINT MEETINGS. 

The report of the conference committee on joint meetings of the 
two associations was here taken up. The committee had reported, 
recommending a joint opening session of both associations to be held 
on the second Tuesday in June, the remainder of the week, to and 
including Friday, to be allotted in half day sessions alternately to the 
two associations. This recommendation was not favorably received 
and it was finally voted that the Master Car Builders' Association meet 
on Monday and complete its business during the first three days, with 
the hope that the other association would adopt the last three days. 
It was further moved that the executive committee, having this vote 
in mind, should be given power to act finally in conjunction with a 
similar committee of the Master Mechanics' Association when making 
the necessary arrangements for the meetings next year. 

At this point a vote of thanks, offered by Mr. J. H. McConnell, 
was extended to Mr. Cloud, the retiring secretary, for the faithful and 
efficient manner in which he had performed the duties of his office. 

The report of the committee on M. C. B. couplers, to define con- 
tour lines more fully when new and when worn and to propose 
specifications for couplers, was then presented by its chairman, Mr. 
W. W. Atterbury. This was a very elaborate and very thorough 
report, but unfortunately we cannot now give it space. We, how- 
ever, append the recommendations made by the committee, as 
follows : 

M. C. B. COUPLERS. 

[W. W. Atterbury, W. P. Appleyard, W. S. Morris, Committee.] 
The subject as assigned to your committee may be divided into three parts: 
1, to define the contour lines more fully when new ; 2, to define the contour lines 
more fully when worn ; 3, to propose specifications for couplers. 

1. To define the contour lines more fully when new. This part of the subject 
can again be divided into four parts, none of which are covered by present M. C. B. 
standards: (A) To fix the length of the guard arm; (B) The vertical dimension of 
the knuckle; (C) The vertical dimension of the end of the guard arm, and, (D) To 



100 



Railway Master Mechanic 




Fig. i. — Proposed Contour Line. 

It will be noted that in this contour the reverse curve of 8 inches radius has 
been straightened out and continued as a tangent to the arc drawn with the 2^-inch 
radius. It is also reduced in flare so as to hold the couplers together better. 





G£ FOR NEV)T COUP 
£*S MUST PASS THIS GAkjGE 
r POINTS ARE ORAWN 'BAC 
TWiTH ANY 0N£ MOVA.BLE 



Fig. 2. — Proposed Gauge for New Couplers. 

The change in the gauge is the extension of the frame and the re-location of the 
present guard arm limit screw so as to control the end of the guard arm contour. 



M. C. B. Couplers 



101 




- -fa- A 

4fM 



£ 1^ 




h 



i*-*Hfe- 



ih 



A 



■■*> ! 






W V |_ 

o ^ d' 



-o 5 



o « 

3 




~^ 



bo *> I 



..•^ ^ 5 n O i* 

js « c ~ - c 

^ X! . " '■ be >- « 

s - £ y .2 a cL* 

- C\_ - T S ° ^ 

"S SNj S S I x 8 

o B.S ^S o«P. 

— ^ V b • « S3 

T3 >- > 3 c ■^'w 5 
4) O O cs O 

— . v3 r > *H m-i 

| « B.-o 5 ° "g ° 

ua — J2 rt 3^2 



a, x ;- 3 «- S > 
- G -r 4> ° n 

O J £ -G d ^-° -° 

P S >- . C ^T3 "g 
D • JJ <U >■*-» 4» <U u 

c c £ "3 t * -2 -5 
hp^^ 6 S *~ g 

5 - MP 2 4J^§ 
b/3.3 -3 ] •» £ rt -n 

w <u rt « £ c o 

.3 « ■ Z - = a " 

-r - 3>n ? ,H . -t- 1 
^ M bx w » -o .55 < *C 

be . cu j- js x « a- 

3 O J2 Ou,^^ 3v* 
o* . ** C s — -" x 

r _^n) rtt/373 ^ 

^^^ cu & 2J.fi ° 

C O O > 3^1)^ — 

. r. 4> *- k. -3 X D % 

>^> cd 3-^3 ^ *-> u <u 

-o x +j x J2 *» si J; 

_C 3 — 3 u _e 3,-*- 

J3 CU.2 2 3 3 
-»-> O r U x x •- V 

.3 3, ? 5 -a .3 ^ «s 



102 



Railway Master Mechanic 



refer the axes upon which the contour lines are constructed to the axis of the shank 
of the coupler. 

(A) In regard to the length of the guard aim, it is recommended that the 
contour lines be extended about one inch beyond the point where they at present 
terminate, and that the M. C. B. standard limit gauges for new couplers have the 
guard arm screw moved from its present position to a new one at the end of the 
proposed new contour lines. [See Figs, i and 2.] 

(B) It is recommended that the vertical dimension of knuckles be fixed at nine 
inches as a minimum. 

(C) It is recommended that the vertical dimension of the end of the guard 
arm be fixed at seven and one-half inches as a minimum. 

(D) It is recommended that a twist gauge for new couplers [shown in Fig. 3], 






\ 

\ \ 



»v. 




S / / v "X 




\ t 1^ M.C.B.Cos?four///7e5for/7ewco&pfe/s. 
1 ' GDr7fa/r//r7esofCovp/e/5f<?c//7(/o/7 
j I MO. T<2?r<S 903Z 0/7d/333O. 

1 / CdL/p/ersparfeda/vt/mdcroff/fnes 
tS <9r? To/ec/o D/y, / 6". &MS V a/50 /r? 
'/' yarc/a/ T0/&/0. 

fa// //f7e55/?ow gauge //7/7a5///0/7 /bJefecfva?; 



v 



Fig. 4. — Proposed Gauge for Worn Couplers. 

Providing for combination of %vear. When the cam-shaped lever A is pushed 
over to the end of its curved slot to the point B, it throws all the slides part way out. 
Couplers must be repaired if gauge passes with any slide fully out, or with the 
curved slide A moved to B. 



be used so as to insure that the heads are neither twisted nor displaced sidewise 
with relation to the shank. 

In addition to these matters relating strictly to the contour line, there are others 
that require attention : 

(E) It is recommended that the horizontal plane containing the axis of the 
shank of the coupler bisect the vertical dimensions of the knuckle and end of guard 
arm. 

(F) It is recommended that the gauge for new knuckles be used on all knuckles 
purchased separately for renewals. [This is the present M. C. B. standard gauge 
shown on M. C. B. Sheet 11 in M. C. B. Proceedings for 1898. — Ed.] 

(G) It is recommended that the vertical height of the stop shoulder or horn 
of coupler be not less than three and one-half inches, and that the horn be arranged 



M. C. B. Couplers 



103 



to touch the striking plate before the back of the head of the coupler strikes the 
ends of the draft timbers. 

2. To define the contour lines more fully when worn. This takes in the subject 
of gauges for worn couplers, and it is recommended that a gauge [shown in Fig. 4] 
be used. These gauges are cheaply made of sheet metal stampings, and it is earn- 
estly recommended that they be immediately put into use at all interchange points, 
and that the same care be given to the examination of couplers as is given to any 
other portion of the car. We have no doubt the use of this gauge will put a stop 
to a large percentage of the instances of trains parting on the road without couplers 
unlocking. 

3. To propose specifications for couplers. This part of the subject has received 
very careful consideration. It has been difficult to reconcile the diametrically 
opposite opinions which have been expressed by various railroad men and manu- 
facturers. It is believed, however, that rigid specifications and tests will do much 
to weed out the poorer makes of couplers at present being furnished, and it is rec- 
ommended that in the future all couplers be purchased subject to the provisions of 
the following standard specifications and tests. 

A. B. &• C. R. R. CO. 
Specifications for M. C. B. Automatic Car Couplers. 

After September 1, 1899, a H M. C. B. automatic car couplers purchased by or 
used in the construction of cars for the above-named company must meet the require- 
ments of the following specifications : 

Couplers shall be subject to the inspection of the representative of the above- 
named company as to their mechanical workings, general conditions, and tests. 

The bars and knuckles must be fitted together in a workmanlike manner. 
Knuckles and locking pins or blocks must work freely and without any lost motion 
between knuckle and bar, or lock, which would permit the knuckle to drop forward 
beyond the proper contour line. But Y^ to ^ inch lost motion in the opposite direc- 
tion is not undesirable. 




The Twist Gauge in Position. 



The coupling or contact faces must be smooth and clean, free from grit, sand, 
scale, etc. The face to be square with axis of bar. All couplers must be free from 
surface defects. Couplers must conform to M. C. B. contour lines, dimensions and 
gauges. They must couple and uncouple with each other (with either or both 
knuckles open) and with the master or sample coupler. They should unlock easily, 
and should lock with freedom when the knuckle is pushed in by hand. They must 
have complete locking fixtures. 



10± Railway Master Mechanic 

They must have steel pivot pins \\i or iy$ inches in diameter, and of a uni- 
form length of i3 T j inches from the under side of head to the center of pin hole 
for ^-inch cotter. Pivot pins, after being heated and having the head struck up, 
must be carefully and properly annealed. 

The hole for pivot pin in bar or knuckle should be drilled (or, if cored, must 
be drifted out) so as not to be more than ^ inch larger than the pin. The hole 
to be parallel with the face of the bar or knuckle and at right angles to the axis of 
the bar or knuckle. 

Knuckles must conform closely to dimensions and fit neatly in coupler head, 
so that the contour will conform strictly to M. C. B. gauges. They will not be 
accepted if distorted by improperly matched flasks or any other defects caused by 
molding, and must be free from shrinkage cracks, flaws and checks, and sand, 
scale or blow holes. The coupling pin hole must not be less than I *$ inch nor 
more than i?$ inch in diameter, and must, be parallel with the face of knuckle 
and at right angles with the axis of the knuckle. 

The name of the coupler and class of bar must be cast upon the top side of 
head of bar in letters and figures 34 inch long and raised -,V inch. Each drawbar 
must also have the maker's mark and date of manufacture plainly cast or stamped 
upon it at some point where they will not wear off. Each knuckle must have the 
serial number of class or style and maker's mark either cast or stamped upon it 
at some point where it will not be worn off. 

The weight of the coupler complete to be not less than lbs., and of bar 

without any of the attachments not less than lbs. The minimum weight of 

each knuckle to be lbs. 

As many drawbars and knuckles as possible must be cast from each heat of 
steel or melt of iron used. All parts to be well annealed throughout. 

Couplers and parts will be submitted to the following five distinct tests : 

1. Striking test on closed knuckles of complete coupler. 

Coupler to be held in machine so that the axis of the coupler is in the cen- 
ter line of drop, and the axis of the coupling pin hole passes through the center 
lines of the legs of the machine and the shank of the coupler rests solidly on the 
anvil. Blows to strike directly on knuckle. 

Three blows of 1.640 lbs. weight falling 5 feet. 

Three blows of 1,640 lbs. weight falling 10 feet. 

A coupler will be considered as having failed to stand this test when it is 
broken before it has received three blows at 5 feet and three blows at 10 feet, or 
when any cracks appear more than 1 inch long or open more than -, 1 ,; inch, or 
when the center line of the shank is distorted more than 1 inch from its original 
position, or when the knuckle is found to have closed more than Y\ inch from its 
original position when pulled out against the lock after having received the three 
blows at 5 feet. 

2. Jerk test of complete couplers. 

Two couplers to be supported in the machine by the yoke forgings and draft 
springs provided. Blows to strike directly on the equalizer bar connecting the two 
couplers and resting on their closed knuckles. 

Three blows of 1,640 lbs. weight falling 5 feet. 

Three blows of 1,640 lbs. weight falling 10 feet. 

A coupler will be considered as having failed to stand this test when it is broken 
before it has received three blows at 5 feet and three blows at 10 feet, or when any 
cracks appear more than 1 inch long or open more than j S inch, or when the 
knuckle has opened more than J / 2 inch from its original position or so that the equal- 
izer bar will not stay in place when struck. 

3. Pulling test for complete couplers. 

Two couplers to be suported in the pulling machine by yoke forgings. to be 
locked together as in the running position, with their axes in the same straight line. 

Couplers to stand a steady pull of 120.000 pounds if fitted with steel knuckle 
and 85.000 pounds if fitted with wrought-iron knuckle. 

A coupler will be considered as having failed to stand this test when it is broken 
before it has been pulled the prescribed number of pounds, or when any cracks appear 
more than 1 inch long or open more than ^j inch, or when the knuckle is found to 
have opened more than Y± inch from its original position when pulled out against 
the lock, or when the couplers slip apart in the pulling machine. 

In case of the failure of any part of the complete coupler under tests 1. 2 and 
3. those parts which may not have failed may be submitted for a future test, provid- 
ing such parts shall not be condemned by the individual tests hereinafter specified. 



M. C. B. Couplers 105 



4. Guard arm test of drawbar. 

Drawbar to be held vertically in machine so that the edge of guard arm is in the 
line connecting the centers of the legs of the machine, and so that the shank rests 
solidly on the anvil. Blows to strike directly on the edge of the guard arm. 

For Malleable Iron Couplers. 

Three blows of 1,640 lbs. weight falling 3 feet. 
Two blows of 1,640 lbs. weight falling 5 feet. 

For Steel Couplers. 

Three blows of 1640 lbs. weight falling 3 feet. 

Four blows of 1640 lbs. weight falling 5 feet. 

A drawbar will be considered as having failed to stand this test when it is broken 
before it has received the prescribed number of blows, or when any cracks appear 
more than 1 inch long or open more than fa inch, or when the center line of shank 
is distorted more than 1 inch from its original position, or when the head is distorted 
sufficiently to allow the hammer to hit on the face of the bar, or the lugs of the bar 
to strike against the hammer. 

5. Separate knuckle test. 

Knuckle to be laid horizontally on one of its lugs, upon a solid anvil, and given 
the following blows upon the top of one lug : 

Knuckles pivoted 2 inches or less from center of pivot pin hole to face of 
knuckles to stand — 

Three blows of 1640 lbs. weight falling 3 feet. 

One blow of 1640 lbs. weight falling 4 feet. 

Knuckle pivoted 3 inches or less from center of pivot pin hole to face of knuckle 
to stand — 

Three blows of 1640 lbs. weight falling 3 feet. 

Two blows of 1640 lbs. weight falling 4 feet. 

Knuckles pivoted over 3 inches from center of pivot pin hole to face of knuckle 
to stand — 

Three blows of 1640 lbs. weight falling 3 feet. 

Three blows of 1640 lbs. weight falling 4 feet. 

A knuckle will be considered as having failed to stand this test when it is broken 
before receiving the proper number of blows, or when any cracks appear more than 1 
inch long or open more than fa inch. 

At the end of all the above tests, except No. 5, couplers will be tried for disable- 
ment. Knuckles must open and locking devices be operative after the coupler has 
received the specified test. 

Before testing, couplers must have a row of center-punch marks put upon the 
center line of top of shank, so distortion can be detected. 

Couplers will be chosen for test as follows : 

One complete coupler shall be taken at random by the inspector from each lot 
of too couplers offered for test. The pivot pin and locking parts may be returned to 
the manufacturer. The knuckle will be tested as in test No. 5 and the drawbar will 
be subjected to the guard-arm test as in No. 4. If the test part fails to stand the 
prescribed test, a second coupler will be taken from the same lot from which the first 
test part was taken, and if it stands the test and if at the same time the first part tested 
has attained an average of 75 per cent on the basis of 100 per cent as meeting the full' 
requirements, then the lot will be accepted ; but if the second part fails to stand the 
test, then the lot will be rejected. 

For each 1,000 couplers offered, or fraction order, five complete couplers shall be 
taken at random by the inspector. One shall be submitted to the striking test, No. 1 ; 
two to the jerk test, No. 2, and two to the pulling test, No. 3. If any coupler should 
fail to stand the prescribed test, another coupler or pair of couplers will be taken from 
the same lot from which the first test couplers were taken, and if it stands the test, and 
if at the same time the first tested has attained an average of 75 per cent on the basis 
of 100 per cent as meeting the full requirements, then the lot will be accepted ; but if 
the second coupler fails to stand the test, then the lot will be rejected. 

All drop tests shall be made on an M. C. B. standard drop testing machine. Bar 
to be held firmly in machine with all iron blocks and wedges sledged down tight. 

Couplers and knuckles will be tested and inspected preferably at the works 
where they are made. 

Manufacturers must furnish, free of cost, test couplers, testing apparatus, and 
assistance necessary to make satisfactory tests and inspection. 



106 Railway Master Mechanic 



Approved, 



Specification No Supt. M. P. 

, Sept. i. 1899. 

In addition to these matters pertaining strictly to its subject, the attention of the 
committee has been called to the fact that in some cases couplers with shanks of 
dimensions differing from the standards of the association are being made and intro- 
duced in service. As this change will affect the standards of the association and 
work possible hardship to other railroads in the way of interchange of cars, we call 
the attention of the association to this, with a view that the subject of increased 
dimensions of the shank be referred to a committee for further investigation, and 
report what changes, if any, should in their judgment be made in present standards 
of the association. 

It is also suggested that the back corners of the yoke in the pocket attachment 
be changed from 14. inch radius to 5^ inch radius. 

It is further suggested that the play of the shank of the coupler in the carry iron 
be not less than ^2 inch on each side. 

Another matter which has claimed considerable attention is a standing commit- 
tee on couplers. It is recommended that such a committee be appointed, whose 
duty it shall be to test couplers submitted to them. A standing committee on coupler 
tests has been suggested from time to time, somewhat after the manner of the Stand- 
ing Committee on Triple Valve Tests, and Brake Shoe Tests. There ought to be 
some way of certifying to the proper design and quality of so important an appliance 
as a coupler, and this committee would prove a very valuable addition to the others. 

In conclusion, the situation in regard to the multiplicity of couplers and parts is 
brought to the serious attention of the association. There should be some way of 
reducing the present uselessly extravagant manner in which repair parts for the 
seventy-seven different kinds of couplers with their ninety-three different knuckles 
have to be carried at the hundreds of interchange and repair points throughout the 
country. For this reason it is recommended that pivot pins should be of one uni- 
form length and of only two sizes. A pivot pin 13/2 inches in diameter is small 
enough for use in a coupler, and by making one length sufficient for the coupler, 
having the greatest distance over the lugs, it can easily be put into any coupler in 
which this distance is less. This multiplicity of repair parts should be done away 
with, and by a process of evolution, a few standard couplers should be retained, 
and these gradually introduced throughout the country as breakages make replace- 
ments necessary. 

The convention took action on these various recommendations as 
follows : The recommendations in sections A, B, and C were ordered 
sent to letter ballot for adoption as standard, the committee being 
requested to complete the length of the guard arms, as near as they 
can to the general average of the day, and to give, the radius of the 
curvature. 

Section D was ordered sent out to letter ballot for recommended 
practice. Section E was ordered sent out to letter ballot for standard. 
The recommendation in section F was formally indorsed. Section G 
was ordered sent out to letter ballot as standard. The gage for con- 
tour lines recommended in paragraph 2 was ordered sent out to letter 



Am Brake Appliances 107 

ballot as recommended practice. The full specifications presented by 
the committee were ordered sent out to letter ballot for recommended 
practice. The suggested subject of increasing the dimensions of the 
shanks was ordered referred to the standing committee on couplers, 
which was to be appointed later on. The suggestions as to the radius 
of the back corners of the yoke in the pocket attachment and as to the 
play of the shank in the couplers were ordered sent to letter ballot as 
standards, as was the recommendation that pivot pins should be of 
one uniform length and of only two sizes. Mr. Waitt then moved, 
following the suggestion made by the committee, that this association 
appoint a committee on coupler tests to consist of not less than five 
members to whom shall be committed from time to time the testing 
of couplers, the committee to certify to the association all couplers 
that have satisfactorily passed the requirements of the standards of 
the association and the recommended tests. Further, that this com- 
mittee be authorized to arrange for the construction of standard 
machinery for testing couplers, the same to be paid for by the associa- 
tion. This motion was carried. 

Mr. McCarty then presented the report of the committee on air 
brake appliances, the substance of which follows : 

AIR BRAKE APPLIANCES. 

[A. L. Humphrey, A. M. Parent, H. C. McCarty, Committee.] 

Your committee has endeavored to locate a line of consistency between two 
extreme ideas, one side appearing to favor the idea that the cylinders should be 
located entirely with a view of making it more convenient and less hazardous for 
the repair men : while the others think the location of the cylinders should be deter- 
mined entirely by the design of truck and body leverage used, so as to get as straight 
a pull on the rods as possible, regardless of the repairs necessary to be made from 
time to time. We therefore recommend : 

First. — The adoption for clear bottom cars of a location of the air cylinder and 
triple valve between the needle beams, with a clearance of not less than 12 inches 
between the needle beam and the end of the cylinder head, and located about 20 
inches from center of car to center of cylinder, longitudinally. This position renders 
it convenient for cleaning and repairing, and at the same time makes it possible 
to arrange a very convenient system of leverage. 

Second. — Cars not having clear bottoms, as hoppers and center-dump gondolas, 
should have the cylinders located on the side of the car, as near the inside of the 
side sills as the design of the car will permit. This will avoid the danger incident 
to the repairs of cylinders and triple valves located at the end of the hoppers. 

Third. — Your committee is of the opinion that a very large percentage of the 
repairs necessary to the air-brake apparatus is caused by the insecure application 
of same to the framework of the car, and the number of screw joints that it has 
been customary to apply in the past, thus permitting the different parts to become 
loose, causing the joints to loosen and rendering the brake inoperative. The com- 
mittee therefore recommends for standard design of piping for clear-bottom cars 
design as shown in Fig. 3, in which we have endeavored to do away, as far as practi- 



108 Railway Master Mechanic 

cable, with all screw joints, substituting pipes with bends of as great a radius as 
possible. [The piping shown is in general lines the same as the standard general 
arrangement shown on M. C. B. sheet 9, except that larger radius is given to bends 
and that the cylinder is placed 20 inches from longitudinal center line of car. — Ed.] 
Your committee has not deemed it advisable to recommend a standard design of 
piping for cars other than clear bottom, as it is absolutely necessary to be governed, 
in such design, entirely by local conditions and design of car. The location of the 
pipe hangers at the ends of cars when applied to the end sill is considered as con- 
tributing largely to the trouble experienced in loose pipes, and it is recommended 
that the hanger be attached to one of the longitudinal sills. 

Fourth. — It is recommended that the location of the main air pipe at the ends of 
cars be determined by a horizontal measurement [to be 13 inches] from the center 
line of the shank of the drawbar to the center line of pipe, and also a measurement 
[to be 13 inches] from the inside face of the M. C. B. knuckle to the center of the plug 
of angle cock. 

Fifth. — The committee has been especially impressed with the insecure manner 
in vogue of fastening the air cylinders, reservoirs, retaining valves, pipes, etc., to 
the framework, and would therefore recommend that the bolts fastening the cylinders 
and reservoirs be either double nutted or cottered, so as to prevent same from work- 
ing loose, and that the air pipes be securely fastened to the framework of the cars 
with a liberal number of clamps. The application and care of retaining valves has, 
in the opinion of your committee, been badly neglected. It would recommend that 
only one elbow be applied to the retaining valve pipe, that being located at the end 
sill of the car where pipe turns upward ; and that one union be applied as close 
to the triple valve as practicable, to permit easy removing of same; and that pipe be 
carried along the under side of the intermediate sill when practicable, from triple 
valve to end of car, and be supported by either staples or clamps, not to exceed six 
feet apart. 

Your committee calls attention to the common practice of marking air-brake 
hose now in vogue in a large number of the hose manufactories which gives the 
manufacturer's name, the railroad company's name, and the dates of application and 
removal, whereby the age and general service of the hose may be intelligently deter- 
mined, and recommends that such label be submitted to letter ballot for recommended 
practice. 

Your committee recommends the appointment of a committee for next year for 
conference with representatives of air brake manufacturers relative to a further 
recommendation for the adoption of their recommended practice, with such modifica- 
tions as may be considered advisable. 

The first six recommendations of this committee were ordered 
sent to lettter ballot as recommended practice. The seventh recom- 
mendation was adopted and the present committee was continued, 
with instructions to report in line with the suggestions in paragraph 7. 

It was here announced that there was no report from the com- 
mittee on ladders and running boards, and the committee was 
accordingly discharged and the subject dropped. 

The report of the committee on wheels and axles — specifications 
for wheels and axles for 60,000, 80,000, and 100,000-pound cars — was 
then taken up, being presented in summary by Mr. Nelson. The sub- 
stance of this report is as follows : 



Wheel and Axle Specifications 



109 



WHEELS AND AXLES: SPECIFICATIONS FOR WHEELS AND AXLES 
FOR 60,000, 80,000 AND 100,000 POUND CARS. 

[E. D. Nelson, Wm. Garstang, J. J. Hennessey, Committee.] 

Specifications for Cast Iron Wheels. 

A report was read at the Convention of 1897 on "Specifications for Cast-iron 
Wheels." This report brought forth some discussion, bat its recommendations were 
not submitted to letter ballot, and therefore not adopted by the association. Your 
committee has gone over the report of 1897, and has concluded that it cannot, do 
better that to present the same report with sortie minor changes. These changes 
are as follows : 

First. — To include only 33-inch wheels, because this diameter has become uni- 
versal for cars of 60,000, 8o,coo and 100,000 pounds capacity. 

Second. — For the drop test where the wheel is struck centrally on the hub, it is 
recommended that the wheel must stand 10 blows instead of 5, of a 140-pound weight 
falling 12 feet. 

Third. — For the drop test where the wheel is struck on the plate, close to the 
rim, your committee has added wheels of 625 pounds and 650 pounds. 

Fourth. — The form for the face of the weight used in the drop tests is specified. 
[Lower face of weight of 140 pounds to be 8 inches in diameter and crowned Vi inch ; 
lower face of weight of 100 pounds to be 6 inches in diameter and crowned to a 
radius of 3 inches. — Ed.] 

Fifth. — The thermal test is made compulsory with either the drop test on hub 
or drop test on plate. [For the original report see M. C. B. Proceedings for 
1897. — Ed.] 

Axles. 
At the convention of 1898 a voluntary report was made to the association recom- 
mending a design for an axle for cars of 100,000 pounds capacity. Your committee 
presents with this report a design for such an axle, it being the same as referred 
to in the report mentioned. 



-*# — 
! ! A* 



/o 



1 



7i *'i%¥- 



— d3" 



& «■—»-- 



<<S 



%~ 






T 



'0 
1 



1^ 



^3"-i-3H 



H#- 






_L!^p 



1~ 



W 



Cert? foCer? * ofjoc/rrra/s 
Tofa/ /errgrf/? oyer o// 



4'ok - 

S3\- 



6S 

74z 



Mom?a/ wtof£7x/e 7 88 /6s 
MTA/musK w/.oftfx/& 808 /is 



Axle for ioo,ooo-lb. Cars. 



Concerning specifications for axles, your committee has gone over those con- 
tained in the report of a Committee on Axle for Cars of 80,000 Pounds Capacity, 
made in 1896, and would submit the following revised specifications. 

Specifications for Steel Axles. 

[These specifications are practically the same as those given in 1896, except 
sections 7 and 8, which we append. — Ed.] 

7. It is desired that the axles, when tested under the drop test as specified above, 
shall stand the number of blows at the height specified in the following table without 
lupture and without exceeding as the result of the first blow the deflections given: 



110 



Railway Master Mechanic 



Axle. 


No. Blows. 


Height of Drop. 


Deflection. 


M. C. B. 4' 4 by 8 inch journals for 
60,000-pound cars 


5 

5 
7 


34 feet - 

43 " 
43 " 


7 inches. 
6 


M. C. B. 5 by 9 inch journals for 
80,000-pound cars 


M. C. B. 5^ by 10 inch journals for 
100,000-pound cars 


\Vz " 





8. Axles will be considered as having failed on physical test and will be rejected 
if they rupture or fracture in any way, or if the deflection resulting from the first blow 
exceeds the following: 

M. C. B. axle, 4% by 8-inch journals 8 inches. 

M. C. B. axle, 5 by 9-inch journals 7 inches 

M. C. B. axle, SV2 by 10-inch journals 5J/2 inches 

For iron axles the following specifications are recommended : 

Specifications for Iron Axles. 

[These are practically the same as those given in 1896 (see M. C. B. Proceed- 
ings for that year), except two clauses, giving the drop test specifications. The 
committee will supply these figures later. — Ed.] 

As the Master Car Builders' Association now has adopted, as standard, 3 axles, 
it is recommended for the purpose of identifying these more readily that they be 
designated by numbers, as follows : 

M. C. B. No. 1. — Axle with journals 2>Ya by 7 inches. 

M. C. B. No. 2. — Axle with journals 4% by 8 inches. 

M. C. B. No. 3. — Axle with journals 5 by 9 inches. 

M. C. B. No. 4. — Axle with journals 5J/2 by 10 inches. 

The proposed specifications for 33-inch cast iron wheels were 
ordered sent to letter ballot for recommended practice. A similar 
disposition was made of the axle for cars of 100,000 pounds capacity 
and of the specifications for steel axles and the specifications for iron 
axles. It was also voted to mark axles as suggested in the last para- 
graph of the committee's report. 

The report of the committee on uniformity of sections for car 
sills was then presented by Mr. Sanderson. The substance of this 
report follows : 



UNIFORMITY OF SECTION FOR CAR SILLS. 

[R. P. C. Sanderson, J. S. Lentz, N. Frey, Committee.] 
The two principal purposes which your committee aimed to accomplish were : 
First, to recommend such sizes of sills as would be suitable for general use in 

the design and construction of all new flat-bottomed cars having timber sills, trusting 

that, if adopted, the loyalty of the members would induce them to prefer these sizes 

to any others in all new work hereafter. 

Second, to choose such sizes that would be most generally suitable for the repairs 

of the great majority of the cars now in service. 

In preparing the circular of inquiry your committee did not think it advisable to 

consider any cars below 50,000 pounds capacity, less than 32 feet in length, or of 



Height of Couplers 111 



special construction. The railroads that have replied represent a total of* 853,014 
cars of 50,000 pounds capacity and over, out of a total of 1,252,219 cars. The 
information has been condensed in the tables which follow. [We omit the tables. — 
Ed.] As the result of the study of these tables your committee feels justified in 
recommending the following finished sizes for sections of longitudinal car sills : 

For box, stock, flat, long gondolas, refrigerators, etc., 32 feet and over in 
length, but under 40 feet : 

4 by 8 inches. 4 by 9 inches. 4 by 10 inches. 4^ by 12 inches. 
4M2 by 8 inches. 4H by 9 inches. 4V2 by 10 inches. 5 by 12 inches. 

5 by 8 inches. 5 by 9 inches. 5 by 10 inches. 5 by 14 inches. 

For cars 40 feet long and over, such as furniture and special long gondolas : 
4H by 8 inches. 4^2 by 9 inches. 6 by 9 inches. 6 by 12 inches. 

5 by 8 inches. 5 by 9 inches. 6 by 10 inches. 6 by 14 inches. 

5 by 10 inches. 

It is believed that the above recommendations afford a sufficient range of sizes 
to cover all requirements of design ; they are good merchantable sizes, and if 
adopted and used as suggested, we may expect that car repairs will be greatly expe- 
dited, as there will be less delay in getting special sizes of lumber, and we will be 
able to get our requisitions for regular sizes filled more promptly, as the lumbermen 
can saw in advance of orders with a reasonable certainty of selling their stock. 

To further expedite the general introduction of standard sizes for car sills to 
facilitate car repairs, and reduce stocks of lumber, your committee further recom- 
mends that the following paragraph be introduced into the Master Car Builders' 
Rules of Interchange, to follow Section 3 of Rule 4 : 

"When renewing long sills in foreign cars requiring odd sizes of lumber, the 
next larger suitable M. C. B. standard size of sill may be used and considered as 
proper repairs." 

After brief discussion the various sizes recommended by the com- 
mittee were ordered to be submitted to letter ballot for standards. 

The report of the committee on height of couplers was then pre- 
sented by Mr. McConnell, and is in substance as follows : 

HEIGHT OF COUPLERS. 

[S. Higgins, J. S. McConnell, C. M. Mendenhall, Committee.] 
The committee has decided not to confer with the American Railway Associa- 
tion and the Interstate Commerce Commission, to get the limits of height of couplers 
changed to 31 inches minimum, and 35 inches maximum. The investigation made 
by the committee has satisfied its members that any increase in the present limits 
is not advisable at this time. With knuckles divided in the center by the slot for 
coupling link, any increase in the limits for height of couplers will result, in many 
cases, of only one knuckle lug of each coupler being in contact. Any increase in the 
limits of height of couplers will tend toward a greater number of trains parting, due 
to one coupler passing over the other. For some time to come there will be a num- 
ber of link-and-pin couplers in service, and for this reason it is not advisable to make 
any recommendations toward closing the slot in the knuckle. The committee thinks 
that after January 1, 1900, will be time enough for the Master Car Builders' Associa- 
tion to take up the matter with a view of closing the slot in the knuckle, and at 
that time any increase in the limits for height of couplers should be considered. 
The committee desires to make acknowledgement at this time of the valuable 
assistance rendered by Mr. G. W. Rhodes in making the investigation. 

This report was received and the committee was discharged. 



112 



Railway Master Mechanic 



The convention then proceeded to the election of officers, which 
resulted as follows : President, C. A. Schroyer ; first vice-president, J. 
T. Chamberlain; second vice-president, J. J. Hennessey; third vice- 
president, \Y. J. Robertson ; treasurer, G. \Y. Demarest ; members of 
the executive committee to replace retiring members, S. P. Bush, A. 
E. Mitchell, William Garstang. (These officers subsequently elected 
Mr. Joseph \Y. Taylor as secretary.) 

The convention then adjourned. 



■ . 



> 



I 






w .. In --ti!> ----—.• : trails 




.ft* 



— — 



Entrance Palace of Transportation, Paris Exposition, 1900. 



RAILWAYS AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION. 

BY WILLARD A. SMITH. 
II. 

FIFTY-FOUR nations will be officially represented at Paris. 
These include practically all those which now present open or 
opening markets for American products. They go to Paris to 
exploit their own resources, to extend their markets, and to attract 
capital and population. Naturally they expect also to learn of others 
and to be greatly assisted in determining their future policy as to the 
purchase of machinery or materials. 

The audience — the prospective buyers — will be present. The 
next question is what facilities will there be for properly presenting 



Railways at the Paris Exposition 113 

our case and demonstrating our claim. It is generally known that 
the Commissioner-General of the United States has been very ener- 
getic and persistent in securing space, and has perhaps been more 
successful than the representative of any other government. Is the 
space now secured adequate in amount and in every way desirable? 

In the preliminary agitation of each Paris exposition, the sugges- 
tion of a new location "outside the walls" is made and urged on the 
grounds of the necessity of more space than can be obtained in the 
old central location, and the better effect obtainable from an artistic 
point of view. But the exposition is primarily a Parisian business 
enterprise — intended to fill the pockets of the innkeepers and traders 
of all kinds in this bazaar of the world. Paris comes first in all things, 
France next, and the rest of the world afterward. The old location 
is therefore chosen, with such additions as it permits without perma- 
nent damage to the city. Indeed the addition of some permanent 
work of public value is always sought for. In the present case the 
permanent works are the new Alexander bridge across the Seine, the 
art palaces on the Champs Ely see, improvements of the quays, and the 
new railway improvements. 

A glance at the diagram given on page 1 14 will give a fair idea of 
the general plan to any one who has been in Paris. The Esplanade 
des Invalides, the Champ de Mars, the Trocadero Palace and grounds 
are used as heretofore. Both banks of the Seine are, however, used 
this time; and the art buildings occupy the site of the old Palais 
d' r Industrie — an old-time exposition building which has for many 
years been occupied by the annual Salon. A broad avenue leads from 
the Champs Ely see and the Art Palaces to the Esplanade des Invalides, 
crossing the Seine by the new Pont Alexander III., probably the most 
ornate highway bridge in the world. The principal exposition build- 
ings face on courts of the two parade grounds — an arrangement which 
permits of great economy ot space and money, as the three sides front- 
ing on public streets are made very plain and inexpensive. 

The entire space, as shown in the map, is less than half of that 
used at Chicago in 1893. In spite of every possible effort to utilize 
it to the best advantage and to secure selection and condensation, the 
Exposition boiled over these limits. It became absolutely necessary 
to secure an annex, and to go to one of the parks for it. 

The "palace of civil engineering and transportation" is shown on 
the right of the Champ de Mars. The space allotted to this country 
is indicated in black. It amounts to 7,640 square feet on the ground 



114 



Railway Master Mechanic 




floor and 5,166 square feet in the gallery. Its utter inadequacy for 
any exhibit of such articles as cars and locomotives is evident. Allow- 
ing the customary percentage for aisles and passageways, the ground 
floor space would accommodate about one-half the locomotives for 
which applications are on file, to say nothing of cars and all the varied 



Railways at the Paris Exposition 115 

materials and appliances. At an early date it was announced that all 
railway exhibits on wheels would have to be provided for elsewhere, 
not only on account of lack of room, but also because no suitable 
method of installation could be arranged. This met with considerable 
opposition among the representatives of other nations, which was 
exaggerated by the rumor and belief that French exhibitors would 
be allowed to show machinery and appliances of this kind in the 
Champ de Mars building, while others were to be relegated to a 
remote annex. This was finally settled by the official announcement 
that all railway equipment and machinery of all countries must be 
shown in a building to be erected for the purpose at the park known 
as the Bois de Vincennes, seven miles from the main ground. Objec- 
tion was still made to this comparative isolation, but as the arrange- 
ments have gradually developed it has become apparent that it was 
the only thing which could be done, and that in fact it possessed many 
advantages. The Bois de Vincennes is a beautiful park, embracing 
an artificial lake, known as Lac Daunesnil. It has not been as acces- 
sible as a part of the Exposition ought to be, but this is being remedied 
in part by new railway lines. The favorite route is likely to be one 
which will carry the American flag. It consists of a fine line of 
steamers in the Seine, running from the main Exposition grounds 
and other landings in the city to Charenton, distant about one-half 
mile from the exhibition grounds in the park. The American Com- 
missioner-General endeavored to secure a franchise for an American 
street railway line, covering this distance, intending to operate it as 
an exhibition line, but carrying passengers — the earnings to be used 
for defraying the expenses. When this plan was presented, local com- 
panies at once perceived its advantages and bestirred themselves to 
secure the franchise for themselves. The Thomson-Houston Co. of 
Paris secured it, and will, of course, use only their own system of 
motive power. It will, however, be equipped with American-built 
cars and be essentially an American line. The trip to Vincennes will 
be short and very pleasant. In this beautiful park will be not only the 
railway building and exhibits, but an American machine tool shop in 
active operation, the automobile building with a track running around 
Lac Daunesnil, a general bicycle building, and the American bicycle 
building on a fine velodrome or exhibition track, the life-saving serv- 
ice exhibit of this and other countries, the exhibit of water craft on 
the lake, etc. It will thus be seen that the Bois de Vincennes will be 
about the "livest" part of the exposition. 



116 Railway Master Mechanic 

Final plans of the buildings and laying out of the grounds at the 
Bois de Vincennes have not yet been received from Paris, and this is 
the principal reason why allotments of space have not yet been made 
to American exhibitors. The space provided for the United States 
at Vincennes is as follows: Railroads, 21,400 square feet; automo- 
biles, 4,300 square feet ; bicycle building, 8,600 square feet; life-saving 
service, 2,691 square feet. 

The exhibits of this department in the main grounds will occupy 
the space named above in the Champ de Mars building, 1,862 feet 
in the Merchant Marine building, and (probably) 4,500 square feet 
in the Merchant Marine annex, both of which are indicated in black 
on the map. The Army and Navy exhibit (4,500 square feet), while 
under the director of this department, is properly a department by 
itself. A portion of the ground floor space in the "palace of civil 
engineering - and transportation" will be devoted to carriages and 
accessories. The remainder, together with the gallery, will be devoted 
to civil engineering and smaller railway materials. A collective engi- 
neering exhibit is planned which promises to be very large and repre- 
sentative, and will be participated in by many railway companies, as 
well as engineers and manufacturers. 



THE MASTER MECHANICS' CONVENTION. 

The American Railway Master Mechanics' Association met in its 
thirty-second annual convention at Old Point Comfort on June 20th, 
with a large attendance. President Quayle occupied the chair, and 
Secretary Cloud was at his desk. The sessions lasted through three 
days, and the work done was, in sequence, as follows : 

GENERAL OPENING BUSINESS. 

The opening prayer was offered by the Rev. Charles S. Walkley, 
post chaplain of the United States army, and this was followed by an 
address from the Hon. Joseph Bryan, president of the Richmond 
Locomotive and Machine Works, which address was pleasantly re- 
sponded to by Mr. W. S. Morris. President Quayle then read his 
address. 

The financial reports were then presented. They showed that the 
membership of the association was now 653, of which 609 are active 



A Research Laboratory 117 

members, 26 honorary, and 18 associate. The association was shown 
to have on hand the sum of $3,1 16, with all bills paid. 

The conference committee on joint meeting of the two associa- 
tions reported on lines identical with those made the week previous 
to the master car builders. The matter was referred to the executive 
committee with power to act. Mr. J. H. Leeds, an associate member, 
was elected an honorary member, and the following w T ere elected 
associate members: Prof. R. A. Smart, Strickland L. Kneass, and 
Clement F. Street. 

The National Association of Master Railroad Blacksmiths sub- 
mitted a communication asking for the encouragement and coopera- 
tion of the Master Mechanics' Association, and Mr. Barr made some 
remarks warmly commending the work of the blacksmiths' associa- 
tion. This matter, together with a request presented by Mr. Gohen 
that the Master Car Painters' Association be more fully recognized 
and encouraged, was referred to the executive committee with power 
to act. 

The noon hour topical discussions were taken up, but we are 
obliged to defer an account of those treated on the first and on the 
subsequent days until a later issue. 

The committee on a research laboratory under the control of the 
association presented a report through Mr. G. R. Henderson. The 
conclusions of this committee we append : 

A RESEARCH LABORATORY. 

[G. R. Henderson, W. F. M. Goss, John Player, Committee.] 

The committee presented a thorough argument on the proposition of a research 
laboratory, entering into the need of such a laboratory, the measure of the problem, 
plans, costs, etc., the report being supplemented by appendices going more into detail. 
The committee in conclusion recommended the passage of the following resolutions : 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this association there is need of more con- 
certed action in the development of such practical and scientific facts as are needed 
to direct practice in the design and maintenance of railway equipment ; and, 

Resolved, That the executive committee be and hereby is directed to care- 
fully consider the plan for a research laboratory under the direction of the associa- 
tion ; and is authorized to formulate a plan of organization ; to ascertain by what 
methods the necessary money can be assured ; and, so far as may be practicable and 
expedient, to proceed with the actual work of organization ; 

Resolved, That it is the desire of this body to have presented a report of prog- 
ress at the next annual convention of this association. 

The conclusions of this committee were discussed adversely at 
some length by various speakers, including Mr. R. P. C. Sanderson, 



118 Railway Master Mechanic 

Mr. F. A. Delano and Air. Angus Sinclair. Mr. Barr expressed him- 
self as believing- in a laboratory of this kind, but thought that we were 
not ready for it now. The discussion was closed by passing- the reso- 
lutions recommended by the committee. 

At the opening of the second day's session the convention was 
treated to an address from Captain "Bob" Evans of the United States 
navy, and it zi'as a treat. 

WATER IMPURITIES. 

The report on best methods of preventing trouble in boilers from 
water impurities was then taken up, being presented by Air. Man- 
chester. This was a very meritorious report, and in a later issue we 
shall give portions of it, together with the substance of the very ex- 
tended discussion which was accorded it. 

The report on the relative merits of cast iron and steel tired wheels 
for locomotive and passenger car equipment was then presented by 
Mr. Barr, and the concluding paragraphs of this report we append. 

RELATIVE MERITS OF CAST-IRON AND STEEL-TIRED WHEELS. 

[J. N. Barr, H. S. Hayward, A. M. Waitt, Committee.] 

The committee presented an elaborate report, comprising much data, which, 
however, was rather inconclusive. In closing, the committee said : 

First — It is not able to decide from the facts presented whether steel-tired wheels 
are safer than cast-iron wheels, except in case of engine trucks. 

Second — For engine trucks it would recommend steel-tired wheels from con- 
siderations of safety. 

Third — Cast-iron wheel service is cheaper than that obtained from steel-tired 
wheels. 

Fourth — It would recommend that at least the method detailed above be used 
for determining wheel mileage. 

Fifth — That a careful record of breakages be inaugurated and maintained. 

[The method referred to in the fourth paragraph is substantially as follows: 
Make record of all tenders running with thirty-three-inch cast-iron wheels; also of 
all wheels removed from these tenders during the year; obtain the mileage of these 
tenders for the same period and multiply by eight to obtain the total wheel mileage ; 
divide this sum by the number of wheels removed, and the result will approximate 
closely with the actual wheel mileage obtained. — Ed.] 

After some discussion this committee was continued, it being pro- 
vided that two additional members be appointed, to be selected from 
roads having heavy grades. The committee was particularly 
instructed to consider the different weights of wheels for the tenders, 
including the d : etribution of the metal in the hub and the plate and the 
tread. 



Stay Bolt Practice 119 



TON MILE BASIS FOR LOCOMOTIVE STATISTICS. 

After the passage of some very pleasant resolutions indicating the 
appreciation by the association of the excellent work done by the 
retiring secretary, the association took up the consideration of the 
report of the advantages of the ton mile basis for motive power statis- 
tics, Mr. Small presenting the report. Some extracts from this report 
will appear in a later issue. The report was but very slightly dis- 
cussed, but the committee was continued and suggestions were unof- 
ficially made that the committee should consider the question as to 
whether the weight of the engine should be included with the train, 
also whether the speed or time element should not be included in fig- 
uring tonnage. It was voted, upon motion of Mr. Quereau, that 
"it is the sense of this association that the ton mile basis for motive 
power statistics is the most practicable, and encourages economical 
methods of operating, and that it is desirable that the heads of motive 
power departments urge its adoption on their managements." 

THE USEFULNESS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. L. R. Pomeroy moved the adoption of the recommendation 
in the president's address that a committee be appointed to report at 
the next annual convention on the subject of "What can the Master 
Mechanics' Association do to increase its usefulness," which motion 
was carried. 

Prof. H. Wade Hibbard offered a resolution, which was carried, 
to the effect that a standing committee of two members be appointed 
by the president to report at each annual convention upon the extent 
to which the recommendations of this association have been put in 
practice. The duty of this committee being further, in gathering 
information, to impress upon the members of the association the value 
of the findings of the association in its committee reports and dis- 
cussions. 

MAKING AND APPLYING STAY BOLTS. 

The convention then took up the report upon the best method 
of applying staybolts to locomotive boilers, including making the 
bolts and preparing the staybolt holes, Mr. T. A. Lawes presenting 
the report. This report comprised a considerable amount of very 
valuable practical information, which we hope to present in a future 
issue. The committee gave to its report an added value by closing 
it with definite recommendations as to what it considered the best 
practice in the making and applying of staybolts. The report was 
accorded a quite considerable discussion, and this topic proved itself, 



120 Railway Master Mechanic 

through the report and its treatment on the floor of the convention, 
to be one of the livest topics before the years' conventions. 
NICKEL STEEL FOR LOCOMOTIVES. 

The next subject was the "use of nickel steel in locomotive con- 
struction ; its advantages and the proper proportion of nickel." Mr. 
Lyon's admirable report upon this subject was read by title, in his 
absence. It was evident that the members were unprepared or un- 
willing to discuss this report, and after a brief talk on the subject 
by Mr. H. F. J. Porter, discussion was indefinitely postponed. We 
shall give the substance of this report in a later issue. 

The question "Is it desirable to have flanged tires on all the drivers 
of moguls, ten-wheeled and consolidation engines; if so, with what 
clearances should they be set?" was then taken up. The substance 
of the conclusions of the committee report on this subject is as fol- 
low- : 

FLANGED TIRES. 

[S. Higgins, W. Garstang, W. H. Thomas, Committee.] 
The committee's report included an account of tests made with a consolidation 
engine on a 14 and 15 degree curve, with first and fourth, first, third and fourth, 
and all four pairs of wheels flanged. Dynamometer readings showed the power 
required to pull the engine through the curve with the different arrangements of 
lires to be practically the same. The committee closed as follows : 

The members of the committee are not prepared at this time to make any recom- 
mendation as to the desirability of using flanged tires on all driving wheels of mogul, 
ten-wheel and consolidation engines, but suggests the advisability of the investigation 
being continued, so that a final report can be made to the convention to be held in 1900. 
The committee would recommend the use of a self-registering dynamometer, 
and that tests should be made on straight track, as well as on a curve, an attachment 
to be used so as to indicate the lateral motion of the engine on straight track, at max- 
imum speed, with the different tire arrangements. 

This report was given considerable discussion, varying views being- 
advanced by several members. Upon motion of Mr. Quereau the com- 
mittee was continued for another year, and, in the light of a sugges- 
tion made that it was the practice in some quarters to set in the middle 
tires closer than the front and back tires, Mr. Quereau moved that 
the committee get the views of the operating department as to the 
possible effect of this in creating trouble in crossing switches. The 
motion was carried. 

THE BEST FORM OF FIRE BOXES. 

The next report on the list was "the best form of fire box to pre- 
vent cracking; is it advisable to use one piece for crown and side 
sheets?" A communication was read from Mr. Monkhouse, the chair- 
man of this committee, stating that he had been unable to prepare 
a report. 



Car Foremen's Association 121 

STANDARD PIPE FITTINGS. 

The report of the committee on standard pipe fittings was then 
presented by Mr. Quereau. The question as to square head bolts and 
nuts was also assigned to this committee, but that portion of the sub- 
ject had been left to a similar committee of the Master Car Builders' 
Association, and the present committee confined itself entirely to a 
consideration of standards for pipe fitting. The committee gave a 
brief history of the present standard known as the Briggs, and stated 
that it found that there was a general understanding that the Briggs 
standard of threads and dimensions is the general standard. It there- 
fore recommended the adoption of the Briggs standard as determined 
by the Pratt & Whitney Co. gages as the standard threads for 
wrought iron pipe and couplings. The committee was not, however, 
prepared to make any recommendation concerning standard threads 
for wrought iron pipe unions. The report of the committee was 
adopted by the association, which further voted that the committee 
be requested to furnish the names of the manufacturers of pipe fittings 
and pipe tools who do adhere, and also those who do not adhere, to 
the Briggs standard. It was also voted that the report of the Master 
Car Builders' committee on square bolt heads and nuts be printed 
together with the present report, and that the secretary of the Master 
Mechanics' Association send a circular letter to the heads of motive 
power departments, notifying them of the action of this convention. 

The election of officers resulted as follows : President, J. H. Mc- 
Connell; first vice-president, W. S. Morris; second vice-president, 
A. M. Waitt ; third vice-president, J. N. Barr ; treasurer, George W. 
West. (These officers met later and elected as secretary Mr. Joseph 
W. Taylor.) 

The convention then adjourned. 



THE CAR FOREMEN'S ASSOCIATION OF 

CHICAGO. 

JUNE MEETING. 

The regular meeting of the Car Foremen's Association of Chicago was held in 
the rooms of the Western Society of Engineers, 1741 Monadnock Building, Chicago, 
June 8. 

President Morris called the meeting to order at 8 p. m. Among those present 

were: 

Anderson, Geo. Ashcroft, Norman. Bundy, C. L. Bates, G. M. 

Appleton, I. B. Alderson, A. S. Blohm, Theo. Blackburn, D. W. 



122 



Railway Master Mechanic 



Constant. E. J. 
Cather. C. C. 
Cardwell. J. R. 
Callahan. J. P. 
Cook, W. C. 
Deen, C. 
Depue. Jas. 
Earle, Ralph. 
Etten, L. 
Fritz, Chas. 
Gehrke. Wm. 
Grieb, J. C. 
Green, C. E. 
Guthenberg, B. 
Godfrey. J. 



Gruhlke, E. 
Gardner. L. S. 
Hunt, T. B. 
Hultman. Chas. 
Holtz. Chris. 
Helwig. H. 
Hansen. A. P. 
Jones. R. R. 
Johannes, A. 
Jones, A. A. 
Kehm, H. C. 
Kroff, F. C. 
Keebler, C. F. 
Kershaw. J. A. 
Krump, M. 



Kramer, Wm. 
Kamen. Fred. 
Metz, C. 
Mercatoris, M. 

Mattes, J. 
Morris, T. R. 
McAlpine, A. R. 
Nelson, Fred. 
Nordquist, Chas. 
Olsen, Louis. 
Rieckhoff, Chas. 
Reinhard, F. B. 
Smith, E. B. 
Saum, Geo. N. 
Stuckie, E. J. 



Smohada, Jas. 
Smith, R. G. 
Spohnholtz. J. C. 
Stagg, C. S. 
Swift, C. E. 
Showers, G. W. 
Schultz. Aug. 
Saum, Chas. 
Schutt, W. F. 
Sharp, W. E. 
Van Vleit, John. 
Wensley, W. H. 
Weschler, Henry. 
Wentsel, Geo. 
Williams, Thos. 



The reading of the minutes of the previous meeting was dispensed with, they 
having been published in the June issue of the Railway Master Mechanic. The 
secretary read the following names of new members, which had been approved by 
the executive committee: 

Chas. Bossert, C. T. T. R. R. Co.; R. G. Stripp, I. B. Appleton, and C. C. 
Cather, Illinois Central; A. R. McAlpine, Burton Stock Car Co.; C. Metz, Swift 
Refrig. Line; E. C. Dodge, Armour Car Lines; Chas. Hultman, C, M. & St. P. Ry. ; 
J. R. Cardwell, American Cotton Oil Tank Line; J. L. Woods, Steel Tired Wheel 
£o., Chicago. 

President Morris referred to the fact that the question box had been neglected, 
and urged members to proffer more assistance to the officers in suggesting topics 
for discussion. 

BROKEN CHECK VALVE CASES. 

President Morris : We will now take up the regular program. The first is a 
discussion of case No. i in regard to a broken check valve case : 

"A" receives one of his cars from "B" with broken check valve case and requests 
defect card covering. "B" declines to furnish card on the ground that he had 
received the car from "C" with these defects and that "C" refused to card, claim- 
ing that the defect was caused by fair usage and was chargeable to the owners. 
Can a check valve case be broken by fair usage? Is the owner, in this case, 
entitled to defect card? Check case submitted for inspection. 

Mr. Stagg : We have had several check valve cases similar to the one lying on 
the table. We have never made any requests for a card ; we have simply made repairs 
and said nothing about it. It has never come to my notice that anybody demanded 
card for a check valve case. In my opinion a check valve case could not be broken 
by fair usage. 

Mr. Hunt : I have looked at the check valve on the table. It is my opinion that 
it indicates unfair usage. The metal seems to be good, and the check valve is located 
at a point on car where it would not be broken in fair usage. Switching would not 
affect it scarcely any ; and really I do not know how it would get broken in fair 
usage, in fact, I do not think there are many of them broken. I do not know but that 
is about the first one that I have seen broken as that one is while in service. 
They might be found in the scrap pile, sent there for some other defect and broken 
afterward. 

President Morris : How about the owner being entitled to a defect card, Mr. 
Hunt? 

Mr. Hunt : Well, I think he would be, if it was offered to him in that condition. 

Mr. Bundy : I do not believe that a check valve case could be broken in fair 
u-age. In all my railroad experience I have never seen one that I considered was 
broken in fair usage. 



Broken Check Valve Cases 123 

Mr. Kramer : I think the delivering road is responsible for it and should furnish 
an M. C. B. card. 

Mr. Kershaw : This certainly is the first case which has come to my notice 
where a check valve was broken in that way, and without any marks, and claimed to 
be so broken by fair usage. If this case came to my notice and I did not know how 
the damage was done, I would think that the coupling had stuck and that an effort had 
been made to loosen up the nut, and that thus the nipple of the check valve was broken 
off. If the damage was done by fair usage the pipe connected to it would naturally 
not be unscrewed. The pipe being clamped up very rigid on the car, the jar and 
strain on the thread might possibly break it off. It is impossible for any one to 
determine the rights of this case by simply looking at the check valve as it is, with- 
out seeing the connecting parts on the car. 

Jar. Kehm : I never before saw a case broken in this manner. 

Mr. Stuckie : I have seen several cases similar to this, though some were broken 
closer to the thread. The cause that I assigned was that the cylinder being rigid 
and the train pipe loose, and the elbow being rusted and in such condition that it 
would not give anywhere only at that point, that the strain all came on the emer- 
gency valve and something had to give, and the train pipe being out, perhaps eight 
inches on one end. shoved through, the cylinder being rigid. I have had several cases 
like this come in on our own cars as well as on foreign cars. It happens very fre- 
quently on our own, and it is caused by the train pipe being loose and the cylinder 
being rigid. That is my experience with check valves. We never request any cards, 
and we have received them coming home with check valve cases broken. 

Mr. Gehrke : Is there anything in the correspondence concerning this case to 
show that the pipes were loose, or were not fastened properly? 

President Morris : There is nothing here to show that. 

Mr. Gehrke : It appears to me that if the pipes are fastened up properly the 
check valve case should not break under fair usage. I think it should stand the 
strain if the casting is perfect. 

President Morris : The supposition is that there was nothing of that nature 
(noticed, or else it would have been brought forward as an argument. Everything 
was supposed to be in good order. 

Mr. Showers : Some of the theories that have been advanced this evening do 
not seem to meet with my ideas. The check valve, as it stands there, is a circular cast- 
ing of about three-eighths inch iron, which would make it stronger than it would in a 
sheet. The length is only about one inch to one and one-fourth; and it does not 
seem possible to me that the train pipe by being loose, would break off one and 
one-fourth inches of circular cast iron in preference to working loose the thread on 
the branch pipe. For that reason I am of the opinion that the check valve was 
struck with something. The check valve may have come from a car that has a 
cylinder placed in a peculiar position. We have some dump cars, with the cylinders 
placed out near the side sills, where the check valve may be struck by stake slipping 
off and striking it. We have put ourselves on record as saying that staking a car 
is legitimate and right, and if the check case was broken by staking car, it would be 
considered fair usage. But if the cylinder was placed in the center of the car, I 
would be in favor of calling this a case of unfair usage and of ruling that the receiving 
road be entitled to a defect card. 

Mr. Sharp : This check valve case shows very clearly that it was a good piece of 
cast iron ; and on account of the location of the check valve I am of the opinion that 
this is a case of unfair usage and that the owner, in this case, would be entitled to a 
defect card. 

President Morris : It seems to me there is one point here that has not been 



124 Railway Master Mechanic 



covered, and that is in connection with section 20 of rule 3, in regard to delivering line 
being responsible for defective brakes. Do you think that has any bearing on the 
question? 

Mr. Sharp: Section 20 of rule 3 states specifically, "missing or worn-out parts 
of brakes caused by fair usage, except on cars offered in interchange." If the valve 
case was broken by fair usage — if it could be shown that it was so broken — the 
delivering company would have authority to render bill against owner for such 
repairs, but he has no authority to deliver the car in interchange with this defect. 

Mr. Stuckie : Are there any marks about the valve to indicate unfair usage? 

President Morris : I believe not. 

Mr. Stuckie: I do not see where there is any proof to show that this is a case 
of unfair usage. 

President Morris : Section 20 of rule 3 says, "defective, missing or worn-out 
parts of brakes caused by fair usage, except on cars offered in interchange." It 
would naturally be taken for granted that if this occurred in unfair usage the deliver- 
ing line would be responsible, and even if it occurred under fair usage the delivering 
line would be responsible on cars offered in interchange. I would like to hear from 
some of the members as to whether they consider that has any bearing or not. 

Mr. Hunt : I think that section 20 of rule 3 would govern in this case, and in 
that event the delivering company would be responsible, as it cannot deliver cars 
with defective brakes and consider the defects owner's defects. But there seems 
to be some difference of opinion here, and I would like to ask how a check valve case 
could be broken in fair usage? 

Mr. Stagg : I am of the same opinion as Mr. Hunt. I would like to have some 
member express an opinion how this case was broken in fair usage. If the car was 
derailed, certainly there would be some other defects on car. I think Mr. Stuckie 
gave a very good view of how it could be broken in fair usage. 

Mr. Showers : I have seen a number of cases, where not only check valve cases, 
but cylinder and reservoirs, have been broken ; but whether they were broken in fair 
usage or not is a matter to be answered. They have been broken by couplers pulling 
out ; by rocks sliding under cars and striking the check valve ; in fact they have been 
broken time after time by train pipe tearing out and brake rigging falling down. 
There are many ways, whether those ways be fair or unfair. But there are two ques- 
tions asked. First, "Can a check valve case be broken by fair usage," and second, 
"Is the owner entitled to defect card?" I think the first question should be answered 
first and then the second one taken up. 

Mr. Depue : In this case I think the delivering road is certainly responsible for 
the check valve broken. I do not see how a check valve could be broken by fair usage. 

Air. Jones: There is more than one way in which a check valve case could be 
broken. If you go through the yard when they are testing the brakes you will find 
that when a valve sticks the inspector comes along and strikes the valve, and, 
as is generally the case, breaks it off. I have had two such cases in the last six 
months. 

A Member : If an inspector, in order to start the valve, hits it so hard as to 
break it, that is clearly unfair usage. 

Mr. Kehm : I move that it is the sense of the meeting that a check valve case 
cannot be broken in fair usage, and that the owner is entitled to a defect card from 
the delivering line. 

This motion was carried by a rising vote of 46 to 9. 



Missing Repair or Defect Cards 125 



RESPONSIBILITY FOR BURST AIR HOSE. 

President Morris : We will now take up case No. 2, which also relates to air 

brakes : 

"A" loads one of his own new cars on its initial trip, equipped with two new 1*4 
inch air brake hose and delivers it to "B." "B" hauls and delivers the car to its 
destination, and thirteen days later delivers the car back to "A," at the original 
receiving point, equipped with one of the original and one worn out and burst 
hose, and declines to make good the defective hose on the ground that the owners 
are responsible for burst hose. He offers a joint evidence card which "A" refuses 
to accept, as he has traced the car to its destination and return and the railway 
companies hauling the car claim to have made no repairs. Should "A" be 
entitled to card for hose? If not, why? Air hose submitted for inspection. 
[Discussion on this we are obliged to defer until our next issue. It was finally 

voted that under section 20 of rule 3 the delivering line is responsible, and that 

"A" is entitled to card for burst hose.] 

MISSING REPAIR OR DEFECT CARDS. 

President Morris : We have another question here before us, that is a new 
departure in the way of M. C. B. rules, or rather a recommendation that is entirely 
new, and the intention is to have it brought before the Master Car Builders' Associa- 
tion for adoption, if it is approved by the association here. You all know the trouble 
that has been experienced in locating wrong repairs. We have a letter from Mr. 
Pulaski Leeds, of the Louisville & Nashville, on this trouble, in which he urges, in 
substance, that a card shall be demanded for any car that has had any kind of 
repairs made upon it, unless it is already covered by a repair or defect card. The 
executive committee has considered this matter and has prepared the following 
paragraph designed to cover it, together with a certificate of missing repair or defect 
card intended to assist in locating these wrong repairs : 

"Any company receiving a foreign car from its connection with repairs which 
appear to be wrong or improperly made, and without a card having been attached, 
as provided for, shall attach to the car, in the same manner as M. C. B. repair cards 
and defect cards are attached, an Inspector's Certificate for missing repair cards or 
defect cards, which shall be 3 l Ax.S inches in size. The filling out and attaching of 
this card or certificate shall exempt the company receiving the car from responsibility 
to the owners in all cases of wrong or improper repairs." 

A. B. & C. D. RY. 
Inspector's Certificate of Missing Repair or Defect Card. 

Station. Date, i8g 

Car No was received at this Station from the 

Railroad with apparent wrong or improper repairs 

made without card attached covering the same. 

Description of Repairs 



Inspector for A. B. & C. D. Ry. 

Mr. Sharp : I have been interested in reading what other people thought about Mr. 
Leed's letter, especially joint inspectors and men located outside of Chicago. I want 
first to read some of their remarks : Mr. B. W. Burke, Foreman Mechanical Dept, C. 
N. O. & T. Ry. — "I do think there should be some stringent measure taken in this 
matter to make or compel every one making repairs of any kind to apply a repair card. 
If the rejection of cars at interchange points were put into practice on account of not 
having repair cards attached to them, it would be but a very short time until the 



126 Railway Master Mechanic 

repair cards would all be applied at the time repairs were made." Mr. F. G. Swept- 
son, Foreman B. & O. S. W. Ry.. at Cincinnati. — "What is needed is something to 
force the parties making repairs to apply cards according to the rules now in force." 
Mr. James Clare, of the C. H. & D. Ry., at Cincinnati. — ''I have always been of the 
opinion that something should be done to force the use of repair cards and defect 
cards when necessary for repairs made." Mr. Dietz, of Cincinnati. — "My opinion is 
that something must be done to force the railroad companies to use repair and defect 
cards as provided in the M. C. B. rules." Mr. W. H. Cressey, Foreman J. C. I. 
Association, South Omaha. — "If some means were taken to enforce section 14 of 
rule 4 of the code of 1898, it would be a step in the right direction." Mr. Charles T. 
Stark, Chief Joint Inspector, B. & O., P. & W. and P. J. Ry., Willow Grove.— 'I 
would highly approve of it, as it would not only relieve the company delivering car 
but would enable the owner to locate the road making the wrong repairs." 

I also have letters from several others, namely, Mr. J. F. Courson, general fore- 
man, Wall shops, Penna. R. R. ; Mr. J. A. Holmes, foreman car inspectors, Penna. 
R. R., and Mr. O. D. Krause, foreman car inspectors, Allegheny Valley R. R. ; all 
express themselves as being highly in favor of the movement. 

In talking to some of the members of the club about Mr. Leeds' letter there were 
some objections raised, apparently pretty good objections. The first one is that the 
car inspector of to-day has too much clerical work. We quite agree with this, 
because the car inspector does have considerable clerical work, but on the other hand 
there are objections to releasing the inspector of this clerical work and putting it on 
the office. It has been my experience that tracing for wrong repairs is very unsatis- 
factory. We will take, for an illustration, a practical case and see what we get out 
of it. Suppose, for instance, the St. Paul (we will not suppose that Mr. Morris or 
Mr. Grieb made the wrong repairs) get an N. P. car and they make repairs that are 
not standard and they deliver it to the P. F. W. & C. and the car goes east, and on 
its return trip it will go over the Northwestern road to its owner. Now, that 
car has wrong repairs and no objections have been made. When the owner receives 
his car he gets a joint evidence card from the party delivering the car to him. It is 
necessary then for him to ask the Northwestern to make a tracer to prove that they 
have not made these wrong repairs. They start out a round robin letter and it winds 
up that they did not make the wrong repairs. Then it is referred back to the owner 
and from him to the road that hauled the car into Chicago, who makes a similar trac- 
ing with same results, and finally and lastly it comes back to the St. Paul railway, 
which made these wrong repairs. By the time it gets back to the St. Paul 
railway the tracer has grown to such size that it will take an inspector an hour to 
read it over, which he must do, as he. doesn't want to write a letter unless he knows 
what he is writing about. These tracers, in my mind, are more expensive than the 
use of a certificate card similar to this, that submitted here, which, it occurs to me, 
would eliminate all this trouble. When the car arrives here in Chicago, east bound 
on the St. Paul road, and is delivered to the Fort Wayne, the Fort Wayne inspector 
places this certificate of missing card and apparent wrong repairs on the car, and 
when the car gets home the owner takes it up with the St. Paul road direct, and 
the intermediate roads that are innocent know nothing of it and are put to no 
unnecessary expense in tracing for wrong repairs. 

As Air. Leeds states, the rules cover it. The M. C. B. Association has made a 
rule that, if it were carried into effect, would render unnecessary such recommenda- 
tions as this. In the first place, it is said, in rule 1, that "each railway company shall 
give to foreign cars while on its line the same care as to oiling, packing, and inspec- 
tion, that it gives its own." Now, if the road does that, it applies repair cards when 
repairs are made, as is provided for in rule 4, section 14. 



Missing Repair or Defect Cards 127 



Mr. Showers: I agree with Mr. Sharp in some respects; yet it seems to me, 
as he stated, that the inspector has almost too much clerical work. But as to whether 
the expense of applying it be placed on the office or on the inspector, is a matter 
that I am unable to answer. Yet I am of the opinion that we have such a class of 
freight going over a great many lines that should the inspector take time to give the 
cars a rigid inspection and to apply the cards that have been recommended here or 
reject the car, it would cause an expense that would overcome the clerical work of 
perhaps three times as much. I agree that something should be done to compel the 
railways, and in fact, all people making repairs, to apply the repair cards when they 
make repairs, but as to what it should be I am unable to say. 

Mr. Stagg: The question in my mind is whether this card would be used to 
any greater extent than the card we are using at present. The rules say if the St. 
Paul made wrong repairs on that car they certainly should have put on a repair card. 
Now, the question is, when the St. Paul turns the car over to the Ft. Wayne, how 
is the Ft. Wayne to know whether these repairs are wrong or not and whether to 
demand card? It seems to me that this proposed plan will only put more clerical 
work on the inspector, and the inspector is not hired to do that kind of work. All 
we want is to live up to the rules, as printed, in carding cars and put cards on as 
we are required to put them on. 

Mr. Cardwell : I disagree with the gentleman to a certain degree. As I under- 
stand this case, if this card was not applied to the car, the Northwestern road would 
be responsible for the wrong repairs when the Northwestern made delivery; 
because it should have protected itself from the road that delivered car by one 
of the cards like this. I do not think that this will give the inspectors any more 
clerical work — indeed, I think it will take more clerical work off of their hands. 

Mr. Stuckie : What is the M. C. B. card for? If the roads put them on you 
won't need the other. I think the inspectors have enough grief now without tacking 
any more onto them. 

Mr. Wensley : W T e have from three to five trains in the yard at once to inspect 
and we have from fifteen to twenty-five minutes to go over a train. If we hold 
them longer we are censured for it. I think the inspector has about all he can 
look after without looking out for wrong repairs. 

Mr. Grieb : It seems to me that Mr. Stuckie has hit the nail on the head 
and driven it home. I believe that the rules as they stand now are all right. The 
only trouble is that people do not live up to them. That is the cause for what 
little trouble we now have. It also seems to me that possibly under the existing rules 
there are too many cards required ; that is, at least more than some people are 
willing to put on. In our experience there is but. one railroad that sends in the 
stub of cards in case they are unable to put them on cars, and I am not quite willing 
to believe that it is the only road that is so unfortunate in not having time to put 
them on. Again it seems to me that the proposition now under discussion is 
unfeasible for this reason : During the month of May we had upward of 4,400 stubs 
pass through our office to check against bills. I do not believe we had cards for 50 
per cent of them. Now, then, if this rule were put into effect, somebody would be 
liable for 2,200 cards of this description to be put on our cars, and I think it would 
require an increase in force at some inspection points to live up to the require- 
ments of this rule if it were put into practice. Our friend, Mr. Sharp, has cited 
various opinions in support of the idea he favors, but it seems to me the best opinion 
is expressed by the Southern and Southwestern Club, to which this recommenda- 
tion was made. This club very properly and promptly sat down upon it. I think 
that is what it deserves. Aside from it being impracticable, the present rules fully 
cover any loop-hole that this new card would cover. It is not the fault of the 



128 Railway Master Mechanic 

rules that they are no: complied with, ii is the fault of the individuals, and in 
attempting to correct that fault, the matter ought to be taken up with the individuals 
instead of with the rules. 

Mr. Sharp: I would like to ask Mr. Grieb what method he has of checking his 
bills. He says there were 4,400 bills passed through his office for which there were 
repair cards for only half. How does he check the bills and pass them? 

Mr. Grieb: Apparently I have not made myself clear enough. We passed 
4,400 repair card stubs on which we had received bills. We make it a point not to 
pass a bill under any circumstances unless we have the stub. 

Mr. Sharp : That is strictly in accordance with the rules ; but you made the 
statement that it would have been necessary to issue 2,200 of these new cards. 

Mr. Grieb: We received but one-half of the cards for which we paid bills. 
Possibly they were lost off the cars and possibly they were not put on. We will 
leave that to individual imagination. 

Mr. Sharp : Mr. Grieb stated that the rules cover that. I think that I admitted 
that point in opening this subject. So do the laws of the city of Chicago cover 
certain things, yet it is necessary to enforce those laws, and so we find it with the 
M. C. B. rules. The M. C. B. rules are quite clear and if strictly lived up to this 
would be unnecessary; but they are not lived up to. Mr. Showers states that the 
inspectors w r ould have no opportunity to apply the cards ; and Mr. Stagg says that 
they would simply be burdened with another card and that they are not using the 
cards they have. That is just what this card is for — to make them use the repair 
card. Frequently the repairman at a middle station makes wrong repairs and lets 
the car go forward as in good condition, and very rarely reports it to his superior 
officer, and he knows very well that the repairs were wrong. If this card or a similar 
one were used, when the car leaves his division, the inspector there would put on 
one of these cards, and when the superintendent of motive power would get hold of 
the tracer he would know right where the repairs were made, and this would tend 
to bring about the desired effect. 

Air. Stagg: I said before that I 1 nought it would be a burden to inspectors and 
I still say so. Take our inspector at Elsdon. That man frequently has to send 
word that he was able to inspect the train, only on one side. The engine stands 
ready to pull out. and he has to go over the train as rapidly as possible. How 
would that man put on one of those cards when he can inspect only one side of the 
train? And the men in the Illinois Central yard have scarcely time to inspect a train 
with two men to a car. It seems to me that if the rules were lived up to and the 
rqpair cards put on the cars when repairs are made, that this business would be 
covered. 

Mr. Stuckie : Would you have any more assurance that this card would be put 
on more frequently than the M. C. B. defect card now is? You can make laws from 
now until doomsday and if they are not lived up to what good are they? You have 
got good laws if you would only live up to them. 

Mr. Grieb : We find that 60 per cent or 70 per cent of the repairs made are 
for wrong journal bearings, and to draft gear. This new card presupposes that the 
inspector has full knowledge of what is standard to everybody's car, otherwise he 
could not comply with this rule ; and further, even if he attempted to leisurely inspect 
a car to find out what repairs had been made in order to write out this card, I am 
satisfied — and I believe anybody in the room here to-night will substantiate my 
position — that he has insufficient knowledge of what constitutes proper repairs to 
everybody's car, and that the limited amount of time at. his disposal is entirely 
insufficient to comply with the requirements of this card. Then again, taking the 
experience of the St. Paul road, when we monthly make request on foreign roads for 



Missing Repair or Defect Cards 129 

at least forty-five joint evidence cards and get only about three ourselves, there 
is something wrong in the matter of living up to this rule. When it comes to a 
question of wrong repairs and it is referred back to our road, it is too late to say we 
did not make the wrong repairs. We have the evidence of two unbiased witnesses 
and their evidence is final. The following out of that principle has brought such 
elegant results that it is well worth while to imitate it. 

Mr. Sharp : Some of the members seem to have the idea that failure to apply 
this certificate makes the delivering line responsible. I do not understand it so. 
If you fail to apply the certificate, it is simply a question of tracing the matter over 
all the different roads that the car has traversed, the same as we do to-day. 

Mr. Kehm : I think that the position assumed by Mr. Grieb is the right one. 
I do not think we need anything in addition to what we have at the present time to 
give the desired results. All roads make improper repairs ; I know we do, a great 
many of them. We furnish our defect card when we are called on. But I do 
not believe the delivering road should be held responsible for improper repairs made 
by everybody, simply because they are the delivering road. We locate the party 
who made the improper repairs on our cars very readily, and in the past year I do 
not think we have had over six or eight cases in which we have been unable to 
locate the party and secure protection. With that small number I certainly should 
not favor any other manner of handling these matters than that at present in vogue. 

Mr. Showers : We have on our line cars a number of wrong repairs made, as 
well as other people, but in the past year, I am ready to say, we have had but four 
cases of wrong repairs that we have been unable to locate. I had a case two months 
ago that I thought I would be unable to locate, but with the assistance of the roads 
centering in Chicago I located the wrong repairs at Boston, Mass., and received a 
defect card yesterday for them. Under the present method of tracing wrong repairs 
the matter can be overcome without putting additional work on inspectors. I move 
that this association go on record as being of the opinion that the present rules 
are amply able to protect car owner in wrong repairs. 

Mr. Sharp : The motion hardly covers, it seems to me, the question as it 
was sent out. The motion should be whether we adopt such a card as that proposed 
or not. I would like to see the association specific in this matter — showing whether 
we approve of Mr. Leeds' recommendation or reject it. 

Mr. Kroff : As I understand this card, it is simply a tracer. No road is 
responsible except the one that makes the wrong repairs. We will say that we 
receive a car from the Milwaukee and we discover wrong repairs — say a U. R. T. 
car or any other private line or railway company's car. We would simply stick on 
one of these cards specifying what wrong repairs were on car. Now, then, if 
we run the car to New York and back again and deliver it to the Northwestern or 
C, B. & Q., when the U. R. T. inspector looks at this certificate card he knows just 
where to trace from. He starts his tracer on the Milwaukee instead of starting with 
the road he received the car from. That is the idea of this card as I understand it. 
But I would prefer that there be a stub attached to it, and that the stub be sent to 
the owner. Now, Mr. Grieb says that he has received a lot of stubs that bills were 
rendered on, but he didn't get any cards on the cars. How can he say that, his bills 
were all right? If they were for wrong repairs, he would have to get joint evidence 
and then trace it. I do not think Mr. Grieb meant what he said. Now, if a stub 
be used and sent to the car owner, just the same as you would on a repair card, 
that would locate who is doing these wrong repairs in case card or car is lost off. 
In addition to this I also think that cars ought to be stenciled on the ends, No. 
I and No. 2, so as to distinguish where repairs were made. There is no way to 
distinguish that and it has caused a good deal of trouble. We will say, for instance, 



130 Railway Master Mechanic 

that we get a Milwaukee car and we apply two cheek castings to No. I end, but 
as the ends are not marked we don't say anything about the end ; we simply say, 
"applied two cheek castings." Car goes to the Rock island and the Rock Island 
breaks the same end and applies two cheek castings. The Rock Island delivers it 
to the Lake Shore and it breaks end Xo. 2 and applies two wrong cheek castings. 
Then it gives this man a chance not to put on a repair card, and there will still 
be two cards on the car covering four cheek castings applied. I think if the 
ends were marked "End 1" and "End 2" it would be readily seen where the repairs 
were made. If there is a brass applied, you have got to look over all the eight boxes ; 
there is nothing to indicate which end. There are probably two or three cards for 
brasses applied You will look all around and find one or two applied. What are 
you going to do about it. I think if the ends were marked you would not have to 
go to all that trouble, but could locate the brass at once. 

Mr. Stuckie : I think the speaker is no friend of the car inspector. We would 
need a pack mule to carry all the cards around that we are required to use. I have 
trouble at home, having my pockets mended because of wearing them out carrying 
cards around, and now he would heap on a stub. 

Air. Hunt: I have listened with a great deal of interest to what has been said 
and I really think that the card would save an endless amount of work. Now, as I 
understand Mr. Leeds. I believe he wants to make the delivering lines responsible for 
wrong repairs not made by them in the absence of repair card. Now I do not believe 
there is a man in the house that will agree with Air. Leeds ; I do not agree with him ; 
but his letter is what has brought this card out. I believe the card to be a good thing 
and I will state why I believe so. In the first place, these tracers take up time when 
they get big and heavy. It takes time to look them through and refer them to the 
inspector, car shop man and everyone who had anything to do with the car ; and 
they spend half an hour or more on them trying to get some information out of them 
to square themselves or to make an intelligent report in the matter. A great deal of 
that, by the use of this card, would be done away with. This card really has nothing 
to do with Mr. Leeds' letter. Mr. Leeds wants to make the delivering company 
responsible for wrong repairs as I understand it. The rules now say the delivering 
company is not responsible. They say that the man making wrong repairs is solely 
responsible to the owner. What then has the intermediate man to do with it at all? 
The object Mr. Leeds had, no doubt, was to work it up and get it in the new rules. 
But of course it is not now in and therefore cuts no figure. But suppose we adopt 
this card; now we are all liable as individuals to view this thing from our 
own standpoint. We may say we have so much to do we could not apply this card. 
We might not get many of them on here in Chicago, etc. W r e don't hold a person 
responsible because he don't get this card on. That, is not the idea at all. If he did 
have some leisure time and got it on he has done a great deal of good in the way of 
helping to locate where the wrong repairs were made. Now if we would not put 
many cards on at Chicago, there may be hundreds of places outside of Chicago where 
these cards could be put en. There may be inspectors who receive, at small places, 
from 20 to 50 cars a day. They have time on their hands, time going to waste. They 
would find all the wrong repairs to these cars, and when the cars would get dis- 
tributed around to home roads the card would nearly locate where these repairs 
were made and would make unnecessary a lot of intermediate tracing. For example 
suppose the Milwaukee at Omaha received a car from the Union Pacific with wrong 
repairs; the inspector sees this and says: "I will just put a certificate card on car." 
He has to make no record of it. If he don't have time he don't put any card on ; no 
harm done. If he has time he simply pulls a card out of his pocket and says 
"received from the Union Pacific such a date with so and so, wrong repairs." Car 



Repairing Wrecked Steel Cars 131 



goes on. It may belong in Mississippi or Florida. But it is allowed to go home 
and when the man away in the southern part of Florida, or where ever his home is, 
sees the card, he don't have to trace through the south, over the L. & N., P. F. W. & C. 
or P. R. R., etc., back to the Milwaukee to see who made those wrong repairs; he 
knows these repairs were on the car when received by the Milwaukee at Omaha. He 
says : "I can send to the Union Pacific at once ; they may have got it from some 
of their connections." He may thus strike it first shot. Aside from that it will force 
people to put on the repair cards ; in other words, it will enforce the law that is not 
being lived up to — and I guess you will all agree with me that it is not lived up to by 
all. You all say we have got the law; that is true, it is enforcing it that the card 
is for. If the Union Pacific made these wrong repairs, they will say "we did, but 
failed to put card on." Next week comes another car, another Union Pacific car. 
(This is figuratively speaking.) You would not have to send back over all those 
roads, but immediately go to the Union Pacific, or whatever road it might be, and 
it would say "I guess we had better get this thing settled ; people will think we are 
not putting on these cards at all ; we are getting it pretty thick ; we had better get these 
cards on" ; and it would have a tendency to force the cards on. Getting the certificate 
cards on is not what Mr. Leeds was after; it is something proposed to solve the 
problem advanced by Mr. Leeds. I think it will prove a good thing. If you don't 
get these cards on you are not held responsible. 

Mr. Grieb : It seems to me that Mr. Hunt's acknowledgment that there will 
be little hope of any cards of this kind being applied at Chicago, if this rule were put 
into existence, settles the matter so far as the Chicago Car Foremen's Association 
is concerned. I am rather inclined to think that other people will find the same excuse 
that the Chicago inspector would — they are too busy. 

Mr. Hunt : The argument was that the inspectors had so much to do at Chicago. 
I say it might be possible that the Chicago inspectors would not have time to put many 
of them on. If a few Chicago inspectors are so busy they could not get them on, 
other people at other points would, and I have no doubt that there would be lots of 
them put on in Chicago. 

Mr. Davis : According to Mr. Leeds' idea the man would be responsible who 
received this car without a card on it, and the road he received it from would know 
they would have to explain how the wrong repairs were made. But, then again, 
that is really going back to the rules of '92 when you had to card for everything. 
Why not go back to them? 

Mr. Showers' motion was here put and carried. 

The meeting then adjourned. 



REPAIRING WRECKED STEEL CARS. 

In our May issue we had something to say concerning the repair- 
ing of wrecked steel cars. We are advised that no plan has as yet 
been definitely decided upon as to the methods to be employed in 
fixing up the cars that we then referred to. But meanwhile we 
receive from the Baltimore & Ohio a short account of the handling 
of wrecked steel cars on the Pittsburg & Western (a B. & O. line) 
which presents some interesting statements. This account was 



132 Railway Master Mechanic 

written by Mr. Thomas Anderson, master car builder of the Pitts- 
burg & Western, and is as follows : 

"One of our trains of Schoen steel cars, 100,000 pounds capacity, 
was going up an 80 to 90 foot grade when ten cars broke off and 
ran away from the rear part about 90 car lengths. Four more of the 
steel hoppers ran back down this grade, striking the rear part, and 
damaging P. and W. steel car No. 4001 to the extent of two center 
sills badly damaged and buckled so much that it was necessary to 
cut them off and have the bent parts straightened and replaced by 
riveting on a plate both inside and outside of the channel. It re- 
quired a new end sill, but the old end sill removed was in shape to 
be used in repairs to other cars, as we straightened and plated the 
fractured part so as to have it ready for other damaged cars. The 
material required amounted to $12.70. The labor amounted to 
$27.60, making a total of $40.30 to put car in good first-class condi- 
tion. 

"Steel car No. 4351 was in accident on the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad. The cause of accident is not known, but car was sent home 
for repairs, having end sill, side sill, corner post and stake very badly 
damaged, and it had the appearance of going to be a very hard 
job to make necessary repairs. But we found that we made the 
necessary repairs very easily and put car in good first-class condition 
by using one end sill, one corner post and one side stake, and straight- 
ening out side sill by building fire under same and using hydraulic 
pressure for straightening it out. The material used on this car 
amounted to $10.40, and for labor $28.00, making a total of $38.40. 

"Steel car No. 42 11 left the track known as our Negley Stone 
Track, which is about ten to fifteen feet higher at the point where 
car left track than our main line. Car went over the bank, landing 
on main track, and blocked the road. Our superintendent happened 
to be on board a passenger train which came up behind this trouble, 
and cleared the track by use of engine and chains. This car was 
under load of 100,000 pounds of crushed stone. The sides were 
crushed in about eighteen inches, bending all the side stakes on each 
side of the car, and breaking four journal boxes, one brake shaft, two 
hand holds, one winding shaft bent, drop door attachments bent, 
brake levers and guides torn off, truck channel bent and brake beams 
torn off. The pressed steel diamond truck under this car was sub- 
jected to a great deal of rough usage in getting main track cleared, 
as it would be reasonably supposed that the body of car received 



Proposed Railway Y. M. C. A. Building 



133 



some very rough handling to avoid delay to trains. I supposed that 
I would have to remove all side stakes on account of their bent con- 
dition, but, fortunately, we made a good, first-class job by using 
hydraulic jacks and hammering on stakes until we got the side 
straightened. The material required amounted to $8.37; labor, 
$30.60; total, $38.97. 

"I might also add, for your information, which is very important, 
that if a train of wooden cars had been subjected to the punishment 
that car No. 4001 was subjected, there would have been nothing left 
but the scrap. In this case this car was the only car damaged in 
the train, it being so solid, substantially built, etc., that all other cars 
behind it were protected. A wooden car would not have stood the 
punishment that No. 42 11 went through under such heavy load." 




RAILWAY Y. M. C. A. BUILDING AT ST. LOUIS. 

IT is pleasing to note continued evidences of the growth of the 
movement for the establishment of railway Y. M. C. A. buildings 
in the West. It will be remembered that we have in recent 
months illustrated two such buildings, one at the Chicago shops of 
the Chicago & Northwestern Railway and the other on the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Argentine, Kan. These were illus- 
trated in our issues of February, 1897, and February, 1899, respec- 
tively. A very fine building of this nature is now proposed to be 
erected in St. Louis, and through the courtesy of Mr. George T. 



134 Railway Master Mechanic 

Coxhead, general secretary of the St. Louis Y. M. C. A., we are 
enabled to present a view of the exterior of this building as designed. 
The building, which will, it is expected, be erected on the corner of 
Clark avenue and Twentieth street, will be constructed of buff brick 
and sandstone, and will be four stories in height. The building will 
be thoroughly up to date in all details. The floor plans are not 
available, but we are informed by Mr. Coxhead that the interior 
will be divided into a reception room, auditorium, reading room, and 
library, recreation and smoking rooms, lavatories, baths, bowling 
alleys, gymnasium, restaurant, barber shop, class rooms, and about 
ioo sleeping rooms. The cost of the structure will be about $75,000. 
The funds for its erection will be provided by the sale of bonds, both 
the principal and interest of which will be guaranteed by the several 
railroads using the Union Station in St. Louis, the consideration 
given to these railroads being that their employees shall be given 
the privileges of the building. We most sincerely hope that the 
present plans for this beautiful building will not miscarry, and that it 
will be pushed forward to construction at an early date. 



PERSONAL MENTION. 

Mr. E. E. Davis, heretofore assistant superintendent of motive power of the 
Philadelphia & Reading, has resigned to accept the same position with the New 
York Central & Hudson River Railroad. 

Mr. G. R. Henderson, formerly mechanical engineer of the Norfolk & Western, 
but since March last mechanical engineer of the Schenectady Locomotive Works, has 
resigned the latter position to accept that of assistant superintendent of motive power 
and machinery of the Chicago & Northwestern, with headquarters at Chicago, vice 
Mr. Waldo H. Marshall, resigned to go to the Lake Shore. 

Air. W. H. Reilly has been appointed master mechanic of the Fort Worth & 
Rio Grande, with headquarters at Fort Worth, Tex., in place of Mr. T. J. Shellhorn, 
resigned to accept service elsewhere. 

Mr. L. E. Butler, general foreman of the Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis 
Railroad shops, at Princeton, Ind., has resigned to accept the general foremanship of 
the Cypress shops of the Missouri Pacific, at Kansas City. Frank W. Moorehead, 
a department foreman, has been appointed to succeed Mr. Butler. 

Air. Abram Gould, purchasing agent of the Missouri Pacific System, the St. 
Louis Southwestern System, and the Texas & Pacific Railroad, died at Salem, N. 
V., on June 22d. Mr. Gould was born at Roxbury, Delaware "county, N. Y., March 
3, 1843. In early life Mr. Gould taught school and later was timekeeper in the 
Rutland & Washington shops. Some time after he was connected with the Fall 
River line, and in 1873 he became purchasing agent of the Pacific Mail line of steam- 
ers. For eight years, beginning with 1876, Mr. Gould was manager of the coal 
departments of the Union Pacific in Salt. Lake City. Since then he has been con- 
nected with the first named railroads as purchasing agent. 

On the Baltimore & Ohio the motive power, car department, and maintenance 
of way shops have been merged into one department, known as the mechanical 
department, in charge of a mechanical superintendent. Mr. Harvey Middleton has 



Personal Mention 



135 



been appointed mechanical superintendent, with office at Mt. Clare ; Mr. I. N. Kal- 
baugh has been appointed assistant mechanical superintendent of the trans-Ohio 
division, with office at Newark, and Mr. E. T. White assistant mechanical superin- 
tendent of the lines east of the Ohio, with office at Mt. Clare. The offices of super- 
intendents of motive power are abolished. 

Mr. J. R. Slack, mechanical engineer of the Central Railroad of New Jersey, 
has been appointed assistant superintendent, of motive power of the Delaware & 
Hudson, with office at Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. Joseph W. Taylor has been chosen secretary of the Master Car Builders' 
and Master Mechanics' Associations to succeed Mr. J. W. Cloud, whose resignation 
of these offices we noted in our last issue. Mr. Taylor has been for the last eight 
years Mr. Cloud's assist- 
ant and "general right- 
hand man" and is thus 
especially well qualified to 
assume the duties of secre- 
tary of the two associations. 
It will be of interest at this 
time to briefly review Mr. 
Taylor's previous career. 
He began railroading in 
1876 as clerk in the freight 
office at Saltsburg, on the 
West Pennsylvania division 
of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, and was later trans- 
ferred to Johnstown, Pa., 
on the main line of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad. In 
July, 1880, he entered the 
office of Mr. F. M. Wilder, 
superintendent of motive 
power of the New York, 
Lake Erie & Western Ry. 
and served in various 
capacities under Mr. Wild- 
er and under the latter's 
successor, Mr. R. H. Soule, 
during their respective 
terms of office. In 1887 
Mr. Taylor was selected as 
chief clerk in the office of 
Mr. R. H. Soule, who was 
then the general manager 
of the New York, Lake 
Erie & Western R. R. 
Upon Mr. Soule's resigna- 
tion Mr. Taylor accepted a 
position in the office of Mr. 
S. M. Felton, first vice- 
president of the New York, 
Lake Erie & Western. He 
was later secretary to Mr. 
A. Hegewisch, president of the United States Rolling Stock Co. at New York City. 
Mr. Taylor occupied this position for a short time, when he resigned to accept the 
position of secretary of the Chicago & Calumet Terminal Ry. Co. at Chicago, now 
a part of the Chicago Terminal Transfer R. R. Co. On January 15, 1891, he took 
service with Mr. John W. Cloud, the Western representative of the Westinghouse 
Air Brake Co., and secretary of the Master Car Builders' Association, and later 
also secretary of the Master Mechanics' Association. Mr. Taylor remained con- 
tinuously in this service until his election to the secretaryship of the two associations 
to fill the vacancy occasioned by Mr. Cloud's resignation, to go abroad. Mr. Taylor 
is thus thoroughly familiar with all the intricacies of the inner workings of the 
Master Car Builders' Association, particularly with the details of the arbitration 




Mr. Joseph W. Taylor. 



136 Railway Master Mechanic 

committee's delicate work, and the members of die association accordingly feel con- 
tent in the assurance that its clerical work is to be continued with the same fidelity 
to detail that has characterized that work for so many years past. Both associations 
are to be congratulated upon securing the continued services of Mr. Taylor, and the 
latter is to be congratulated upon his succession to a post so responsible and so 
honorable. 

Mr. Mord Roberts, master mechanic of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & South- 
ern, has resigned. Mr. J. T. Stafford, hitherto assistant master mechanic of that 
road at Argenta, has been appointed acting master mechanic at that point. 

Mr. H. K. Bates, master mechanic of the Fort Scott and Springfield divisions 
of the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis, has resigned that position on account 
of ill health, after a service of twenty-nine years with the road named. 

Mr. \V. J. Miller has resigned as master mechanic of the southern division of 
the Kansas City, Pittsburg & Gulf at Shreveport, La., and Mr. C. A. DeHaven has 
been appointed to succeed him. 

Mr. Thomas Fielden has been appointed assistant master mechanic of the 
Missouri Pacific, with headquarters at Cypress, Kan., vice Mr. W. T. New, resigned. 

Mr. D. C. Courtney, formerly master mechanic of the Baltimore & Ohio at 
Cumberland, Md., has accepted the position of superintendent of motive power of 
the West Virginia Central & Pittsburg, with headquarters at Elkins, W. Va., vice 
Mr. R. O. Cumback, resigned to accept a position elsewhere. 

Mr. J. W. Stokes has been appointed master mechanic of the Omaha, Kansas 
City & Eastern and Omaha &St. Louis, with headquarters at Stanberry, Mo., vice 
Mr. C. A. DeHaven, resigned to take service with the Kansas City, Pittsburg & 
Gulf. 

Mr. George A. Kingsley has been appointed road foreman of engines of the 
Chicago & West Michigan and Detroit, Grand Rapids & Western, with headquarters 
at Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Air. C. H. Quereau, master mechanic of the first division of the Denver & Rio 
Grande, has been appointed assistant superintendent of machinery and acting master 
mechanic of the first division, with headquarters at Denver, Colo. 



EXHIBITS AT THE CONVENTIONS. 

The exhibits at the June conventions were fully up to the high standard estab- 
lished at the last three or four conventions. There has been a steady decline in the 
number of useless and absurd devices ever since the M. C. B. standard for car 
couplers began to be adopted by the roads, and this year such exhibits were almost 
entirely absent. All the devices shown were worthy of examination, and we believe 
that the railroad men present paid more general and careful attention to the exhibits 
than ever before. The following inventions, improvements, etc., shown are worthy 
of special mention, and will probably ''live long and prosper" : 

The exhibit of the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. was, perhaps, the most com- 
plete and interesting ever made at the June conventions. Its location was the best on 
the grounds, and it was equipped with conveniences and comforts which made it a 
welcome resting place for the weary sight-seer, while it was a veritable college of 
information and instruction to those interested in the devices shown. Abundant 
space was provided for the exhibition of each tool, and for the crowds of interested 
spectators which were never lacking. It was hard 1o believe that such an entirely 
new line of labor-saving tools could have been developed and brought into general use 
in four or five years ; and when it is remembered that these tools are now in general 
use not only at home but in Great Britain and on ihe continent the wonder increases. 
The tools themselves have done much to make this wonderful record, but the men 



Exhibits at the Conventions 137 

behind the tools — Mr. J. W. Duntley, Mr. Joseph Boyer and the men whom they 
have selected as assistants — should have the chief credit. When the development of 
pneumatic tools began other manufacturers had an equal chance to attain such an 
immense and almost unparalleled success, but they failed to seize the opportunity. 
Future historians of mechanical progress will give the credit of introducing pneumatic 
tools to Mr. Duntley and Mr. Boyer. 

The emergency knuckle, shown by the Railway Appliances Co., of Chicago, is 
a new device and of undoubted value. The office of the company is in the Old 
Colony Building, Chicago. 

An entirely new and most interesting exhibit was that of the Waterbury Tool 
Co. which showed a ratchet drill, the actuating handle of which can be used at any 
angle. For work in corners and other difficult places this drill meets all require- 
ments. It is operated by a new mechanical motion, and should be widely demanded 
in the railway field. 

The Peerless car coupler was shown at Saratoga last year, but it is now in 
new hands and will be made, hereafter, to conform to M. C. B. rules. The distin- 
guishing feature of this coupler is a lock to the knuckle lock and the device would 
seem to render creeping of the knuckle lock, and the consequent parting of trains, 
impossible. 

The automatically adjustable journal bearings made by the Atlantic Brass Co., 
New York, are a decided departure from the ordinary bearing in some particulars 
but they are making such notable records and are being pushed with such energy 
and faith that they cannot be ignored by progressive railway men. The exhibit of 
these bearings attracted much attention. 

In addition to the well known Woods platform gate the R. Bliss Mfg. Co., 
Providence, R. I., exhibited a platform gate operated by air from the locomotive. 
This gate was invented by Mr. S. A. Crone, recently assistant superintendent of 
rolling stock of the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, and will probably 
meet with favor and be adopted by many roads. 

The exhibit of the Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y., was extensive and 
of unusual interest. Large masses of carborundum were shown, attracting attention 
by their rich coloring; and the examples of the uses to which the material is put were 
numerous and varied. As an example of what scientific knowledge can accomplish 
in creating new and very useful products this exhibit was of compelling interest 
and those in charge of it were kept busy by crowds of visitors. 

A new draft rigging exhibited by the Dayton Malleable Iron Co. received general 
approval. It seems to combine simplicity and strength to a degree not heretofore 
attained. 

The Goodwin car, designed for dumping coal, ballast, etc., is, without doubt, 
the most complete and efficient car of the class ever built and the patents held by the 
Goodwin company make it impossible for any other equally effective car to be built 
for many years to come. Several full-sized cars were on exhibition at the con- 
ventions and a very complete working model was operated on the exhibition grounds. 
It is satisfactory to learn that the railroads are coming to realize the economy as 
well as the efficiency of these cars and are ordering them liberally. A train of 
Goodwin cars, hauling ballast, will do the work of from 300 to 500 men, and in 
handling coal the economy of the cars is proportionately large. 

The unquestionable success of the Hale & Kilburn Co. in the car seat field is 
well deserved, because the company has never rested on its laurels but has constantly 
studied to improve what seemed good enough. Its latest improvement is a car seat 
frame made of pressed steel. This seems to bring the car seat to perfection ; but 
this company is always trying to go a step beyond perfection and therefore one cannot 
tell what improvement it will show next year. 



138 Railway Master Mechanic 

Canada} 's improved throttle lever, shown by O H. Jackson, of Prescott. 
Arizona, is worthy of investigation. The lever is held by a cam and can be placed 
and held in any position, so that the cut-off can be by hair lines instead of by notches. 

The magnetic holder for incandescent lamps shown by Jenkins Brothers is a most 
convenient device for shop use. The lamp can be placed on any part of a machine 
or boiler and it sticks there. 

The fact that four new car do<frs were shown at Old Point indicates that the 
ideal door is still being sought for. The Jones door was illustrated in the June 
number of this journal. It retains the best features of the Moore, door but has 
improvements which add much to its value. It was generally remarked that this door 
was as fine a piece of workmanship in its line as the convention ever saw. But what 
particularly attracted the interested attention of the members was the simplicity and 
merit of the construction of the hangers. The address of the manufacturers, the 
Jones Car Door Co., is 234 Lasalle street. Chicago. The Royal Flush car door, 
shown by the American Grain and Car Door Co., Philadelphia, was exhibited at 
Saratoga last year but has been much improved since that time. A very simple door 
and one worthy of attention was shown by J. M. Smith, car foreman Cincinnati 
Northern Railway, at Marshall, Mich., its inventor. The Universal Railway Supply 
Co. showed the Barr door, which also has the merit of simplicity. 

An exhibit of the Buhoup three-stem car coupler was made on the government 
iracks near the Hygeia hotel. The couplers were on 80,000 pound cars and the 
curves on which they were tested were unusually sh;:rp. The test was entirely suc- 
cessful, the couplers coupling and uncoupling under circumstances where the ordinary 
M. C. B. coupler would be inoperative. 

A '"king-bolt clamp" was shown by the Pearson Jack Co. and received general 
approval. It is designed to grip the projecting lower end of the king-bolt and thus 
keep the truck from falling down when wrecked cars are lifted to the track. It 
obviates the necessity of chaining trucks to the car and is a device that should soon be 
found on every wrecking train. 

Whoever it was who secured the government tracks at Fortress Monroe for the 
exhibition of the Schoen pressed steel cars during the conventions did an excellent 
p ,- ece of work. The location was the very best available and a far greater number 
of railroad men inspected the cars than would have visited them if they had been 
on the C. & O. tracks. The days were pretty hot down there and railroad men were 
justified in refusing to make long trips to examine exhibits. Indeed, it was dangerous 
to go far in that heat, and the nearness of the Schoen car exhibit may have saved 
many valuable lives. The cars themselves were very interesting as showing the 
advances which are being made along a line of progress which is to have unlimited 
development, and in which the Pressed Steel Car Company is probably to be the 
chief factor. 

While the exhibit of the great Q. & C. company had no noticeably new device 
it is worthy of mention because of its location. It was on the edge of the water ; 
the spray of the sweet, salt surf occasionally cooled and refreshed those who lingered 
to enjoy its pleasantness, and from under the sheltering awning one could see the 
commerce of that part of the coast passing in and out to and from the ocean. The 
efficiency of the pneumatic tools in this exhibit was especially noticeable. Those 
of the Standard Pneumatic Tool Co. were shown in connection with the Q. & C. 
exhibit and the combination was effective. 

An improved unlocking device for car couplers, the invention of T. L. McKeen, 
vas exhibited by the Acme Railway Equipment Co., of Easton, Pa. Instead of being 
attached to the lifting lever the lifting chain passes over it and is fastened to the car. 
The part of the lifting lever over which the chain passes is bent into a square yoke 
which projects outwardly. With this device the unlocking of the knuckles in the 
case of a broken drawbar is made positive and certain. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 

WALTER D. CROSMAX, Editor. EDWIN X. LEWIS, MANAGER. 



Vol. XXIII. CHICAGO, AUGUST, 1899. No. 



3 



UNFINISHED CONVENTION WORK is the theme of a 
valued correspondent, who, in a recent letter to us puts his 
criticism in about these words : " When the work of the late 
M. C. B. convention is considered as a whole, it will be found that much 
of the important work on the programme remains undone. The com- 
mittee appointed to test triple valves reported that no tests had been 
made, as no triples had been submitted for test. The committee on 
Wheel and Track Gauges reported that their conference with the Ameri- 
can Railway association produced barren results ; and the subject was 
considered as a 'dead letter.' Although the Pennsylvania railroad had 
offered the use of a piece of track and a fifty car train for test purposes 
more than a year ago, no tests had been made. The committee on 
Brake Shoe Tests reported that the testing machine had been installed 
at the laboratory of Purdue University and was ready for use. It also 
stated that there were several new composite brake shoes on the market 
which ought to be teste .1 ; but no tests had been made. The manner in 
which important test work has been neglected and delayed is certainly 
one good argument in favor of a research laboratory, in charge of a 
director, as outlined by the report of the committee on that subject." 
We presume that our correspondent will admit that a part, at least, of 
these failures are "explainable," while, perhaps, remaining " inexcusable." 
It is, however, we think, doubtful that a research laboratory would have 
done much better than the committees, in the cases cited, in view of all 
the circumstances. Moreover, we may expect that the air brake and 
brake shoe investigations will be seriously taken up this coming year. 



COUPLERS of the M. C. B. type received thoroughly adequate 
treatment at the Car Builders' convention, as we have before 
stated. The committee appointed to consider the contour lines 
of the M. C. B. coupler, and to present specifications for it, presented a 
very comprehensive report, the investigations having been carried even 
farther than the association requested. The point we wish to make 
now is that one who reads the report can draw only one conclusion 



u<» Railway Masteb Mechanu 



concerning the justness of the recent attacks on this coupler. In a 
word, it has generally been considered that manufacturers furnished 
couplers true to the M. C. B. contour lines — in fact, perfect couplers. 
Whereas,- it turns out that couplers with other than the M. C. B. lines, 
and twisted in the stem and head, and with innumerable other defects, 
have been offered to the railways and accepted and applied ; and then, 
because they failed at intervals, the general design of the vertical plane 
coupler has been rather savagely criticised. It would be much better 
if every one concerned should, in lieu of indulging in carping criticism 
without offering an adequate substitute, bend his efforts toward making 
the vertical plane coupler a success. Then there would be no question 
about its success. 

IT HAS been customary, when speculating on the final limit of 
speed of railway trains — if ever a final limit is to be obtained — to 
consider only the possibilities of the locomotive, it being very cer- 
tain that the cars will withstand any speed at which the locomotives 
haul them. The question as to whether men will be found who will 
dare to run the locomotives at much greater speed than the present 
maximum is very generally disregarded. Some railway officials have 
awakened to the fact that it will be difficult to find men who will be 
able to withstand for any length of time the severe strain to which a 
material increase in speed will subject them. If the limit of speed pos- 
sibility of the locomotive is not yet in sight, it is quite certain that the 
limit of endurance of the men is ; and unless there are developed men 
who can withstand the mental and physical strain which will be incident 
to any marked increase in the present maximum speed, it is doubtful 
whether the possibilities of the locomotive will limit the maximum regu- 
lar and continuous speed of trains. It is easy enough to make what are 
now considered extremely high speeds, when these are attempted only 
in favorable places and at infrequent intervals, but men do not take so 
kindly to it for daily requirement over distances of from one hundred to 
two hundred, or more, miles. An engine man will, of course, not hesi- 
tate to make fast time over a stretch of track which is in favorable con- 
dition, when he knows that he will scarcely "get the proper swing" 
when he will have an opportunity to " steady " the train with the brakes. 
The condition of the track, alignment and protection against accidents 
arc important factors in limiting the maximum speed, but the endurance 
of the engine man will also be a much more important factor than it is 
at present generally considered to be. 



Legal Aspects of Convention Work 141 

Legal Aspects of Convention Work. 

There has at times been lacking, both in committee reports and in 
the oroceedings in the annual conventions of both the M. C. B. and the 
Master Mechanics' associations a due regard of the effects the reports or 
convention proceedings may have on legal proceedings against the rail- 
ways of the country ; but it is important to note that there is a desira- 
ble change taking place. It is notorious that unbiased (?) juries decide 
against railways whenever a semblance of excuse presents itself, and it 
is desirable to remove as many " semblances of excuses " as possible. 

It is important to show, in the defense of every case of accident, 
that the railway has taken every reasonable precaution to guard against 
the particular accident in litigation, and that the devices provided for 
doing the work, from the doing of which the accident occurred, were of 
the best obtainable. But what are " reasonable precautions" in one 
locality are not necessarily so in another ; and the same is also true of 
" best devices," and it will be well for members of either association to 
bear this in mind and not unload, through the courts, their methods and 
devices onto unwilling, and frequently just as able, fellow laborers. 

The proceedings of both associations are followed closely by law- 
yers who make a specialty of railway cases, and frequently the proceed- 
ings are offered in evidence and wrongfully interpreted by even an im- 
partial, though improperly informed, judge or jury, when they should 
really have no weight as evidence in the case. 

As an illustration of the point which it is desired to make, let us 
consider the question of the prevention of throwing sparks from the 
stack : It would be entirely wrong for a road running through the cotton 
belt, or through a country covered with dry prairie grass a large part of 
each year, and using a soft lignite coal which, unless means are provided 
to prevent, throws showers of sparks from the stack, to force through 
the medium of committee reports, or action in conventions, and with the 
assistance of adverse judicial and jury decisions, its spark arresting de- 
vices upon those roads which are, in the way of throwing sparks and the 
chances of setting fires, not so favorably situated. 

There are those who appreciate the conditions outlined in the fore- 
going caution ; but it is believed that its presentation here will bring 
about a more general understanding of the situation and, therefore, 
result in more good to the railways and take out of the hands of 
over-zealous lawyers evidence which is so easily misunderstood. 



14'.' 



Railway Master Meohank 



EXTENDED PISTON ROD SUPPORTS— 
A. T. & S. F. RAILWAY. 

The advantages to be gained by the use of piston rods extended 
through the front cylinder head, were discussed at some length at the 
recent convention of the Master Mechanics, the sentiment developed 
concerning the value of such practice being varying. During the dis- 
cussion (which we give elsewhere in this issue), one speaker referred 




<a 






-i»© ' Jftf- 

«0 V 



^4■/^ 



Section of /7.B 



oec/'on of C. D. 




T 



L 



& 




# 



Fig. i. — -Piston Rod Support. 



to the design followed on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe as being the 
best he had seen. We have, in consequence, obtained prints of two 
arrangements used upon that road. Figure i shows the arrangement for 




7/8- 9 threads for Or I cap 






^^ 





Fig. 2. — Piston Rod Support 



freight engines with cylinders 21x28 inches; and Figure 2, that used on 
engines of this class, and also upon a passenger locomotive on the Den- 
ver division, the latter having I9^x28-inch cylinders. 



Railway Wateb Tank Design L43 

The first arrangement, it will be noted, includes a cast iron cover, or 
sheath, for the extended rod. This sheath is attached to the cylinder 
head in the manner shown. It carries a brass bushing piece 9 inches 
in length over all and 2> l A inches in diameter, which carries the piston 
rod and the weight of the piston. ^ 

In the second arrangement, shown in Figure 2, the extended piston 
rod is not provided with a sheath, but is exposed. A metallic packing 
is employed, as shown. The brass bearing is 7^6 inches, and has a 
running fit of 3 inches clear diameter. 

Experience on the Santa Fe road fully warrants the favorable men- 
tion that was given these designs at the recent convention. 

RAILWAY WATER TANK DESIGN. 

RELATIVE MERITS OF STEELAND WOOD CONSTRUCTION 

BY T W. SNOW. 

In the Railway Master Mechanic of April, 1899, page 49, was 
given an article entitled "Steel Water Tank," with illustrations showing 
a stand-pipe as adapted to railway uses, which suggests a few thoughts 
that ma}' be followed up with advantage. 

The low price on steel plates previous to this year has led to many 
comparisons being made in the entire branch of water station service and 
I am glad to note an awakening all along the line in regard to this im- 
portant adjunct to the service. In all reforms the tendency is to bear 
existing ills and evils too long and then institute a revolution instead of 
a reform. Certainly, the need of better water service on most of our 
railways is so apparent that no argument is needed to induce thinking 
men that it is time — high time — to turn over a "new leaf." The object 
of this article is to turn it over several times before abandoning present 
standards and then when right to go ahead. 

The old type of wood tank and wood trestle can certainly be im- 
proved upon, first, because present standard sizes are too small in stor- 
age, and second, because the wood tank properly built will outlast the 
trestle. A good steel trestle can be built for small additional cost over 
wood, that will have sufficient life to outlast several wood or steel tanks. 
As to choice of wood or steel for this purpose, see comparison made 
hereafter in this article. 

In constructing a water tower such as is shown in your journal and 
previously referred to (see Fig. 1), it should be remembered that one of 
the "evils" of the past has been retained, viz.: the tank fixtures and the 



U4 



Railway Masteb Mechanic 



resultant accumulation of ice in winter weather. This ice pile makes a 
dangerous footing for trainmen in switching, and requires watching to 

avoid interference with wheel flanges. The close proximity of tank or 
stand-pipe to track is to be avoided. The ground so occupied is usually 
valuable for other purposes, and such a structure is a continual menace 
to the safety of trains. A suitable water crane will convey the water to 

.^--fff ^ the tender as well, or bet- 
ter, and there would, 
moreover, be no danger 
of the valve rope freezing 
in the open tank during 
severe cold weather. 

In making a compari- 
son of the commercial 
value of steel and wood 
tanks there are many 
things to consider beside 
first cost. The recent 
rise in the price of steel 
plate has not only dis- 
turbed the ratio of tables 
prepared for this pur- 




. _ i^/fr/g/ /fee 

Fig. i. 



Railway Water Tank Design L45 



pose, but the delay in obtaining suitable stock for manufacturing steel 
tanks has upset the patience and equilibrium of many intending pur- 
chasers, and checked a movement that promised to be very general a 
few months since. There is, however, a day not far distant when these 
values will come closer together again — for a suitable lumber will be 
advancing in value, while the steel will decline in price as soon as nor- 
mal conditions are reached. 

It may be said of the steel tank that in places where the water con- 
sumption is in excess of 100,000 gallons during one night that the tank 
of wood is impracticable, and the use of steel therefore necessary. The 
limit as to quantity in wood construction may be placed at 100,000 
gallons in one unit. The comparison of these tanks will therefore be 
made with units not to exceed this quantity. The size of tank in most 
general use is of 50,000 gallons' capacity, and specifications for such a 
tank are appended to this article. This size of unit has been the 
"standard" on most roads from the advent of the wooden tank until the 
present day, with a present tendency to increase the unit to 60,000, to 
75,000, and even to 100,000 gallons. 

In the early days of the railway, tanks were made of iron, quite often 
oval shape of bottom and with vertical sides. The tanks were enclosed 
in a brick or a stone building to prevent frost action and, usually, were 
heated by a stove. A year or two since the writer discovered some 
letters from Mr. Merrill, of the Milwaukee road, Mr. Chas. Paine, of the 
Lake Shore, and sundry other equally prominent railway men of their 
day, as to the "great discovery of keeping water in an unenclosed tank 
made of wood," and this discovery was subsequently patented and 
proved a very profitable patent during its life. These wooden tanks 
were made usually of clear, soft, white pine and the staves given a pitch, 
or inclination toward the top, of one-half inch to each foot in height, so 
that the hoops could be driven to make it water-tight. Thus several 
thousand dollars were saved on the total cost of each water station. 

As our forests were depleted of suitable stock .the grade of lumber 
in the tanks was gradually changed from "Clear" to "C" stock, and then 
to a selection made from First Common soft white pine. It was found 
that a hard knot in a white pine plank would last longer than the clear 
pine would hold it in place. Hence the lumber grade known on the 
market as "Tank," and now in most general use for this purpose. ( >ther 
materials used for this purpose are as follows : 

For convenience, I have placed the per cent mark opposite each to 
indicate the increased cost over First Common soft white pine. 



140 Railway Master Mechanic 



Per Cent. 

Clear red swamp cypress 40 

Clear California redwood 60 

Clear Oregon or Douglas fir 50 

Clear Oregon cedar ... ... 50 

Common Eastern red cedar ... 20 

Iron or steel 1 20 

This ratio is made with common specifications for metal tank at 
normal prices. 

The objections to each may be briefly enumerated as follows: 

Common White Pink — Difficulty in obtaining suitable inspection, 
available quantity growing, rapidly less, and certainty of finding a sub 
stitute soon. 

Red Cypress — Difficulty in detecting pin holes, shake, and length 
of time for proper seasoning. It will not stand first winter in this 
climate after cutting. 

California Redwood— Very difficult to handle on account of being 
" brash " and soft, necessitating greater care in handling. 

Oregon Fir — Careful selection on account of "pitch pockets," 
necessitating rejection of approximately 50 per cent of mill run in clear 
stock for tank purposes. 

Oregon Cedar — Coarse grain. Careful selection necessary, with 
much waste. 

Eastern Cedar — Small trees not avoidable east of Allegheny 
mountains. Most of this material comes from the State of Maine. 

The objections to steel or iron tanks of 100,000 gallons or less are: 
First, liability of freezing: second, greater first cost. 

The thin iron shell of the tank, or cylindrical tube as more frequently 
used, offers no protection in severe cold weather. All water is pumped 
in at the bottom and usually taken out through the same pipe. The ice 
formation begins at the top and extends downward in the shape of an 
inverted cone and usually keeps this shape all winter, except where but 
little used, and then it becomes solid in a protracted cold snap. That 
these tubes are dangerous is a pretty well established fact, and the 
numerous accidents to these structures from freezing has been care- 
fully detailed by Prof. Wm. I). Pence, of the University of Illinois, 
in his work entitled " Stand-Pipe Accidents and Failures," and again in 
his "Action of Ice in Water-works Stand-Pipes," where some dozens of 
failures are recorded from frost troubles mainly. It is noteworthy tlat 
these failures are not confined to poorly-constructed work, but to the 
well-made equally. 



Railway Water Tank Desigh 



147 



Where the pumping plant is remote from the stand-pipe, and the 
pumper is careless or has other duties to perform that prevent his giving 

attention to the water con- 
trol, there will be other 
" ice troubles," as Fig. 2 
will indicate. The metal 
tank gives little if any 
protection against freez- 
ing, and freedom from 
frost troubles will depend 
solely upon the amount of 
water contained in the 
reservoir and the amount 
daily consumed. 

Water taken from wells 
at a temperature of 50 de- 
grees to 55 degrees, in 
quantity equal to the res- 
ervoir capacity of the metal 
tank, will not chill to the 
freezing point in one day. 
Comparatively few sta- 
tions will fulfill this condi- 
tion. Surface water is 
usually preferred for boiler 
purposes, but surface wa- 
ter is usually near the 
freezing point, and is 
quickly converted into ice 
upon touching the cold 
metal. H ere the wood has 
a decided advantage, for 
it is a fine non-conductor 
Fig. 2. and will preserve the heat 

of well-water safely for a period of seven to ten days in a severe cold 
snap without danger. 

If the metal tank is to be used it should be designed of greater 
diameter than height, to expose the least surface to the weather, also to 
keep down the pumping cost. Both of these items are important and 
will be referred to in the following tables. There is an impression 




Ms 



Railway Master Mechanic 



abroad that in constructing a steel tube tank, a saving is effected 
over the steel tower construction. The experience of the writer is to 
the contrary. In regard to using the lower portion of the tube as a 
catch basin for mud, this is also a common practice in all tanks by rais- 
ing the outlet valve a foot or more above the bottom, but it is a question- 
able practice for bad 'waters, and valueless for good 
waters. A settling' basin or catch well can be built in 
most instances cheaper, and it 
is easier to remove the deposit 
that will accumulate. Fig. 3 
will fairly well illustrate the 
steel tube tank, and Fig. 4 
will represent the common 
tank, whether made of steel 
or wood. Let us first com- 
pare the two steel tanks. 

Let Fig. 3 be 12 feet in 
diameter and 100 feet high, 
and we have 67,800 gallons of 
available water above the 
twentieth foot mark. The ap- 
proximate cost of such a tank, 
including foundations, erected 
complete, may be stated at $3,300 at the pres- 
ent time. The five top plates should be, with due regard for oxidation 
for a durable tank, 4-16 inch in thickness. The next five plates should 
be 5-16 inch in thickness. The next five plates should be 6-16 inch in 
thickness. The next five plates should be 7-16 inch in thickness. The 
bottom plates should be 8- 16 inch in thickness. 

Changing the form of the tank to 20 feet in height and 24 feet in 
diameter will give about the same quantity of water, and if you erect it 
upon a steel trestle, as shown in Fig. 4, we will have a total cost of.: 

Foundations $ 35° 

20-foot trestle • . 75° 

20x24 -foot steel tank 800 

Labor 7°° 

Frost box and roof -°° 




Fig. 3. 




Fig. 4. 



Total cost $2,800 

The two top courses should be 4-16 inch thick. The two bottom 
courses should be 5-16 inch thick, and the bottom plates courses should 



Railway Water Tank Design 149 

be 5-16 inch thick. All plates are figured five feet in width in each 
instance. 

The lower tank should have a tight roof to help preserve the latent 
heat in winter, and this will, with ordinary use, prevent its being 
capped with ice. 

It is customary to provide a false bottom or air space, by laying a 
flooring between the main and chime joist. Ice will adhere to the sides 
in either instance more or less, according to the amount of water used 
daily, but it is far less important in the low tank than in the high one, 
if the bottom and top are protected. 

If we take the average daily consumption of water at 100,000 
gallons and assume the fuel cost of pumping at 1 cent per 1,000 gallons 
for 100 feet lift, we have a yearly cost of $365 with the high tank* 
against two-fifths of this amount, or $145.60, for fuel expenses in pump- 
ing this amount into the low tank. 

This difference — $219.40 — represents at 5 per cent a capital of 
nearly $4,500, and this multiplied by all of the water stations on a large 
trunk line would represent a sum of money that, to say the least, would 
be respectable. There should be, however, one deduction from this 
amount made, as larger water fixtures will be necessary to make up in 
volume what is lost in the velocity. At most stations using two water- 
cranes a train length apart, or 800 feet, will have an additional outlay 
on this account of approximately $600 to obtain a discharge of 4,000 
gallons per minute. 

If in place of a steel tank, as in Fig. 4, we substitute a wooden tank, 
with "standard" hooping specifications, we will reduce the cost by from 
$300 to $600, according to the material used, and have the following 
items to consider : 

First — A fairly good insulation against cold weather, particularly 
when not pumping from wells. 

Second — The life of the wood when saturated with water is equal 
to that of the metal tank herein described. When properly made the 
hoops fit throughout their length with an air-tight contact against the 
wood and no oxidation will be found on the inner side. When not prop- 
erly made this argument does not apply. A good wooden tank should 
outlast two sets of hoops. 

Third — A wooden tank is easier to handle and easier to repair or 
replace w r ith ordinary railroad labor. No special mechanics or foreign 
labor will be necessary. 



1 ■)( I 



B \n.\\ \\ Masteb Mk< hank 



Fourth — The saving in first cost of the wooden tank at 5 per cent 
will nearly, if not quite, perpetuate it. 

Jn closing, it may be well to state that most waters attack iron and 
steel, and hence the metal finds an enemy without and within. This is 
true to a limited extent of the wood only — most of the ravages of the 
elements are from the outside. With either tank, care and attention 
are necessarv to obtain full life. The wood can better withstand neg- 
lect than the iron. 

I have prepared the following specifications for a common white 

pine tank : 

SPECIFICATIONS. 

All pieces shall be of full length, without splicing, and made from 3-inch first selected 
soft white pine plank, free from coarse or loose knots, sap, shake, or any imperfections 
that can cause leak. All joints shall be machine sawed, with a fine 90 per cent scarf 
mark, with dowel pins at four feet intervals. 

The outside of the stave shall be surfaced convex to coincide with the circle of the 
tank. No stave shall be wider than S inches, and no bottom plank wider than 12 inches. 
The crozing at the chime shall be cut with due allowance for the pitch of the staves, and 
- ; 4 -inch deep. All black heart knots not extending clear through the plank shall be bored 
and carefully plugged with white pine. All plank must exclude the heart. (See Figure 5.) 




Fig. 5. 
No sap allowed upon the inner edge and upon the outer edges not extending inwardly 
morejhan |<-inch, and not more than 3 4 -inch across the plank. 

HOOPING. 

1 hoop 5x3-16 inches. 
2 e hoops 4^x2-16 inches. 
4 ".hoops 4x3-16 inches. 

2 hoops 3 '2x3- 1 6 inches 
2-hoops 3x3-16 inches. 

2 hoops 2^x3-16 inches. 

Total hoops, 13, fastened with three sets of lugs and bolts at each bend. These lug 
fastenings to be of superior tensile strength to the band, and riveted securely thereto 
(avoid all friction ^rip lugs.) 

The thickness of the band should not be increased, though for a greater factor of 
safety it may be made wider, unless more lugs are used, rendering doubling or "folds " 
in shipping unnecessary. This hooping will allow, with a safe factor, for the swell of 
"season"' or air-dried lumber, although kiln-dried pine tightly drawn up would burst 
them. 



Compounds on the Londox & Northwestern L51 

Such a tank will last when made thoroughly of air dried lumber an 
average of 20 years, with usual care in erecting and maintaining. There 
was recently a tank removed, made of such lumber, on the Sixteenth 
street crossing of the Ft. Wayne road in Chicago, that had been in 
service for 32 years, having been erected by George C. Morgan, then 
master mechanic of that road. Lumber that will comply with these 
specifications, improperly seasoned or kiln-dried, may not last ten years. 

Fig. 5 will illustrate the end grain of carefully selected tank plank, as 
well as the convex outer surface to allow for a perfect hoop fit. The 
stave edges show radial machine cut for any width of plank up to ten 
inches. The tank plank should be so selected in relation to the heart 
of the tree as to present the concentric rings as shown. It will be 
readily seen that this arrangement will make the wood more impervious 
to the water where, if the rings presented the opposite position, a leaky 
stave would be had. 



COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVES OF THE LONDON 

& NORTHWESTERN. 

Mr. F. W. Webb, chief mechanical engineer of the London & North- 
western, read a paper at the June meeting of the Engineering Confer- 
ence of the Institution of Civil Engineers, in which he reviewed the 
history of the compound locomotive on that road. In view of the unfa- 
vorable reports concerning compounds from o^her English roads, it is 
interesting to first note Mr. Webb's concluding sentence : "As regards 
economy of fuel, from careful and exhaustive experiments made by the 
author, the saving due to compounding is about 19 to 20 per cent, and 
this is confirmed by observations made in the United States." The 
claim has often been made, that in England simple engines are worked 
so near their maximum efficiency that nothing is gained by compounding. 

The first compound used on the London & Northwestern was in 
1878, when a simple engine was converted into a compound on the Mal- 
let system, and this engine was worked for five years on the Ashby and 
Nuneaton branch. The results were so satisfactory that what has be- 
come known as the Webb system of compounding, two high and one 
low pressure cylinder, driving separate axles, was designed, and in 
1881-82 the first engine, the "Experiment," was built on this plan. The 
cylinders were 113^ and 26-in. by 24-in., and the driving wheels 78 in. 
in diameter. Between April, 1882, and February 28, 1899, this class of 
engines has made 15,093,758 miles, which gives an average of 33,387 



L52 Bailwai Master Mechanic 

miles per engine per year; the average coal consumption, including 1.2 
pounds for lighting up, and all coal used while the engines were stand- 
ing, was 34.2 pounds per engine per mile. 

In i8cS4, to meet the requirements of the heavy traffic between Eus- 
ton and Carlisle, a more powerful class of compound locomotives, the 
" Dreadnaught," was built, These had 14 and 30-in. by 24-in. cylinders, 
7 5 -in. driving wheels, and 175 pounds steam pressure. Forty engines 
of this class, up to February 28, 1899, made 18,681,936 miles, which 
gives an average of 37,206 miles per engine per year, and an average 
coal, consumption, calculated as above, of 39.4 pounds per mile per 
engine. 

To meet the increasing speed of trains, the " Teutonic " class was 
built in 1889. This class was in most respects similar to the "Dread- 
naught " class, having the same size cylinders, but the driving wheels 
were increased to 85 in., and a simplified valve gear was used. Ten en- 
gines of this class are now running, and the total mileage made up to 
February 28, 1899, was 5,193,126 miles, or an average of 58,241 miles 
per engine per year; the average coal consumption was 37.9 pounds per 
engine per mile. 

In 1 89 1 the "Greater Britain" class was built, which was especially 
designed for working the heavy, fast passenger traffic over the west- 
coast route between Euston and Carlisle. The cylinders were arranged 
as before, but they were made 15 and 30-in. by 24-in.; the drivers were 
the same as in the "Teutonic" class, 85-in., but the boiler was made 
larger. Ten of these engines, up to February, 1899, made 2,704,537 
miles, an average of 54,454 miles per engine per year, while the average 
coal consumption was 38.7 pounds per engine per mile. One of this 
class, the " Queen-Empress," was exhibited at the World's Fair, Chicago, 
in 1893. 

It being desired to increase the number of cars of freight trains 
passing over steep grades on some portions of the line, a 3-cylinder 
compound freight engine was designed in 1893. This class had eight- 
coupled driving wheels, 5 1 in. in diameter, and all the cylinders were 
placed in a row under the smoke box; the high-pressure cylinders were 
without the frames, and the low pressure cylinder within, all driving on 
the same axle, the second from the front. Eighty-one of these engines 
are now running, and by their use many helping engines have been dis- 
pensed with, and the number of trains reduced. The total mileage up 
to February 28, 1899, was 3*628,727 miles, or an average of 28,331 
miles per engine per year. The average coal consumption was 53.4 



Proposed Couples Drop Test Machine 1.1:1 

pounds per mile per engine, which, as before, includes 1.2 pounds for 
lighting up, and all coal used while switching or standing. 

In 1894 the " John Hicks" class was designed for working the 
heavy passenger trains over the steep inclines on the northern division 
of the road. These engines were in all respects similar to the " Greater 
Britain" class, except the driving wheels were 75 in. instead of 85 in. 
in diameter. Ten of these have been built, and up to February 28, 
1899, have run a total distance of 629,180 miles, an average of 48,868 
miles per engine per year, with an average coal consumption of 44.8 
pounds per engine per mile. 

Further increases in the weight of passenger cars and the speed of 
such trains made necessary still more powerful locomotives, and in 1 897 
the "Black Prince" class was built. These engines, unlike the other 
compounds previously built, had two high and two low-pressure cylin- 
ders, with a boiler pressure of 200 pounds. The cylinders, 15-in. and 
20)^ -in. by 24-in., were placed in a row, and all connected to the same 
axle, while the arrangement of the valve gear was modified. Two en- 
gines of this class are now running, and eighteen more are building. 
The total mileage for the two up to February 28, 1899, was 190,324 
miles, or an average of 57,820 miles per engine per year, the average 
coal consumption being 40.3 pounds per engine per mile. 

A PROPOSED DROP TEST MACHINE FOR 

COUPLERS. 

In its report to the late Master Car Builders convention, the com- 
mittee on M. C. B. couplers took occasion to present a design for a 
standard drop testing machine. The committee, in submitting this 
design (which we show herewith), stated that, in the first place, the ma- 
chine must be reproducible ; that a machine built on rock foundation 
should give just the same results as one built on soft soil, and that to 
this end it has seemed indispensable that the anvil should be spring sup- 
ported. The committee in further comment on its design, said : " As 
strong and rigid a foundation as can be built must be put down, and the 
capstone covered with a cast-steel bed plate, having recesses cored in it 
to receive the steel housings for the legs of the machine. The 1 5-foot 
blows will be abandoned, as all the testing necessary can be done with 
the 10-foot blows, and the 15-foot blows have been found to be too 
destructive to the auxiliary apparatus in jerk tests, yoke forgings and 
.equalizer bars breaking when submitted to these severe shocks. Besides 



1.54 



Railway Master Mechanic 




fbii, ci Sech on Ho if Section 
fhrc^ gh Springs through Cenizr 



Brick found<rt/or 8.8 a/fcp 
?<JB'ot bottom, B'dcep 



A Proposed Drop Test Machine for Couplers 



Ikon Axle Test Specifications 



1 .V) 



that, it seems to be difficult to get couplers to stand even io-foot blows, 
so that 15-foot blows may be left out of the question entirely. The 
anvil is made heavy enough to absorb in itself all blows and is supported 
on springs which are wound on definite sizes of mandrels, and from 
steel to fulfill definite specifications. The uprights to support the 
brackets carrying the yoke attachment for jerk tests are bolted down to 
the anvil, and leave plenty of room for the latter to rise and fall easily. 
The machine is accessible in the highest degree, and couplers can be 
easily and quickly put in and taken out in all tests. By the use of steel 
blocking and wedges, all couplers are held firmly in drop tests, and all 
are put on the same basis. It is believed that this machine can be built 
anywhere, and couplers tested on it are sure of receiving the same treat- 
ment as others tested in a different place." Further details of the pro- 
posed machine are revealed by our engraving. 



IRON AXLE TEST SPECIFICATIONS. 

The abstract which we gave last month of the Master Car Builders' 
committee report on specifications for wheels and axles was incomplete, 
the committee not having up to date of publication given the figures for 
the drop test for iron axles. The committee has since supplied these 
figures, and we append the missing clauses, as follows : 

6. It is desired that the axles when tested as specified above shall stand the number 
of blows at the heights specified in the following table without rupture, and without ex- 
ceeding, as the result of the first blow, the deflections given: 



Axle. 


No. Blows. 


Height of Drop. 


Deflection. 


M. C. B. 4^ by 8-inch journals for 60,000- 
pound cars 


5 
5 
5 


2l l / 2 ft. 
29 ft. 
36 ft. 


7's in. 
6,^ in. 


M. C. B. 5 by 9-inch journals for 80,000- 
pound cars 


M. C. B. S/4 by 10-inch journals for 100,- 
ooo-pound cars 


5V« in - 





7. Axles will be considered as having failed on drop test and will be rejected if they 
rupture or fracture in any way, or if the deflection resulting from the first blow exceeds 
the following: 

M. C. B axle, ^% by 8-inch journals 8^s inches. 

M. C. B. axle, 5 by 9-inch journals 8,' rt 

M. C. B. axle, $y z by 10-inch journals . 6j\. 



L56 



Railway Master Mechanic 



DRUM OF 
//VD/C^TOR-fTl 

( CORD~ 




DRUM 0F± 
CORD _ \*J_ 



REDUCING MOTION FOR INDICATORS. 

The reducing motion for indicators, of which we give a sketch, was 
designed by Mr. W. E. Symons, superintendent of motive power of the 
Plant System, its details being worked out by Mr. George W. Wildin, 
mechanical engineer of that system. Mr. Symons, who has long been 
an extensive user of the indicator, formerly employed, with considerable 
success, a Bumbo pulley. This required the use of from four to six 
feet of cord to reach from the pulley to the instrument, and in operating 
it without using the detent arrangement it required an additional cord 
to reach from the pulley to the operator, making some ten or twelve 
feet altogether. It not infrequently happens that this cord becomes 
entangled, or caught in some of the working parts of the mechanism, 
and either broken or disabled at a time when most needed. In attempt- 
ing to improve on these conditions, Mr. Symons applied one of the re- 
cently made reducing motion wheels made of aluminum. This device is 



"Suggestions from the Chair" i:>; 

a very good one, and Mr. Symons considers it very accurate up to a 
certain speed, beyond which, however, he contends, the cord is injured, 
and frequently becomes broken. He found that in locomotive work 
when the engine was making over 200 revolutions per minute that this 
string would soon fail, and at extremely high rates of speed, he thinks 
that the trembling or vibratory motion of the cord contributes somewhat 
to an irregular line on the indicator card. At all events, he abandoned 
this device and made in its stead the all metal device, an illustration of 
which we give herewith, employing the straight link, or what is most 
commonly called Scotch crosshead, as a means of reducing motion. 
With this arrangement only eight or ten inches of cord is required, in- 
cluding the cord that is wrapped around the drum. The device is posi- 
tive and accurate in its movement at all points of the stroke and at all 
speeds ; in fact, it is a very easy matter to manipulate it when the 
engine is running at seventy to seventy-five miles per hour. There is 
no patent on this motion. 

"SUGGESTIONS FROM THE CHAIR." 

EXTRACTS FROM THE 
PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESSES AT OLD POINT COMFORT. 

BY PRESIDENT QUAYLE. 

As chiefs of motive power departments, we have many problems 
before us, and it may not be unprofitable to note the direction toward 
which the solution of some of them are drifting. 

POWERFUL LOCOMOTIVES AS MONEY SAVERS. 

Since our last convention we have seen a very marked advance in 
the weight and power of locomotives, both passenger and freight, and 
this is most important. The problem of freight service is how to meet 
the reducing rates with economies that will secure the maximum net 
earnings. To do this, more powerful locomotives are necessary, and yet 
the track must not be made to suffer ; and this, I believe, may be accom- 
plished. We may need to increase wheel loads somewhat, but by using 
larger driving wheels the counterbalance weights may be made even less 
destructive than small wheels with lighter loads. We ought to build 
engines that will haul at least 2,000 tons on grades of from 6-10 to 7-10 
of 1 per cent, and instead of driving wheels of 55 inches for road en- 
gines, on lines with ruling grades less than 1 per cent, we ought to 
use 60 inches. On such roads, by increasing train loads from 1,500 to 



L58 RaILWAI M L8TEB M K( 11 A NIC 

2,100 tons, we ought to save not less than half the cost of the heavier 
engine per year. 

The greatest possibilities in saving, by the use of more powerful en- 
gines, are in the wages of engine and train crews. The expense of run- 
ning a freight train for trips of about ioo miles at 10 miles per hour, 
which is uniform regardless of weight of train and the grades, is about 
>2 2.oo. The cost of coal will be less per ton mile for heavier trains, but 
it is this constant charge for crews which effects the saving when their 
number is reduced. The labor cost at the round-house will be some- 
what greater per engine miles, but when compared on the basis of ton 
miles it must be less, even when the labor of wiping is included. The 
wages of engine dispatchers are the same for heavy as for light engines, 
but since a smaller number are required for a given amount of work, 
this expense should be less with those engines that are more powerful. 

The saving in coal is next to that of labor, and within the proper 
limits of the capacity of the engine and of speed, the heavier the train 
the less coal is required per ton mile. This argument applies to the 
loading of engines, whether heavy or light, but its force is greatest in 
connection with very powerful locomotives. This may be demonstrated 
by coal reports kept for relatively long periods. It takes more oil to 
lubricate a heavy engine than a light one; but this, too, should be 
referred to the ton mile, when it appears as a saving in spite of the 
great increase in steam pressure and the dimensions of journals. The 
same holds true in regard to the cost of repairs. They also will increase, 
but not in proportion to the additional work done. With two engines 
operating on the same grades, one built to haul 600 tons and the other 
900 tons, the relative total cost of operation per 1,000 ton miles may be 
taken as the ratio of about 47 to 36, or a difference of about 25 per cent, 
or more than is usually expected from compounding. We are more for- 
tunate than our English cousins in having comparatively large limits for 
the size of our engines, and comparatively few of us have reached our 
limits yet. 

COM POL' XI) LOCOMOTIVES. 

At our last meeting in this place, the compound locomotive was pro- 
nounced "in the balance." It has, however, gained many friends, as 
experience has demonstrated that the strictly "compound features" 
have given but very little trouble, and it is not now doubtful that this 
type of engine is advantageous. It needs, however, to be more carefully 
designed, even more than the simple engine, as regards the details which 
give trouble by breaking, because the strains are greater at times and 



"Suggestions from the Chair" 159 

less uniform. The tendency toward heavier loading has been favorable 
to compounds, because of the possibilities of greatly increasing their 
pulling power at critical points on summits by use of live steam in the 
low-pressure cylinder. 

POSSIBLE IMPROVEMENTS IN LOCOMOTIVE DESIGN. 

The possibilities of lightening parts by the use of improved ma- 
terial, whereby capacity may be increased without increasing weight, 
should be utilized to the utmost. Larger boilers may be built without 
increase of total weight, and we may be encouraged in this by the great 
improvement of recent years in marine work. 

It would take too long to do more than partially enumerate the 
directions in which we may improve locomotives. The following need 
our attention : The reduction of waste power of the cylinder by reduc- 
ing back pressure and condensation ; piston valves ; feed water purifica- 
tion ; the forms of fire boxes and other factors tending to reduce stay- 
bolt strains and failures ; more thorough lagging of the boilers at the 
sides and front of the fire-box ; the further use of cheap fuels and care 
in the matter of details which will prevent engine failures on the road. 
All of these subjects are before us, and all of them give promise of good 
returns for the time and money spent upon them. 

SHOP DESIGN. 

In our shops we have too often a lot of buildings which have received 
additions from time to time without a definite plan, until we have many 
unsatisfactory conditions unfavorable to economical work. We permit 
our shop plants to run down, until some da)' we find they will no longer 
serve and they must be replaced with a complete new plant. It is better 
to plan carefully in the first place, providing for extensions, and then 
figure on a fair depreciation, and by spending a specified sum each year 
no renewal or general house cleaning of the entire plant need ever be 
necessary. It is our duty to properly impress this upon our superiors. 
Although it may be difficult to carry out the plan, business policy 
demands it. 

POWER FOR SHOPS. 

The distribution of power in shops needs thought. We have elec- 
tricity, compressed air and also the gas engine to aid us, and I predict 
that after ten years we shall look back with surprise at the prevailing- 
shop power methods of the present. We need more power cranes and 
more modern and powerful tools. We must give more attention to the 
cost of work and to those commercial methods that make success or 
failure in manufacturing establishments. 



l»;n Railway MaSTEB MECHANIC 

CARE OF EMPLOYES. 

The welfare and comfort and the surroundings of our men, both on 
and off duty, interest us now, but much more ought to be done in these 
matters in the lines of reading rooms, places of recreation and in pro- 
viding lectures, instruction and entertainment. We should use the 
technical papers intelligently. It is a good plan for the head of the 
motive power department to mark articles and send them to their master 
mechanics and such other employes as they would deem wise, asking 
for comments and suggestions. Will not a little work in this direction 
pay well ? 

ENGLISH VS. AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVES. 

Not many years ago, acrimonious discussions were printed in tech- 
nical papers, tending to show that English vs. American locomotive 
practice had two sides, and I believe that our English brothers would 
be the gainers were they to look to us in some of the things that we are 
doing in this country, and it would not be amiss if we were to study 
more closely some of their methods. It is by studying the best methods 
adopted by the other fellow that we can expect to improve our own 
conditions and lay aside some of our old-time practices. 



BY PRESIDENT SCHROYER. 

A third of a century has come and gone since the first meeting was 
called, of what is now the Master Car Builders' association of America. 

GROWTH OF THE M. C. I!. ASSOCIATION. 

The body of men in attendance here to-day, the interests that are 
represented, have developed and expanded until, from a small beginning 
thirty-three years ago, we have here now a membership of 458 persons, 
representing 3,348,131 cars, or about $500,000,000 in money. These 
figures are such that they should cause us to consider seriously all ques- 
tions that are brought before this association, either in the adoption of a 
standard of construction, or in the rules governing the interchange of 

cars in traffic. 

A POETIC THOUGHT. 

Since our last meeting at Saratoga was held a year ago, the ravages 
ot war have almost passed away, and peace, with its attendant prosperity 
has again dawned upon our land ; so that, to-day, we are almost in a posi- 
tion to cast our cannon, used in deadly strife, into car wheels, on which to 
carry the products of farm and factory from the interior to the seaboard, 
and from coast to coast, where they should be carried in American boats, 
built by American citizens, to the farthest nations of the earth. 



"Suggestions from the Chair " 161 

CHEAP TRAFFIC MOVEMENT. 

I presume that there has been no prolonged period in our history 
when the general business of our roads has been conducted on so 
extensive a scale as it has been during the past year ; and it is also fair 
to assume that there has been no year in the history of the world when 
a ton of freight has been transported so cheaply, safely and quickly from 
one side of our continent to the other, as has been the case during the 
year just passed. To what extent we, as the heads of our representa- 
tive mechanical departments of the railroads, have added to these con- 
ditions, must be left for wiser heads than mine to determine ; but as a 
mechanical man, at the head of the mechanical department of a railroad, 
I can see in all directions the advances that have been made by us, both 
in enabling us to carry loads larger and safer and faster, and transport- 
ing passengers under higher speeds with a greater degree of safety, com- 
fort and elegance than has ever been known before. 

WORK OF THE ARBITRATION COMMITTEE. 

Your arbitration committee has, during the year, passed upon thirty- 
five cases in dispute. This is the least in number that have been acted 
on for years, and speaks volumes of praise for the good feeling and 
honesty of purpose existing between the respective mechanical depart- 
ments, and for the rules of interchange as they exist to-day, and the 
harmonious manner in which the railroads are interchanging the vast 
volume of business under which our diversified interests are transported 
from one section of the country to another. This committee has justly 
come to be looked upon as a sort of governing power in our interchange 

rules. TRAINS PARTING. 

Personally, I am not hopeful that very much improvement will be 
made in the direction of preventing trains parting, until we have entirely 
eliminated the use of the link and pin drawbar. 

THE HEIGHT OF COUPLERS. 

The recommendations, as made in the report by the committee on 
height of couplers may not, in the opinion of many, be the most desir- 
able, as the opinion prevails strongly in many quarters that the limit 
in the height of couplers should be increased. Personally, I am of the 
same opinion, but think with the committee that the time for the increase 
of this limit has not yet arrived, and will not, until the automatic coupler 
has come into use. That day, I am glad to say, is not far distant, as the 
progress which has been made during the past year in the applying of 
this device, is such that I am hopeful that all roads in the country will 



162 Railwai Master Mechanic 

have their cars properly equipped by the time the law goes into effect 
in January next. I am of the opinion that this association should take 
some action as regards this matter, and do all in its power to have the 
new couplers applied by the time the law goes into effect. 

If I might be permitted to mention a few of the conditions which 
would make necessary the increase of these limits, I would state that 
the amount of wear we have on our wheels — which will probably reach 
as much as three-eighths of an inch — one-half to five-eighths' inch wear 
on our brasses, the amount of compression there is in the springs, 
the necessary wear on the carrying iron, and the dropping of the draft 
apparatus, are such that the limit of three inches between the maximum 
and minimum height is not enough in general service. 

THE M. C. B. COUPLER. 

Your special attention is directed to the much-discussed question of 
the Master Car Builders' drawbar. You are all familiar with the amount of 
adverse criticism which has been passed recently on the use of this bar. 
I think if we will look honestly into the question, we cannot help but 
come to the conclusion that much of the difficulty in its use is due to 
the great variety of makes that are now on the market, the inferior 
quality of material that is being used in their construction, and difficulty 
of handling them with the link and pin bar. Failures of bars are mul- 
tiplied to-day, because of the increased work required of them. I believe, 
however, that the roads using the greater number of bars of the better 
makes are so entirely satisfied with the results of the service obtained 
that they have no complaints whatever to make as regards the merits of 
the M. C. B. coupler. 

REPRESENTATIVE MEMBERSHIP. 

The question of representation in this association has been called to 
my attention by one of the members, and I am led to believe that many 
are of the opinion that representation should be changed from its pres- 
ent wheelage basis, where eight wheels represent a car, to a tonnage 
basis, as the claim is now made that railroads represented heretofore 
having a large number of four-wheeled cars of eight or ten thousand 
pounds capacity, are having these replaced by eight-wheel cars having 
sixty, eighty and one hundred thousand pounds capacity. The result 
is that their tonnage is very largely increased, while their representation 
in this association is very materially decreased. These conditions pre- 
vail on most of the roads in this country. The question presents a field 
of inquiry that merits your attention and is presented to you as food for 
thought, as I have no recommendation to make in this direction. 



Wateb Purification IG3 



BEST METHOD OF PREVENTING TROUBLE IN BOILERS FROM 

WATER IMPURITIES.* 

The first effort in preventing trouble in boilers from water impurities should be in 
searching out sources of supply furnishing the best obtainable feed waters. 

i. In building a water station where, by a larger first outlay, water of a better qual- 
ity (that is, costing less for purification) may be obtained, the question should be care- 
fully considered before accepting the poorer water in order to save first cost of plant 
The treatment of water is expensive, and the cost will pay the interest on a large invest- 
ment. For example, in a station furnishing 100,000 gallons of water in twenty-four 
hours, which costs 4^ cents per 1,000 gallons for purification, were it possible to substi- 
tute a supply costing but 2% cents per 1,000 gallons for treatment, an outlay of $16,425 
would be warranted in order to bring about the change. The annual cost for purifying 
the 4^-cent water would be $1,642.50 ; for the 2^-cent, $821.25 ; the difference in the 
cost for the two treatments being $821.25, which equals 5 per cent on an investment of 
$16,425. 

2. Where necessity compels the use of troublesome water there are^few cases where 
by treatment, either mechanically or chemically, fairly good waters for boilers may not 
be obtained, the important consideration being the method employed. 

There are in the market numerous so-called water purifiers, purges, oils and boiler 
cleaners, many of them absolutely worthless, others dangerous. It should be a rule never 
to allow the use of any compound for this purpose until its effects and dangers are fully 
understood. 

3. The cost of purifying waters will always be cheap when compared with the use 
of waters which cause trouble in the boiler. The best methods to be employed can only 
be determined when the conditions are fully understood. The cost for water purification 
depends on the character of the water and the methods and reagents employed. Lime 
and soda ash are the cheapest of the effective and harmless reagents for this purpose, 
and direct treatment in the tender is the least costly method. 

Waters carrying twenty-five grains of incrusting matter per gallon, five of which are 
sulphates, may be successfully treated with soda ash at a cost of about 40 cents per 1,000 
miles of engine mileage, or about 6.12 mills per 1,000 gallons of water. 

With engines equipped with blow-off cocks of sufficient number and correctly 
located, and with 4 per cent of the water taken blown out, in keeping boiler free from 
sludge, the engine may be safely and satisfactorily run from 2,000 to 3,000 miles between 
washouts. 

Assuming the cost for untreated water to be 10 cents per 1,000 gallons, the 4 per 
cent wasted in blowing out would represent a value of 4 mills per 1,000 gallons, or a total 
for treatment and waste of 10.12 mills. In this calculation no account is taken of the 
heat losses in the water blown out, and if the blowing out be done at the end of the trip, 
when the engine goes into the roundhouse for a lay over, it should not be. But if on the 
road, a further cost equal to the value of the heat in the water wasted should be added 
to the other expenses for water purification. 

In waters of the character and treated by the methods just referred to, the result 
that may be expected from engines in freight service is that 100,000 to 200,000 miles may 
be made between changes of flues, and that the life of fire boxes will be from eight to 
fifteen years. 

Water with forty grains of incrusting matter, seven or eight of which are sulphates, 
may be treated in the same manner with fairly good results, but with an additional cost 



* Recommendations made by the Master Mechanics committee at the Old Point Comfort 
convention, June, 1899. Committee: A. E.Manchester, chairman, J. II. Manning, S. P. Bush, 
H. Bartlett, R. M. Galbraith. 



L64 



Railway Master Me<tia\i< 



for reagents and blowing out in proportion to the increase in incrusting matter and 
sulphate. 

Treatment of water in the station tank, as represented by the several cases already 
alluded to, costs for reagents from 2% to \Y 2 cents per 1,000 gallons, and we estimate 
the loss of water in cleaning the settling tank, and in blowing out to keep the concentra- 
tion of alkali to a safe limit, to be as great as by the direct method. The first cost for 
the water station is greater and will be further increased by the introduction of auto- 
matic devices for delivering the reagents. On the other hand, the special advantages are 
that the treatment may be varied to suit each particular condition of water ; also that 
the water freed from sludge will carry a greater concentration of alkali without trouble 
from foaming. 

The cost for treatment of water by mechanical purifiers or cleaners is for the water 
and heat lost in blowing out. The blow-off cock is the active agent for purification in 
all mechanical cleaners ; the part performed by the remainder of the devices is to assist 
in bringing mud within its reach. 



/ n eac * P'pe, 



ZO-/4 'tatf /r, 




4 rorfsofhotes 
Hater /.ne, . 



Closed ends 



26-yd'fioks moohom of pipe. 
//+ cWofY-offCocJ: 



Pipe secured not /esc- 
than /'odcie n?uc 
c'rorvs of holes 

■:. T> of P'pc 
in na!?r leg ofbo/.'er 



KSry/AfrororVcpc* 



A ' d ^charge pipes /ead f o 

7g,rn 
the, some height rkny frocA 



/eft of en, 



~ge P'pes 

■line.. One 1 



nC ' 00 Out 



'/B'-& notes m 5v> p/pe- 

Blow-off Piping Arrangement — N. Y. C. & St. L. Rv. 



An engine fitted with blow-off cocks, as shown in the accompanying drawing, which 
is the standard on the N. Y. C. & St. L. R'y, is, we believe, fully equipped with a good 
purifier. 

When waters contain little or no sulphates, or where alkali is troublesome or earthy 
matter is in suspension, they may be successfully handled by mechanical devices. 

We do not consider it safe practice, where sulphates are to be dealt with, to depend 
upon mechanical devices, except they be reinforced by chemical reagents for neutralizing 
the incrusting matter. 

The cost for clarification of water by filtering or settling is for first cost of plant, the 
interest and maintenance of same. By the unaided method, the only other expense 
should be for attendant, and water used in cleaning. 



Stay Bolt Practice L65 



With the mechanical filter, the water used for this purpose should not exceed 5 per 
cent of the amount pumped, and the time consumed in cleaning should be about fifteen 
to twenty minutes every five to ten hours. Where coagulants are used, there will be an 
additional cost for chemicals of 1 to 2 cents per 1,000 gallons of water clarified. 

Water purification by evaporation, as already explained, represents the most effect- 
ive practice of the day. The price given will be varied in proportion as the cost of labor 
and fuel be greater or less than the figures used in the case cited. 

4. There should be on the staff of the superintendent of motive power, where the 
size of the system will warrant, and boiler feed waters are troublesome, two specialists ; 
one a boiler washing inspector, who has charge of the boiler washing. In the perform- 
ance of his duties, he should, as often as possible, visit the different round-houses and 
shops to see that they are equipped with and using the tools intended for this purpose ; 
that the boiler washers understand how, and are doing good boiler washing ; where soda 
ash put in the tender is the reagent and method employed for purification, to" see that the 
correct amount is properly put in, observe the manner in which the blowing off is done, 
and to stay at each point until a personal inspection has been made of all boilers cared 
for by them. 

The other specialist should be an assistant to the chemist, and should have a knowl- 
edge of the chemistry of water, and a good understanding of geology ; the water supply 
of the system, so far as relates to quality, to be directed by him. Among his duties to 
be the searching for, and locating, the best sources of water, looking after the condition 
of water in existing stations, and where any falling off in quality develops, to determine 
cause. The analysis records, and reports in relation to water purification and supply, 
and its performance in the boilers, to be under his charge. He should spend a part of 
his time on the road, personally inspecting pumping and purifying plants and methods, 
and should keep in close touch with the boiler washing inspector, round-houses and 
shops. 

A man of this character, with a correct understanding and well directed efforts, 
would make himself useful in the department, and be the means of materially lessening 
trouble in boilers from water impurities. 



BEST METHOD OF APPLYING STAY BOLTS TO LOCOMOTIVE 

BOILERS.- 

Your committee on " Best Method of Applying Stay Bolts to Locomotive Boilers, 
Including Making the Bolts and Preparing the Holes," respectfully submits the following 
report : 

Through the medium usually employed — the circular of inquiry— the committee has 
obtained the experience of many of the members, and for which it wishes to express its 
thanks. The replies to the questions show that they were carefully prepared with a view 
of furnishing the committee all information required. 

To " begin with the beginning, " it has been thought best to submit the report show- 
ing, first, the process of manufacture of stay bolts, and to that end the subject will be 
considered under the several headings to indicate the same. 

CUTTING STAY BOLTS FROM THE BARS. 

The general practice is to cut stay bolts off to the required length by a concave cutter 
in a shearing machine. The Pennsylvania Company cuts them ofi in a turret lathe. The 

* Report presented to Master Mechanics' convention at Old Point Comfort, Jane, ls'.i'.i. 
by T. A. Lawes, Geo. F. Wilson and S. M. Vattclain. 



let; 



K \1 I W 11 M ASTEB M ECB AKII 



C. C C & St. L. R'y uses the device shown in Fig. i. The advantage in the use of this 



device is that the bolt is held more firmly, 
concave shears, and it cuts the ends oft 
squarely. When the concave cutter is used 
there is more or less tendency for the stay 
bolt to raise up while shear is cutting, and 
the result is the end is not cut off squarely 
There is no patent on this device. 

MAKING SQUARE ENDS ON STAY BOLTS. 

The usual method of making square 
heads is by the use of a bolt header. The 
Buffalo & Susquehanna R. R. makes them 
with dies under a steam hammer ; the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Cjuincy R. R. mills off 
square at end of stay bolt ; the Chicago cV. 
North- Western R'y makes the square with 
a punch under shears ; the C. C. C. & St. 
L. R y does the same with the device shown 
in Fig. 2. Heads can be put on with this 
device by one man at the rate of 300 per 
hour. An ordinary bolt header can do this 
work at the rate of 300 per hour, requiring, 
however, one man and a helper to operate it 



Jo fi r A/focA/ni. 



while being sheared, than in the ordinary 





Tot ' VjcAi/Zi 



^Mm/Post ^ §SSW 




'J ^-/ZT/>c/s 





3>//C 



3 



• v* 



: . 




Fig. 2. 



Fig. 1. 

headless bolts. 

Several members report that they 
do not square ends. The stay bolts are 
screwed into boiler by the aid of various 
devices. The Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy R'y uses a patent eccentric die, 
and the Chicago & West Michigan R'y 
uses a chuck for this purpose. The 
Northern Pacific R'y reports the use of 
a device for screwing bolts into firebox. 

The device used by the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe is shown in Fig. 3. 
It is not patented. 

The Chicago & Eastern Illinois R. 
R. has tried headless bolts, but has 
abandoned their use, for the reason that 
after screwing them in with an air mo- 
tor, an adjustment must be made by the 
use of an alligator wrench in order to 
move the bolt just far enough to prop- 
erly rivet it. The time used in adjust- 
ing and removing the alligator wrench 
more than balances the cost of forging 
the square ends on bolts. 

CUTTING THREADS. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Railway report the use of a six-spindle 
cutting machine — running the bolts 



Stay Bolt Practu i: 



L61 



through twice ; the first time roughing them down very nearly to size and the second time 
with dies that are in perfect condition — only requiring to straighten up, and cutting but 
little additional thread. 

The Delaware & Hudson Canal Company also take twocuts on stay bolts— the second 
cut being a very light one to finish. A better thread can be obtained by this method, 
though the usual practice is to take but one cut over a stay bolt. 

A number of roads report the use of a lead screw attachment an essential to produce 
stay bolts with threads of accurate pitch, viz : Erie ; Lehigh Valley ; Baltimore & Ohio : 
Grand Rapids & Indiana ; Chicago Great Western ; Delaware. Lackawanna & Western ; 
Chesapeake & Ohio ; Penna. Lines west of Pittsburg ; Philadelphia, Reading & New 
England ; Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste Marie ; Northern Pacific ; Rio Grande 
Western ; Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific ; Buffalo & Susquehanna and Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois. 

The lubricant reported as giving the best results in cutting stay bolts is lard oil. 
Summer cottonseed oil is as good, and dies will remain sharp as long with it as with lard 
oil, but after bolts are cut it is more liable to gum over the threads. This, however, 
has not been considered objectionable, except when bolts are prepared and stored for 




Sec//o/7 A. B 



Fig. 3. 



some time before they are used. The Lehigh Valley R. R. reports that the best lubricant 
they have found is two-thirds raw linseed oil and one-third signal oil. The Chicago. 
Milwaukee & St. Paul R'y uses bolt-cutting oil which consists of 60 per cent Natural 
West Virginia oil, 15 per cent fish oil and 25 per cent No. 1 lard oil. This was found 
entirely satisfactory. 

SPECIAL FORMS OF STAY BOLTS. 

The Erie R. R. uses upset ends on radial stays ; the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
R'y turns stay bolts down in center with a Niles screw machine ; the Boston & Maine 
R. R. swages them down in the middle instead of upsetting the ends ; the Rio Grande 
Western R'y cuts them down in center below bottom of threads in a bolt cutter, with 
blind dies, working with a lead screw ; the Chicago Great Western R'y reports the use 
of crown sheet stay bolts with threads turned off in the middle — the work being done in 
a turret lathe ; the standard practice of the Lehigh Valley R. R. is to upset both ends for 
about one inch, on which threads are cut, the center of bolt being left blank ; the North- 
ern Pacific R'y reports that all long stay bolts are turned smaller in diameter at center 
than at ends, the work being done on a "Gisholt" machine ; the Union Pacific R'y turns 
stay bolts down in center in a lathe. 

PREPARING STAY-BOLT HOLES. 

The following roads report preparing stay-bolt holes in fire-boxes by first punching 
them smaller than required size and then reaming them to size — -thus removing disturbed 
metal, viz : Delaware & Hudson Canal Company ; Chicago & North-Western : Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern ; Missouri Pacific : Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. 



Railway Master Mechanic 

Marie; Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ; Chicago Great Western; Lehigh Valley; 
Norfolk & Western ; Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul ; Northern Pacific ; St. Louis & 
San Francisco. 

The following roads report drilling stay-bolt holes in fire-boxes, viz.: Chicago & 
North-Western ; Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeling ; Erie ; Chicago, Burlington & Cjuincy ; 
Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic : Southern ; New York, Ontario & Western ; Buffalo & 
Susquehanna ; Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific : Penn. Lines west of Pittsburg, and 
Grand Rapids & Indiana. 

A large number of roads report the use of ordinal) stay-bolt taps. A number, how- 
ever, claim advantages in the use of the "Echols" patent stay-bolt tap made by Pratt & 
Whitney. The principle of this tap is the omission of each alternate tooth ; each cutting 
tooth is followed by a space which gives a freedom of action to the cutting teeth, impos- 
sible in the old style, thus decreasing the resistance from 30 to 50 per cent. 

"detector" holes in solid stay bolts. 

The general practice is to drill stay bolts after they are in position. A few members 
report punching these holes by means of a steel-wire punch in a bolt-heading machine. 
The Chicago & Eastern Illinois R. R. uses an air motor attached to a framework allow- 
ing the drill to be set at any angle. This device is illustrated in Fig. 4. 

In making and applying stay bolts to locomotive boilers, two important factors must 
be carefully considered : The stay-bolt tap and the hob tap which cuts the dies in bolt- 
cutting machine must be true to pitch, and then the machine must have some special 
device for making the threads true to pitch. Cutting stay bolts true to pitch is a subject 
that deserves more investigation, we think, than any other detail connected with making 
and applying them properly. The weak point in a great many shops is in cutting stay 
bolts untrue to pitch. It has been found that accurately pitched dies will not produce 
true-pitched bolts. 

Pratt & Whitney write the committee that "the problem of making a tap with long 
thread and keeping that thread to approximately correct lead has been a very annoying 
one to us, and doubtless to others, and is still annoying, for the very reason that we can- 
not rely upon the extent to which steel will change and the manner in which the change 
will take place. We overcome this very largely, however, by having carefully annealed 
steel to begin with ; having the annealing as uniform as possible, and threading the tap 
with a screw which is made expressly for the work, and which has an error approximately 
the error which takes place in the tap in the hardening operation ; i.e., long experience 
teaches us that steel will change in a certain direction. In the great majority of cases 
this direction is toward the shortening rather than the lengthening. We accordingly 
make the lead screw of our lathe long, as stated above, to compensate for the shrinkage 
or shortening that will take place in the steel when hardening. We very often have to 
give the tool a double shrinkage in very special cases. What we mean by double shrink- 
age is hardening the tool and reannealing before the final finish, threading on all impor- 
tant taps that have any special length of thread. We confine the error to .0015 per inch 
or . 1 3 inch per foot. " 

Correctly cut dies alone will not cut true-pitch stay bolts ; to insure stay bolts being 
cut true to pitch, two methods have been employed : A lead screw attached to the 
carriage of a bolt-cutter is one way to accomplish this, and the lead-controlling feature 
employed by the Jones & Lamson Machine Company in the dies used in flat-turret lathe 
made by them the other. 

The Acme Machinery Company writes the committee as follows : 
All dies that we have any knowledge of, gain threads and lose pitch when cutting 
threads. Some of our expert diemakers can grind a set of dies so that they can be made 
to do most anything, ' but that does not help the 'rank and file, ' into whose hands such 



Stw Bolt Practice 



ir,o 




-«^H 



1 










1 










1 




L 






i 


j 








1 






i 


* 1 






i 


5: ~^- 






hd 


P ^ $ 






1 


1 ^ 






J 


* 1 

9 ^ 


| 
1 


>3 

a 

v 
5- 


( 


1 *ody$09%2 


■<t\ 


% 














^1 


S\ 



a machine falls. All kinds of schemes and contrivances have been made and used in 
trying to correct the disposition of a set of dies to cut out of pitch. Supposing, for in- 
stance, the rear teeth of a set of dies would act as a nut ; they would certainly begin 
with an error, because the leading teeth are apt to begin with more or less error, as they 
'nibble' at the end of a bolt.'' 

At the New York meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, in 
December, 1897, Mr. James Hartness, of Jones & Lamson Co., read a paper on a stay- 



170 Railway Master Mechanic 

bolt threading device which has some valuable features, especially for radial stays, where 
there are threads on both ends of stay bolts and long blank spaces between. 

We quote from the paper : The scheme may be briefly and perhaps completely 
described as 'Tandem' dies for simultaneously threading both ends of a stay bolt to 
insure correspondence in lead. These tandem dies are designed for use in a turret lathe. 
and cannot be applied to a bolt cutter. " Mr. Hartness further states that : "Stay bolts 
are mostly cut by dies permitted to control their own lead ; occasionally, however, a lead 
screw is used to govern the pitch of the die. The lead-screw scheme seldom controls the 
lead of the die at the beginning cf its cut, on account of the slackness of the slides and 
intermediate connections ; hence the die usually has a chance to cut a very incorrect lead 
before the screw has taken up the 'slack* and 'spring' of intermediate parts. " The dies 
are described as follows : "The teeth at the front of the die have a cutting clearance, 
while the teeth at the back of the die have no clearance, but instead, ride on the thread 
and control the lead. So accurate is the lead-controlling feature that regular dies for 
market seldom have an error in lead greater than ^ 4 inch in iS inches, which is less than 
one-fourth the average error in standard taps. " 

The committee has samples of screw-cutting done by the use of a lead screw on a 
bolt cutter, and also by the use of a Hartness die. Both methods give equally good 
results, so far as can be judged by the samples. 

The investigations of the committee lead it to believe that the best method of making 
and applying stay bolts is as follows : Cut the stay bolts from the bars by means of a 
shearing machine ; make square ends by the use of a bolt-heading machine, or punching 
the metal from the bar to form a head ; cut threads in a bolt cutter having a lead screw. 
or on a turret machine having special dies that will cut true to pitch. 

For a cutting lubricant, lard oil is the best, with yellow cottonseed oil a close second. 

In preparing the stay-bolt holes, we recommend that : In the fire box, they should 
be drilled ; in the shell of boiler, punched 's-inch smaller than required size, and the 
remainder reamed out with a reamer on end of stay-bolt tap. Holes should be tapped 
with some form of air or electric motor, and stay bolts screwed in with same device. 

We also recommend that stay-bolt taps, and hob taps for cutting stay-bolt dies, be 
purchased from some reputable maker in preference to making them at a railroad shop. 
Stay-bolt and hob-tap making requires special skill and most accurate tools, which are 
not always available at railroad shops. 

For cutting off stay bolts, no device appears to answer for all bolts. The best prac- 
tice seems to be as follows : Where bolts are of uniform length, and are at right angles 
with sheets, as in vertical water space surrounding fire box, it is best to 'nick'' the bolts 
in a lathe to the right length ; after being screwed into place a slight tap on the end is 

sufficient to break them off. For bolts that require to be cut off at an angle, an electric 
saw can be used to advantage ; as in cutting off radial stay bolts, outside of boiler. A 
pneumatic cutting machine can be used to advantage for cutting off bolts of variable 
lengths after they have been screwed into place, where it would not pay to handle them 
singly in a lathe or cutting machine. 

The committee knows of no better way of riveting stay bolts than the well-known 
method with the common hammer, and a holding-on hammer at the other end of the stay 
bolt. It is the committee's opinion that some form of air motor for drilling the 
"detector'' holes in stay bolts is preferable to punching them. The objections to punch- 
ing detector holes is that while stay bolts are being riveted the holes close up and require 
to be opened with a drift. When the bolt is drilled, after it has been riveted, there is no 
further work to be done. 



Locomotive exports from this country have grown remarkably 
heavy. All classes of our manufactures of iron and steel have shared 
in the growth of popularity abroad, but this is especially marked in the 



Responsibility for Broken Side Door 



i;i 



higher grades of manufactures, such as steel rails, railway locomotives, 
builders' hardware, machinery of all sorts, and especially those machines 
used in manufacturing. The number of railway engines exported during 
the year was 517, against 468 in 1898, 338 in 1897, 261 in 1896, 252 
in 1895, and 142 in 1894, while the value of the exports of locomotives 
in 1899 was $4,728,748, against $1,028,236 in 1894. Of the 517 rail- 
way locomotives exported during the year, 99 went to Russia, 69 went 
to Japan, 61 to China, 59 to Mexico, 50 to Canada, 36 to British East 
Indies, 25 to England, 23 to Sweden and Norway, 20 to Brazil, 14 to 
the West Indies, and 1 1 to Africa. One interesting feature of this 
large exportation of locomotives in 1 899 is that 211 of the 5 1 7 exported 
went to Asiatic countries. 



THE CAR FOREMEN'S ASSOCIATION OF 

CHICAGO. 

JULY MEETING. 

The regular meeting of the Car Foremen's Association of Chicago, was held in the 

rooms of the Western Society of Engineers, 1741 Monadnock Building, Chicago, July 13. 

President Morris called the meeting to order at 8 p. m. Among those present were : 



Anderson, A. 
Ashcroft, Norman. 
Bassert, Chas. 
Blohm, Theo. 
Bond, L. E. 
Cardwell, T. R. 
Cather, C. C. 
Coleman, T. 
Cook, W. C. 
Depue, Jas. 
Davies, W. O., Jr. 



Dair, Wm. 
Earle, Ralph. 
Guthenberg, Bruno. 
Gardner, Lewis S. 
Gruhlke, E. 
Green, C. E. 
Grieb, T. C. 
Hatch, H. D. 
Hansen, A. P. 
Hultman, Chas. 



Holtz, Chris 
Jones, A. A. 
Jones, R. R. 
Johannes, A. 
Kehm, H. C. 
Kuhlman, H. V. 
LaRue, H. 
Morris, T. R. 
Mc Alpine, A. R. 
Olsen, Louis. 



Reinhard, F. B. 
Stewart, H. 
Smith, E. B. 
Stuckie, E. J. 
Schultz, A. 
Shearman, Chas. 
Shaw, Mark. 
Wentsel, Geo. 
Williams, Thos. 
Wensley, W. H. 



MISCELLANEOUS BUSINESS. 

The question of the matter of the annual celebration was taken up, and the chairman 
was instructed to appoint a committee of five to provide for same. 

The chairman was also instructed to appoint a committee to revise the constitution 
and by-laws of the association, the present articles having been outgrown. 

Secretary Cook announced the names of H. D. Hatch of the I. C. R'y, and Chas. 
S. Shearman of the Burton Stock Car Co., as approved applicants for membership. 

RESPONSIBILITY FOR BROKEN SIDE DOOR. 

The association then entered upon the discussion of a case in dispute between two 

railroad companies, a synopsis of which follows : 

"A" delivers one of his cars to "B" with side doors in apparent good order. Two days 
later "B" returns the car to "A" with one side door inside the car all broken up. 
"A'' demands defect card for the broken door. 'B" declines to issue card, claim- 
ing that from what can be learned the door fell off the car while in his yard, and was 
run over by another car. "A" claims had the door been removed from the tiack 
and properly taken care of after it fell from the car, the damage would not have 
occurred, therefore it is a case of unfair usage and "B" is responsible. Which 
position is correct ? 



172 Railway Masteb Mechanic 



Mr Wensley : I think this is a case of owner's defect. If the side door fitted 
properly it would not have fallen oft. I had a case a short time ago. of a side door falling 
off in the yard and the corner being cut off. The Rock Island man-asked for a card. I 
told him we did not ask anybody for cards. 

President Morris : This question hinges on the claim that the owner has made, that 
the door should have been taken care of after it fell oft. The owner acknowledges 
responsibility for a door lost from a car, and he also acknowledges responsibility for a 
door broken in falling oft ; but he says he thinks, where the door had fallen off and was 
run over by a car on an adjoining track, that the delivering company is responsible. 

A Member : We had a case ten days ago of a side door falling oft. The car was 
being inspected at the time and there was a train moving on the next track. It would 
take seventy men in our yard to watch the tracks and keep the doors off. 

Mr Jones : I should consider that this was a case of owner's defect. Rule 3, Sec- 
tion 24, fully covers it. It is impossible to be running around picking up doors off the 
track If the door had fitted properly, no doubt it would not have fallen off. 

Mr. La Rue : I hardly agree with this view. This car was offered in interchange 
with the door off. There is a decision of the arbitration committee, if I remember 
rightly, in regard to a drawbar that was placed in a car, and after the car got to its des- 
tination the drawbar was missing. They claimed that it was in the car when it left them. 
The Master Car Builders' rules do not contemplate sending anything home not billed as 
freight. This car seems to have been offered in interchange without the door, the door 
being inside as freight. If the car had been repaired this would have been an owner's 
defect. 

President Morris : The owners acknowledge responsibility for a broken door. 

Mr. LaRue : They ask for a defect card. 

President Morris : If the broken door had been put inside the car and then removed 
by some one before it got home to the owner, that would place a different phase on the 
case. 

Mr Grieb : I do not see any difference between this case and a door lost in fair 
usage — I fail to see why the fact that the door was cut in two alters the case. The rules 
place the responsibility on the owners if the door is lost, and it seems to me that it does 
not make any difference what happens to the door afterward — whether it be cut in two 
or recovered — as long as it is not applied to the car it is lost, and the responsibility 
remains with the car owner. 

Mr. Reinhard : The company that received that car with the door in good condi- 
tion, and after handling it through their yard knocked the door off, or it fell off, and 
allowed it to remain on the ground to be cut in two by some engine or cars, should be 
held responsible. It is a case of unfair usage. That company might have availed itself 
of the privilege of the rules by putting the door back on the car and billing against 
owners. It seems to me, it is the same as delivering a car with material missing. The 
company had no business knocking the door off the car and virtually destroying it. 

Mr. Grieb : I would like to ask the gentleman what reason he has for supposing this 
door was carelessly left lying on the adjoining track, or what interval of time elapsed 
between the time the door fell off and the time it was cut in two. It might have been 
done simultaneously, and if so, what power on earth could have saved that door ? What 
evidence is there to show that there was any lapse of time ; that any effort could be made, 
and that no effort was made ? 

Mr La Rue : Cars are supposed to be handled with fair usage. Now we all know, 
as a rule, that doors don't fall off when cars are standing. But doors will be left half 
way hung, and in passing through the yard fall off, because some one is too careless to 
hang them up. There is nothing to show, that I know of, that this door was not knocked 



Responsibility for Broken Side Door L73 

off ; it is possible it fell oft", but the chances are it was knocked off. The chances are it 
would be considered cornered. 

President Morris : There is no question but that the door fell off in the yard. The 
owners do not make claim on account of the door being knocked off, or of the fact that 
it might have been knocked off ; they simply say that the railroad company that handled 
the car showed negligence in not picking up the door before it was run over. 

Mr. La Rue : Rule 2 says that cars offered in interchange must be accepted if in 
serviceable condition. If a car has a door broken, it is not in serviceable condition. 

Mr. Kehm : I do not think that settles the question as to who is responsible for 
that door. If my neighbor rejects the car I would repair it and bill him for it, and he 
would pay the bill. I would say that the owner of the car is responsible. 

Mr. La Rue : Under certain conditions. 

Mr. Jones : Rule 3, Section 24, says, " missing or damaged under fair usage of any 
part of the body." Now it appears to me, that that door probably was not secured to the 
body of the car sufficiently and had fallen off in transit and got run over, and I consider 
that the owners are responsible. 

Mr. Davies, Jr.: I am of the opinion that the owner is responsible for the door, 
since the door was put inside of the car and the car delivered home to owners. The 
delivering line is not responsible for the door. 

Mr. Coleman : There is a doubt as to where the door fell off, and whether proper 
precaution was taken to preserve the door. The door might have fallen off on a switch, 
or it might have fallen off on the main line, where there was nobody to pick it up. There 
are many reasons why the door might fall off and still the owners be responsible. There 
is some doubt, and the Master Car Builders make no provision for a doubt. I cannot 
see but that the owner of the car is responsible, 

Mr. Depue : I think in this case the owner would be responsible. I think if the 
door had been properly fastened to the car, or properly hung, that in fair handling the 
door would not have fallen off. If it fell off, it was evidence that the door was not 
properly fastened. 

Mr. Oleson : Why was not this door taken care of before it fell off — the hangers 
tightened up, or something else done to it — to protect the owners ? I do not think it is 
fair to charge the owners for it. We have seven feet between rail and rail ; a side door 
covers six feet. If it fell off the car in the yard it would fall between the rails ; it would 
not fall on the rails. I have seen hundreds fall off, and they never fall on the rails. 
When they fall on the rails it is on a switch or on the frogs. I do not think it would be 
an owner's defect. 

Mr. Davies, Jr.: I have seen doors fall off cars, and I have never seen one that 
would fall between the tracks and keep in the clear. They fall across the next track 
every time. 

Mr. Bond : I have never seen a car door that would fall off and not fall on the 
track. A car door when it falls down will bounce ; it will not fall flat. If this car door 
was properly fastened and the car was handled with fair usage, that door would not fall 
off. There is no door that fits properly that with fair usage is liable to fall off. 

Mr. Cardwell : It appears to me that as the owner in this case made no claim that 
the door was knocked off, it must not have been fastened on the car properly, because it 
would. not have fallen off if it had been fastened properly, As to the matter of whether 
it was run over or not, I do not think the delivering road should be held responsible for 
it, because it cannot figure on where the door is going to fall. 

Mr. Kehm : The position assumed by Mr. Cardwell, I think, brings out another 
phase in this controversy, and that is negligence on the part of the delivering company. 
As long as the arbitration committee has placed a penalty on negligence, if the door was 
improperly hung or insecurely fastened, the delivering company should certainly pay the 



K4 li a n. way Mastkk Mechanic 



penalty by assuming responsibility for the door. But it doesn't seem, from the wording 
of the case in question, that the door was insecurely fastened or that it was knocked off 
by any obstruction placed alongside of the track. For that reason I should say the 
owners were responsible ; and I move that the association so decide in this particular 
case. 

This motion was carried. 

BROKEN DOOR POSTS ON REFRIGERATOR CARS. 

A " bills "B " for repairs to side door and post, the damage being on a refrigerator 
car belonging to "B." "B" asks for further information, and is told that the 
door was found swinging open, having been struck by something, breaking the door 
post and door stile. "A" claims it occurred in fair usage ; "B" claims it was on 
account of the failure of "A" to properly close the door. Which position is cor- 
rect ? 

Mr. Davies. Jr.: I should say that the company handling the car is responsible for 
the door. They should have closed it. 

Mr. La Rue : Decision 421 decides that damage to door post and door stile is not a 
proper charge. It was not shown that they damaged it by fair usage. 

Mr. Stuckie : Is there anvthing to show that there were hooks on, to hook the door 
back ? 

President Morris : No other information than what you have heard. The Secretary 
will please read a synopsis of decision 421. (Secretary reads case.) 

Mr. Kehm : The question of broken door posts on refrigerator cars has been a sub- 
ject of great annoyance to our company, and it is a question on which I am undecided — 
whether it is fair or unfair usage. We get empty refrigerator cars from connecting lines 
with the doors closed — sealed at times — and it is utterly impossible for an inspector to 
inspect the interior parts of a car to see whether a door has had a knock of the kind 
described, or whether the door post is broken, and there is nothing on the outside to 
indicate that the door post is broken. I have a case now with the N. C. & St. L., 
wherein we got a car with end post split — nothing on the outside to indicate such to be 
the case — and the door closed — still the owners desire to be reimbursed by our com- 
pany for the broken door post, claiming it could not be damaged in fair usage. We are 
unable to determine how that post was damaged, and I am inclined to believe that unless 
it can be located, that the party handling the car is directly responsible ; that it comes 
under the section in the rules quoted as the interior parts of the car at owner's risk. 

Mr. Grieb : It seems to me that some of the remarks Mr. Kehm has made do not 
apply to the particular case at issue this evening. One party acknowledges that the 
damage was done by reason of the door being open, and it seems to me that we ought to 
take the position that it is wrong to run refrigerator cars that are provided with means 
for holding a door in a closed or open position — run a car in any manner without the 
fastenings properly applied, either open or closed ; and that any damage resulting from 
running a car in such improper condition rests with the company handling the car. 

Mr. Kehm : W T hile I agree with Mr. Grieb, so far as this particular case is con- 
cerned, this association cannot afford to take the position on one case alone. W T hen we 
take a position on a case of door posts being damaged on refrigerator cars, it is usually 
followed by the inspectors in all cases. While this particular case may have come about 
by unfair usage, we have got to provide for others that may come up where there is no 
evidence that it was done in this manner, or take the position that all damage done to 
cars in this manner is unfair usage. 

Mr Grieb: Mr. Kehm raises a very interesting point in regard to the decisions 
passed by this association upon certain cases. It seems to me it is very proper, if it is 
necessary, that this association ought to have an understanding amongst its members that 
the decisions rendered apply only to the case at issue ; that we decide upon the actual 
evidence presented and not upon any hypothetical case. Therefore, one decision could 



Second-hand Parts in Repairing Couplers L75 



not apply to all cases, unless the circumstances attending the different cases were alike. 
A decision rendered in this particular case this evening regarding refrigerator doors being 
opened, could hardly apply to box car doors being open. I thought, until Mr. Kehm 
spoke, that we were simply debating the case at issue. 

President Morris : It seems to be pretty well understood that in this case the dam- 
age occurred on account of the door not being securely fastened. " A " doesn't say that 
it was so fastened ; he doesn't deny that it was swinging open ; and I think we ought to 
decide in that way, figuring that the door was open, swinging open — not securely fastened. 
It might have been struck by another car on account of its being'open and taking up so 
much more room. 

Mr. Jones : I think that " A " is responsible for the damage and should be billed. 

Mr. Reinhard : I think that a door post and door stile broken on a refrigerator car 
is simply unfair usage. I know our experience has taught us so. We handle a great 
many refrigerator cars, and we find that people don't fix back the doors. A refrigerator 
door swinging back and forth is liable to be knocked off. I think the company handling 
the car should be responsible — on the ground of unfair usage. 

Mr. Stuckie : How would this apply when fruit inspectors open a door and leave it 
open and a switch engine comes in, not knowing the door was open, and handles that 
car? Who would be liable then ? The owners open the car and it is on a railroad com- 
pany's ground. I have had an experience of that kind, where a fruit inspector came 
along and opened a fruit car on the opposite side from where the switchmen were work- 
ing, and the switchmen came in and pulled car out and pulled the door off. Who would 
be responsible for that? The owners left it there. 

President Morris : Who did you hold responsible? 

Mr. Stuckie : I guess the car went east. I do not know that anybody was held 
responsible down there. I don't know how it came out. Perhaps we had to pay for it. 
But such has been the case, nevertheless. 

Mr. LaRue : I think if the door was left open the switchmen would soon find it 
out. 

Mr. Wensley : The practice in..our yard is that when a fruit inspector comes in 
to inspect a car we send a man along with a pinch bar to open and close the door for 
him. 

Mr. LaRue : I move that in this particular case it is unfair usage. 

President Morris : It is moved that in this particular case the owners are not 
responsible ; in other words, it is a case of unfair usage. 

The motion was carried. 

THE USE OF SECOND-HAND PARTS IN REPAIRING COUPLERS. 

Mr. Grieb : There is one point I would like a little information on, that I think can 
be discussed here possibly with benefit, to me, at least, if not to all. Possibly the other 
members do not have such trouble. We find that some people in renewing M. C. B. 
couplers for defects of the body only, will, in applying the same kind of coupler, discard 
the knuckle and the other good parts and charge us for an entire new coupler. I would 
like to be advised if this is the general practice among the roads represented in the Car 
Foremen's Association. Of course we acknowledge responsibility for new body. But is 
it proper to throw away similar parts of the same make that are in good condition and fit 
for further use — discard them and replace them by new material of the same kind D The 
same make of coupler identically. 

Mr. Smith : Our superintendent of motive power asked that I should take up a 
similar case for discussion here to-night. He said he had a case with another road where 
they had removed one of our couplers and discarded the parts that were supposed to be 
good and charged him for an entire new coupler, giving him credit for only second-hand 



L76 Railway Mastek MECHANIC 

material. There are many who do not think this is fair. If parts are good they ouj>ht 
to be used. At the same time it is hardly right to put old parts in new couplers. 

Mr. Wensley : I had a similar case a few months ago. A Gould coupler had the 
guard arm broken oft. I removed the coupler and applied a new one. When I removed 
the knuckle I found that the pin was worn down one-eighth of an inch in thickness. 

Mr. Grieb : I would like to state that in the case that I mentioned we wish it under- 
stood that the knuckle is good for further service. If the stub shows any defect, we 
would be willing to pay for it. In fact, we would not think they were protecting our 
interests if they used material which was not fit for further use, as the knuckle pin you 
discarded was. But in the case we describe, the knuckle and the other parts, with the 
exception of the body, were good for further service, and instead of using those parts, 
they put in a new coupler of the same kind and charged us for the whole thing. 

A Member : When I put in the old material I give credit for it. 

Mr. Davis, Jr. : They way I handle such cases, if I have the same kind of a coupler, 
I put in the body and replace all the old parts, provided they are good ; such as the 
knuckle, locking block and knuckle pin. 

Mr. Bostwick : In my opinion the good parts are to be replaced. When the body 
alone is broken and the locking block, knuckle pin and knuckle are good, they ought to be 
replaced and charge for the body only. 

Mr. Coleman : When we put in a coupler we put in the knuckle if it is serviceable, 
also the locking block and knuckle pin. I move that it is the sense of this meeting that 
second-hand parts should be used in all cases when serviceable. 

Mr. Kehm : There is nothing in the M. C. B. rules which demands the replacement 
of second-hand parts in couplers. They provide that in changing couplers you can put 
in another make if necessary, and bill the owner by giving him second-hand credit for all 
the good parts; but there is not a word in the rules that says you must do it, even though 
you replace the same kind of a coupler. Our company would much prefer to have all 
new parts put in its cars and pay the difference between the second-hand price and the 
new. I think the owner derives the benefit from it and he is nothing out. 

Mr. LaRue : I am like Mr. Kehm ; that has always been my practice ; and I always 
thought it was a benefit to the owner of the car. There are lots of times when we could 
put a knuckle back in a car when it was half worn out, but we read the rules the other way. 

Mr. Cather : The rules say there is a difference between new and second-hand 
couplers — between new and second-hand parts. The gentleman who preceded me has 
stated that if new parts are put on, the car on which they are placed gets the benefit. 
The owner does not lose anything. The road making the changes allows him the value 
prescribed by the rules for parts removed. The rules do not say a second-hand knuckle 
is as good as new, but say they are worth only three-fourths as much as new. This is as 
a matter of equity. When a road changes couplers and puts in a new one, it is a benefit 
to all concerned. We always make it a point to investigate and are particular to apply 
the same kind of coupler. If the head is broken off, the men will apply a new coupler 
complete, claiming it is not good practice to mix partly worn and new parts, and if 
questioned they will always come back and say it was for this reason. If we take out 
second-hand parts and apply them to anew coupler it is a " botched " coupler, and the 
parts won't work like a new coupler complete. 

Mr Bond : I think in making repairs to couplers where there are any parts that will 
do, the) should be put back, if they fit properly. Then when you make out your card, 
mention on it what parts of the coupler were O. K. 

Mr. Jones : In replacing broken couplers we generally use the parts that are good. 
For instance, suppose a coupler has been applied, say, not over two months, and the 
knuckle, apparently, is almost as good as new. I don't think it would be just to throw 
that knuckle away and replace it with a new one, when it has only been used a short time. 



Second-hand Parts in Repaibing Couplers IT? 

Mr. Cather : The gentleman assumes that the coupler was two months old. It is 
just as fair to assume that it was two years old. There is nothing to show how old a 
coupler is, and a man is not supposed to have an idea of the wear and tear on a coupler. 
Still, it may be a good knuckle — serviceable, not entirely worn out. That is not the 
point. If we put in a new one it is worth one-fourth more than that old one. The road 
that gets that knuckle gets one-fourth more value ; therefore why not stand for it ? The 
same principle should apply as to couplers, when they are of different value. One 
coupler is worth Sio.oo and the other S9.00. If we put in a coupler that is worth $10.00 
we charge $10.00, or if an $8.00 coupler, charge $8.00 ; if we put in a knuckle that is 
worth $1.50, we charge $1.50. We don't throw removed ones away, but give them three- 
fourths value. We are not depriving them of any value. We are charging them a dollar 
for what we give them, and giving them credit for seventy-five cents. 

Mr. Jones : What will they do with the old parts ? 

Mr. Kehm : We apply them to other couplers where the knuckle is lost or broken. 
We don't have a surplus of them ; we don't have a sufficient number to supply the de- 
mand. It don't seem to me that this association can go contrary to the M. C. B. rules 
by advocating the use of second-hand parts exclusively. 

Mr. Stuckie : There is nothing in the rules that demand it ; therefore we cannot 
assume such a position. 

Mr. Reinhard : I believe our practice is to apply new couplers and retain the old 
parts removed that are not broken, and give second-hand credit for the second-hand 
parts. There is always a chance that they can be used up somewhere. 

Mr. McAlpine : We had a case just opposite from the case cited here to-night. The 
knuckle was broken and they threw the whole coupler away. If you make a ruling to 
use all second-hand parts, that would help us in such cases. 

Mr. Kehm : If the gentleman paid for a new coupler in that case, and only secured 
scrap credit for the good parts, he was doing an injustice to himself. 

Mr. McAlpine : Second-hand credit was allowed for the body. 

Mr. Kehm : Then he got the benefit of the coupler that was applied. 

A rising vote resulted 21 to 13 in favor of Mr. Coleman's motion. 

Mr. Kehm : I would like to ask where you get authority for making such a decision. 

Mr. Smith : I think we are going contrary to the M. C. B. rules. What are the 
rules for, if we are to come here and tear them to pieces? That is just what we are 
doing. 

President Morris : I think it was decided your way, Mr. Smith. 

Mr. Stuckie : This looks to me too much like boys' play. We have a Master Car 
Builders' association to formulate rules and we come here and tear them to pieces. I 
do not see where we have authority to do it. 

President Morris : I think this is merely a question of practice ; it does not affect 
the rules. 

Mr. Stuckie : This decision does affect the rules. It is quite contrary to the rules 
I think it is a poor showing for this association to thus put itself on record. I do not 
consider that it is justice, nor does it show good talent in our behalf. 

Mr. McAlpine : Is there anything in the rules prohibiting us from using second- 
hand material ? 

Several Members : No, sir. 

Mr. McAlpine : Then I do not see wherein this decision is contrary to the rules. 

Mr. LaRue : There is nothing in the rules to prohibit it, but I do not think it is 
good practice to put half worn-out knuckles in new heads. While it is legitimate and all 
right, I don't think it is good practice, especially when they are investigating the parting 
of trains as closely as they are now. They are going to place the blame somewhere. 

Mr. Davies, Jr.: This decision does not say you should use worn-out knuckles ; you 



L78 Railway Mastkk Mechanic 

should use only serviceable knuckles. If a knuckle is worn-out. take it out and bill the 
owner. 

Mr Cather : There is a difference between second-hand and new knuckles, or else 
there is not a difference. A coupler may run a year and be just as good as new ; but the 
rules don't say so. I do not care if you apply a coupler and it has been in only a day. 
It has been in use. At that time it may be as good as new ; it may be said to be better 
than new ; because it has had service and it has been tried. But there certainly must be 
a difference or there would not be a distinction in the rules. If we put in a new knuckle, 
why not charge the new price ? If we use the knuckle we took out, we must bill it at a 
second-hand figure. The rules say so. You may say it is as good as new. Perhaps it 
is. If there is any difference at all, why not be consistent ? If we remove a Gould and 
put in a Little Giant, new and complete, or if we remove a Little Giant and put in a 
Little Giant, new and complete, then it is the same identical thing. Then we must have 
full value in either case for complete coupler. Then again, it saves time ; it is quicker 
to put in a complete new coupler. 

Mr. Kehm : As long as this association has gone on record as advocating second- 
hand parts in preference to new, I would like to have all the members use and bill the 
Illinois Central for new material. We will pay the difference in price. We do not want 
second-hand parts in a new head and we are going to apply new material, if necessary, 
and bill the members accordingly. But I don't think this association can afford to go on 
record as advocating any such thing, 

A Member : I would like to have the motion reconsidered. 

Mr. Kehm : I second the motion. 

The motion to reconsider was lost by a rising vote of 21 to 11. 

Mr. Stuckie : There is one subject I would like to have brought up — the actual 
practice of the various railroad companies as to the care they give air brakes — as to oiling 
the triple valve — whether they actually do the work, or whether they put the date on, in- 
tending to do the work. 

Mr. Jones : I would like to have this question come up at the next meeting. 

Mr Smith : How are the members who have voted for this coupler decision going 
to maintain the contour lines of the coupler? That is going to be a feature that is worth 
considering. 

President Morris : In regard to questions for discussion at subsequent meetings, we 
would like to have them in writing. Anything that the members have for discussion 
should be sent to the Secretary. 

The meeting here adjourned. 



RESPONSIBILITY FOR BURST AIR HOSE. 

I The following case was discussed at the June meeting, but we were forced to lay it over 
from our July issue. — Ed.] 

A loads one of his own new cars on its initial trip, equipped with two new i^-inch 
air brake hose and delivers it to " B. " " B " hauls and delivers the car to its desti- 
nation, and thirteen days later delivers the car back to "A, ''at the original receiving 
point, equipped with one of the original, and one worn-out and burst hose, and de- 
clines to make good the defective hose, on the ground that the owners are responsible 
for burst hose. He offers a joint evidence card which " A ' ' refuses to accept, as he 
has traced the car to its destination and return, and the railway companies hauling 
the car claim to have made no repairs. Should "A " be entitled to card for hose? 
If not, why? Air hose submitted for inspection. 

Mr. Stuckie: I can give you a very good pointer as to how this thing comes about. 
The engineer will burst his air hose and he will go over to the nearest track and unscrew 
a hose and put his burst one on, and he has a good one on his engine. A case of that 
kind happened the other day. This is one way new cars get old hose and old cars new 



Responsibility fob Bubst Ajb Eose 179 



ones. We have a good many furniture cars on our line and they are used mostly to fill 
orders. They go east, and when they come back they have one original hose and one 
spliced hose. In many cases they come back with one burst hose — similar to the one 
you have here for inspection. The trainmen have a burst hose and go over to the near- 
est side track and take off a new one and put on the old one. That is the way it is done, 
and until that dishonesty can be overcome just so long you will find old hose on new cars. 
The Santa Fe furnishes each train crew with a supply of hose, both I inch and \% inch, 
and their engineers also carry an extra hose; consequently, they have no occasion to do 
this kind of work. But a great many roads do not furnish hose in this way, and the 
trainmen have to resort to dishonest means in order to get new hose. 

President Morris: What is your opinion, Mr. Stuckie, as to issuing cards? 

Mr. Stuckie: My opinion is that railroad companies delivering a car in that condi- 
tion should card for the burst hose. 

Mr. Smith: Three years ago we put 300 new cars in service between Chicago and 
the coke fields. Inside of three months we had one hundred old hose; no redress. I am 
clearly of the opinion that the delivering company is responsible for old hose on new 
cars. If you deliver a brand new car with an old hose you know very well it is " wrong 
repairs, " and your inspector knows it, and you are not giving our cars the same attention 
you do your own if you allow it to run. 

Mr. Davis: I do not think it is a question of dishonesty with the roads in question. 
I think it is a matter of trainmen getting a hose, and they take the nearest one, the same 
as Mr. Stuckie has stated; it is not a question of dishonesty of trainmen or inspectors. 
I do not think that the thing should be carded for. 

President Morris: You think "A" has no redress in the matter? 

Mr. Cardwell : I do not think he has ; you would have to trace it all down, and 
when you did trace it down there would be no redress any way. They would say : We 
cannot tell who made repairs or took it off, or anything else ; we have no record of it. 

Mr. Grieb : It seems to me that a strict interpretation of section 20 of rule 3 exacts 
a card from delivering line for offering a hose in that condition — whether it be to the 
owner or anybody else. That hose is worn out and burst, according to the notice. It is 
therefore in an unsafe condition for service, and nobody has a right to offer a hose in 
that condition to his neighbor. 

Mr. Gehrke : I do not think the delivering road should be held responsible for burst 
and worn-out hose. I will say that I have received cars with two new hose, delivered 
them to some of our connections, and they have come back with one original and one 
worn-out hose. I do not think it is customary, and I do not think it would be right, to 
hold delivering lines responsible for any burst hose. There is nothing in the rules saying 
that car must be new, in order to hold anybody for a worn-out hose; and it would not be 
necessary for "A M to make repairs before delivering car home. I do not think there is 
any rule to cover the case. 

Mr. Cardwell : Should it not be customary under section 20 of rule 3? The deliv- 
ering road should apply new hose and then it can render bill on it. If the owner of the 
car wants to accept bill, it is all right; if not, he can fight it out and the matter stops 
there, and it is unnecessary to do any tracing, which is usually more expensive than the hose. 

Mr. Stuckie: Would it not be an injustice to the owner to take off the new hose and 
put on a burst one and charge the owner? 

A Member : The owner knew that there was a new hose on that car when it went 
out, and if there was, the road that renders bill may have a little trouble in collecting it. 

Mr. Hunt : Of course, so far as the case in hand is concerned, there is no doubt, 
according to rule 3, section 20, that the delivering company is responsible for this hose, 
as it is a burst hose, and the rules say that if you deliver a car with defective brakes the 
delivering party is responsible. 



180 Railway Masteb Mechanic 

Mr. Wensley: I received recently a new furniture car from the C. & E. I., with 
two new hose, and when the car got over to West Chicago to the Wisconsin Central it 
had one burst hose. I issued an M. C. B. card for one air hose missing, and told them 
to return the old hose. 

Mr. Hanson: 1 believe they ought to card for that hose ; the delivering road ought 
to pay for it. 

Mr. Showers : I see no reason why the delivering road is not responsible for the 
hose. It has been said here a number of times that section 20 of rule 3 covers the case 
very explicitly, and the hose in question shows for itself that it was not fit for service, and 
the car was offered in interchange. That makes it very plain that the delivering road is 
responsible. But what gets the best of me is that they could have torn hose off and 
billed it, and then say their bill was according to the rules. 

President Morris: There is no evidence to show that that was done. 

Mr. Showers : There was no repair card on car, but we have plain evidence that 
the car was delivered thirteen days prior, with two new hose on, and it is very plain that 
the owners are entitled to card because it was attempted to deliver car back with a burst 
hose. But had they delivered car at the time repairs were made, then, under the rules, 
they would have had authority to render bill. 

Mr. Hunt : We have been told what should have been done in the case, and what 
was done, and some more things. A whole lot of different opinions have been expressed. 
But there is nothing peculiar about the hose being applied to the car. There are many 
conditions that would necessitate applying a hose. A car might be turned out of the 
shop to-day, new, and it might be necessary to put a hose on this evening. A coupler 
might be pulled out and the hose pulled in two, or the hose damaged by being struck, or 
the gasket might be damaged and the fellow working in the yard having no gasket applied 
new hose. There are many different things that would necessitate applying a hose, so 
far as that part of it goes, even though the car was new. 

Mr. Showers : I would like. to ask Mr. Hunt if he would consider as fair, the appli- 
cation of that hose to the car and the rendering of bill to the owners. It seems to me 
that the hose in evidence is sufficient to show that no bill was intended. The case as 
presented says there were no repairs made by the party handling the car. Now, if you 
are going to make repairs to an owner's defect, it is generally supposed that you are going 
to use material that is new, or as good as new. 

Mr Hunt : I said nothing about billing at all. I said it was not strange that there 
should be a hose applied to the car. The argument seems to run that there should have 
been no hose applied to the car, and my argument was on that point. Billing is another 
thing. 

Mr. Grieb : I move that under section 20 of rule 3, the delivering line is responsible 
and should card for this hose. 

President Morris: Based on rule 3, section 20, ' 'A" is entitled to card for the burst hose. 

The motion was carried. 



EXTENDED PISTON RODS. 

The advantages to be gained by the use of piston rods extended 
through the front cylinder head, were discussed at some length at the 
Master Mechanics' convention, during one of the "noon hour talks." 

Mr. R. II. Soule, of the Baldwin Locomotive works, said that the 
question of the benefits, if any, following the introduction of extended 



Extended Pistos Rods L81 

piston rods, is now coming to the front as one of the natural sequences 
of the great increase in the size of our locomotives ; the diameter and 
stroke of the cylinder having been increased greatly within recent years, 
and the boiler pressure as well. He had found that there was little fixed 
opinion on the subject among the railroad men, and no unanimity of 
opinion among the locomotive builders. He knew of one road, the New 
York Central, which makes it a rule that all cylinders, 19 inches and 
upwards in diameter, shall have their piston rods carried through the 
front ends. He had heard from a locomotive builder that in their own 
family they did not consider it necessary to apply the piston rod exten- 
sion unless the cylinder is 28 inches or upwards in diameter. As 
regards the mechanism by which the piston rod extension shall be sup- 
ported, there is no settled practice. It seems to be difficult to get a 
bushing or support more than five inches in length, if it be insisted that 
the piston rod extension shall be in the bushing at all times. If users 
are willing to have the piston rod extension draw nearly out of the bush- 
ing on the back stroke, the bushing can be increased to nine inches. 
When these extensions were first introduced into service, they did not 
carry a good service record, because in the early cases they were not 
lubricated. The question of lubrication comes up, and one locomotive 
builder states it to be his practice, where he applies extensions, to always 
apply a triple sight feed lubricator — one sight feed lubricator being 
devoted to the usual purposes, and the two branches of the third going 
to the bushing for the lubrication of the piston rod extension. Another 
locomotive builder states this to be unnecessary, and that the successful 
lubrication of this piston rod extension only requires some nice work in 
the arrangement of lubricating grooves in the bushing, so that the steam 
which is supposed to be supplied with its own lubricant can reach the 
bearings in question. Among the locomotive builders it is felt that the 
piston rod extension in some approved form, when the practice has 
reached a final stage, where it commends itself to the railroads, will be 
a necessary feature in all powerful locomotives. 

Mr. C. H. Ouereau, of the Denver & Rio Grande, followed Mr. Soule, 
and stated that his road had a number of locomotives with the extended 
piston rods, but that his engines were drifting half the time. He agreed 
with what Mr. Soule had said, but believed that a perfected device for 
the extended piston rod is nearer at hand than Mr. Soule had indicated. 
In the first design the Denver & Rio Grande had, the bearing of the 
piston rod was only three inches. It now had in service a design in 
which the bearing is 8y 2 inches and adjusted perpendicularly, so that as 



L82 IJaii.w \v Master Mechanic 



the piston rod wears the piston can be raised to the center of the 
cylinder. He considered the best device of this class was that used on 
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe. [This we present elsewhere in this 
issue. — Ed.] One difficulty that had been found with the Denver & 
Rio Grande device, which was simply a brass bearing and a sleeve over 
the extension piston rod, was in the matter of lubrication. The Rio 
Grande had on most of its engines a lubricating cup, a cup in which the 
oil is placed the same as on the lubricator itself, except that there is no 
sight feed. It will hold possibly a quarter of a pint ; and the first time 
the locomotive throttle is closed the oil is drained out of this lubricator 
cup. With the device used by the Santa Fe road there was a perfect 
means of lubrication as much as is had on the piston rods at the back 
ends of the piston. In the circumstances under which his road was 
operating, he believed the extended piston rod would be a valuable 
feature, and with the packing on the extended rod, the same as on the 
piston rod, he could see no reason why piston wear could not be reduced, 
both on the piston rod and on the bearing. 

Mr. Frank Slater, of the Chicago and North-Western, stated that he 
had some experience with the extended piston rod and failed to find any 
value in it. His opinion was that it was built to prevent the wear of 
the cylinder, and after looking further into the matter he found that the 
cylinder does not wear on the bottom. Nine-tenths of the wear is on the 
top, he stated, and he could not see why the piston should be so held up 
when there is no wear. A construction, to do this, adds cost to the first 
construction, and the piston rod wears badly on account of a lack of 
lubrication. If metallic packing is supplied there is added one more 
place for a leak. 

Mr. Gaines, of the Lehigh Valley, said he could see no need for the 
extended rod. He had had engines on his road running for five or six 
years with 30-inch cylinders which had never had any support, and which 
had not shown any excess of wear. 

Mr. Soule, speaking again, said: "One of the legitimate questions 
in connection with this problem of extended piston rods is 'whether the 
increased clearance which necessarily follows its use is not detrimental 
to the economy of the engine. We will take it for granted that exten- 
sion piston rods are operated in closed tubes or pockets attached to the 
cylinder head, although it is entirely possible to make an arrangement 
by which the extension rod shall pass through a stuffing box ; but under 
the present conditions the usual practice is to use the pockets for the 
rods to work in, and that necessarily increases the clearance at the front 



Extended Pistol Rods L83 

end of the cylinder. Will that increased clearance impair the efficiency 
of the locomotive ? " 

Mr. Cockfield, of the Chicago and North-Western, stated that he had 
had some experience in the use of extension piston rods on a io-\vheel 
engine with 1 8x 24 cylinders, and carrying 170 pounds steam. The 
experience demonstrated that the cylinder wear was reduced. The 
extension was covered with asbestos and jacketed to prevent conden- 
sation, and the bearing on the rods was four inches, bushed and secured 
permanently. The means of lubrication was from the cylinder through 
the usual method. 

Mr. Browne, of the Pennsylvania railroad, said that he did not think 
it necessary to have the extended rod on an ordinary sized cylinder. He 
had an engine with 24-inch cylinders, solid heads, with a lining of block 
tin around the head. After a while they wore away and the crosshead 
began to show trouble. The crosshead also had block tin on top and 
bottom of the wearing surfaces between the guides and the front end of 
the crosshead, and it would wear on the bottom of the back and on the 
top of the front end, and after the engine was running a little while it 
looked as if the guides were out of line. The piston wore at the bottom 
and the crosshead went down with it. The crosshead was taken out 
occasionally and relined, and the piston was turned around to let it wear 
on the other side, but the same trouble would take place. Finally, an 
extension rod was put on, and after that there was no further trouble. 
It was demonstrated on the 24-inch piston that the extended rod was a 
benefit. It was a low-pressure cylinder and consequently a gland could 
be put on the front of the cylinder head. A piece of gas pipe was 
slipped over the gland to prevent any dirt getting in. 

Mr. Humphrey, of the Colorado Midland, said that he considered 
extended piston rods on engines that drift a great deal to be beyond 
experiment. On his road, with large engines with 20 and 21-inch 
cylinders, where they drift at times 100 miles at a stretch, it is neces- 
sary to have the extended rods in order to keep the cylinders from wear- 
ing. He had had locomotives, especially some 21 x 26, which required 
the re-boring of the cylinders every six or eight months, regardless of the 
amount of lubricant used. By applying extended front ends and having 
a 10-inch bearing made of the hardest bronze, a calipered cylinder that 
had been running for thirteen months, did not show quite 1-32 of an 
inch wear. 

Mr. Sague, of the Schenectady Locomotive Works, reported that he 
had' had some experience with extended piston rods, as applied to com- 



L84 Railway Master Mechanic 

pound locomotives. He first used a brass bushing five inches in length. 
That did not seem to be enough, and the wear of the bushing was exces- 
sive. The length of the bushing was now nine or ten inches. His 
company put an auxiliary sight feed in the cup where the extended 
piston rod is used, although it does not feel by any means that it is an 
absolute necessity. It may be of advantage where the engines do a 
great deal of drifting. His company applies the extended piston rods to 
all compound locomotives, and is now applying the auxiliary indicators 
to such engines as do a great deal of drifting. 



THE AVERAGE LIFE OF A LOCOMOTIVE* 

SOME FIGURES AS TO REPAIRS AND 
RENEWALS. 

BY R. PRICE WILLIAMS. 

With the valuable and very complete data placed at his disposal by 

Mr. Webb in 1869, with full details of the actual weight, cost of labor, 
materials, and average life (as measured by wear and tear) of each par- 
ticular part of a standard type of a London & North- Western Railway 
Company's locomotive, the writer was enabled to calculate the average 
ultimate life of the entire structure, and the amounts which would re- 
quire to be spent upon it to maintain it in a thoroughly efficient and 
normal condition during that period. 

The results of these calculations, which are recorded in the proceed- 
ings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, show that, with the periods 
of life of the different parts, varying as the}' do from six months in the 
case of the tender brake blocks, india-rubber pipes, etc., to thirty years 
in the case of the side frames and other parts not subject to appreciable 
wear, the mean life of the engine and tender, when measured by the 
amount of its original net cost, would be about eleven years (engine, 
10. (So years; tender, 1 1.90 years), and that during its ultimate life period 
of thirty years ( 1 869 to 1898 inclusive) ,£4,890 10s. would have to be 
expended upon it to maintain it in a thoroughly efficient condition. 

As that ultimate life period has now been reached, the company's 
reports afford the means of ascertaining how far this calculated expendi- 
ture per engine during this period agrees with the actual figures in the 
reports, particulars of which are given in the accompanying tabular 
statement, which has been submitted to Mr. Webb, who has been at the 



ProtD London Kn^itR-erin^. 



The Average Life of a Locomotive 



1 85 



trouble of having the figures examined, and with a few minor correc- 
tions, verified. 

The aggregate expenditure on the entire locomotive stock during the 
period in question has amounted to the enormous sum of over 1 1 ^ mil- 
lion sterling (£\ 1,374,734), an amount exceeding the capital outlay on 
the entire working stock of the company (,£10,056,225). Large, how- 
ever, as this expenditure appears to be in the aggregate, it will only be 
found to amount, on an average, to £^97, 7 s - 2l A^- P er engine, and 
£163 5s. per engine per annum during the whole of that period — 
almost the exact calculated results based on Mr. Webb's data already 
alluded to, viz., ,£4,890 10s. and £163 respectively {vide "Molesworth," 
page 265). 



London and North-Western Railway : Locomotive Repairs and Renewals During 


a Period 


of Thirtt 










Years (1869 to 1898 Inclusive). 








Year. 


Number 

of 
Engines. 


Wages. 


Per 

Engine. 


Materia). 


Per 

Engine. 


Total Wages 
and Material. 


Per 

Engine. 


Total 
Train-Miles. 


Total Miles 
per Engine. 


Total Ex- 
penses per 
Train-Mile. 






£ 


£ 


£ • 


£ 


£ 


£ 


number 


number 


d. 


1869 


1,539 


168,706 


109.62 


176,956 


114.98 


345,662 


224.60 


13,279,660 


16,127 


3.5635 


1870 


1,559 


171,143 


100 78 


155.60S 


99.81 


326,751 


209.59 


25,037,527 


16,060 


3.1321 


1871 


1,619 


156,443 


96.63 


154,430 


95.38 


310,873 


192.01 


26,507,002 


16,^72 


2.81*7 


1872 


1,791 


168,207 


93.92 


168,452 


88.47 


326,659 


182.39 


28,835,916 


16,101 


2.7188 


1873 


2,032 


189,712 


93.36 


211,517 


104 10 


401,229 


197.46 


30,123,750 


14,825 


3.1966 


1874 


2,085 


189,917 


91.09 


202,925 


97.33 


392,842 


188.42 


30,474,401 


14,616 


3.0939 


1875 


2,157 


189,506 


87.86 


203,367 


94.28 


392,873 


182.14 


31,748,603 


14,719 


2.969S 


1876 


2,196 


173,934 


79.20 


196,986 


89.70 


370,920 


168.90 


32,323,759 


14,719 


2.7540 


1877 


2,233 


181,009 


81.46 


180,348 


80.77 


362,257 


162.23 


32,701,680 


14,645 


2.6586 


1878 


2,247 


186,099 


82.82 


164,858 


73.37 


350,957 


156.19 


32,498,113 


14,463 


2.6918 


1879 


2,246 


174,017 


77.49 


150,270 


66.91 


324,317 


144.40 


32,517,933 


14,478 


2.3936 


1680 


2,266 


188,770 


83.30 


143,608 


63.38 


332,378 


146.68 


34,911,787 


15,406 


2.3860 


1881 


2,315 


189,822 


82.00 


146.64J 


63.35 


336,466 


146.35 


36,188,478 


16,632 


2.2315 


1882 


2,377 


170,547 


71.75 


162,535 


68 38 


333,082 


140.13 


36,780,484 


15,473 


2.1736 


18S3 


2,419 


180,480 


74.61 


167,372 


77.46 


367,852 


152.07 


38,096,778 


16,749 


2.3173 


1884 


2,462 


178,602 


72.55 


201,671 


81.99 


380,473 


154.54 


37,948,865 


15,414 


2.4062 


1885 


2,490 


170,339 


63.41 


196,342 


78.85 


366,681 


147.26 


37,974,227 


15,251 


2.3174 


1886 


2,523 


173,629 


68.82 


201,409 


79.83 


375,038 


148.65 


37,625,328 


14,913 


2.3923 


1887 


2,543 


190,068 


74.74 


212,244 


83.46 


402,312 


168.20 


38,037,184 


14,977 


2.5351 


1888 


2,547 


189,189 


74.28 


203,208 


79.79 


392,397 


154.07 


38,641,005 


15,171 


2.4373 


1889 


2,551 


196,085 


76.87 


218,214 


85.54 


414,299 


162.41 


40,543,888 


15,894 


2 4636 


1890 


2,592 


198,161 


76.45 


204,169 


78.77 


402,320 


155.22 


41,899,410 


16,165 


2.3045 


1891 


2,621 


192,411 


73 41 


209,496 


79.93 


401,907 


153.34 


42,494,389 


16,213 


2.2699 


1892 


2,671 


193.488 


72.44 


213,448 


79.92 


406,936 


152.36 


43,236,699 


16,188 


2.2589 


1893 


2,717 


184,335 


67.85 


217,553 


80.07 


401,888 


147.92 


41,131,988 


15,138 


2.3450 


1694 


2,741 


188,903 


68.92 


209,485 


76.43 


398,388 


145.35 


41,466,847 


15,128 


2.3058 


1895 


2,761 


194,544 


70.46 


216,033 


78.25 


410,577 


148.71 


41,655,965 


15,087 


2.3666 


1896 


2,780 


205,611 


73.96 


228,537 


82.21 


434,148 


156 17 


43,303,238 


15,677 


2.4062 


1897 


2,812 


203,315 


72.31 


240,320 


85.46 


443,635 


157.77 


45,486,774 


16,176 


2.3407 


1898 


2,878 


218,649 


76.97 


249,965 


86.86 


468,614 


162.83 


47,548,662 


16,521 


2.3653 




70,770 


5,556,571 


2402.33 


5,818,160 


2496.03 


11,374,731 


4,897.36 


1,091,070,333 


462,198 


76.4984 



Arerages -I 



2402. 33*. 
30 years 



= 80.08*. 



2495 03/. 
30 yeifrs 



88.17;. 



4897.36?. 
30 years 



163.86*. *62,198 = average number 
30 years lo > 407 



Having regard to the great changes which have occurred during this 
long period of thirty years, the increased size, weight and power of the 
engines of the present day, the higher rate of wages paid for labor, and, 
on the other hand, to the very large reductions in the price of the steel 
material, it is somewhat difficult to explain the remarkably close agree- 
ment of the calculated and actual figures. There is, however, one very 
noticeable fact in the statement which goes a long way to explain it, and 
that is the remarkable equation which has been maintained in the 
amounts of wages and materials, respectively, throughout that long period. 



L86 Railway Masteb Mechanic 

It will also be observed that although the number of engines has in 
the meantime nearly doubled ( 88 per cent increase), the amount ex- 
pended in wages on their maintenance and renewal has only increased 
about 30 per cent, while the wages per engine have actually decreased 
nearly 31 per cent ( 30.70 per cent ), which would balance an increase of 
as much as 44 per cent. What makes this decrease all the more strik- 
ing is that it should have occurred at a time when the price of labor had 
advanced, and large additions made to the weight and quantity of ma- 
terial used in the construction of the larger and more powerful engines 
now in use, which might have been expected rather to have added to the 
cost of labor per engine. 

It is, unquestionably, to these large and continuous reductions in the 
item of wages, which have nearly kept pace with the reductions in the 
price of the steel material, that this close agreement between the calcu- 
lated and actual cost of the maintenance and renewals per engine must 
be ascribed. 

As regards the reduced cost of the materials per engine, it should 
be observed that, although the price of the material has fallen during the 
period in question, over 60 per cent, the actual reduction in its cost per 
engine has only been 20 y 2 per cent, the difference being accounted for 
by the additional cost of the much larger quantity of material used, 
as it is obvious that had the engines continued to be constructed of the 
same size and type of those of 1869, the reduction in the cost of the 
material per engine would have been commensurate with the reduction 
in its price. This addition to the cost per engine in respect of the in- 
creased quantity of material, still further contributes to preserve the 
equilibrium between the wages and materials, which has been maintained 
during the last thirty years, and, as the records of the company prove, 
had previously existed for a number of years. 

That the London & North- Western Railway Company has largely 
benefited by these great reductions in the price of the material, as well 
as by the equally remarkable continuous reductions in the cost of the 
labor is unquestionable, and so far as these economies relate to the cost 
of labor, they are entirely due to improvements in construction, work- 
manship, labor-saving appliances, and, more especially, to the conspicuous 
ability, skill and resource of the company's chief mechanical engineer, 
Mr. Webb, during whose period of office all this has been accomplished. 

As an illustration of the economy effected in the item of labor, it 
may be mentioned that the reduction in 1898 amounted to 31 per cent 
below what it was thirty years ago, a saving of £51 per engine per 



The Buhoup Three-Stem Freight Coupler 



is; 



annum in the case of the 2,878 locomotives now owned by the company, 
which would represent an annual reduction in the working expenses of 
nearly ,£100,000 (^96,892). The total saving to the company result- 
ing from these reductions in the cost of labor alone during the last thirty 
years has amounted to over two million sterling (^2,1 10,013). 



THE BUHOUP THREE-STEM FREIGHT COUPLER. 

Some years ago (March, 1896,) we published an account of the Buhoup three-stem 
coupler as applied to passenger equipment. In this service this coupler had then proved 
its worth, and has since met with a very favorable reception, and is in quite extended 
use. It has, also, in suitably modified form, proved satisfactory in freight service ; and 
it was shown as applied to a freight car, and tested, at the recent conventions at Old 
Point Comfort, as we have already noted. 




The Buhoup Three-Stem Freight Coupler. 

The principle of this coupler, and quite full details of its construction, are given in 
our engraving. In describing it, we necessarily repeat the points, to some extent, that are 
made in describing the passenger coupler. It will be readily seen that this coupler will 
adjust itself to curves so as to reduce strains and wear on the coupler and on the flanges 
of the wheel, and will yield to and deflect buffing blows which might otherwise injure or 
destroy the coupling head. It is well understood that couplers, particularly of the M C. 
B. type, while especially designed as draft devices, are also called upon to perform the 
function of buffers, and in performing this latter function are subject to severe blows, 
which tend to their destruction. The three-stem coupler is so constructed that it will 
always yield in line of force so as to relieve the lugs, or the guard arm, as the case may 
be, from the crushing force. In addition to this, the three stems add a greater degree of 
safety against couplers breaking oil or pulling out and dropping on the track, as it would 
be apparently impossible to break the entire three stems at the same time. An additional 



188 



Railway Master Mechanic 



draft spring capacity is also given to the cars, which has become a desirable feature at 
this time, for the reason that of late years much larger trains and heavier loads are being 
hauled without any benefit of additional spring compression between the cars. The 
rotating of the head also allows cars to travel around curves with freedom, thus reducing 
the draft on the engine. In cases of damage to the head at any time, it is as easily re- 
placed as a knuckle, without disturbing the draft attachments in any way. 

Another feature that is claimed for this style of coupler, is that all of the lost motion 
between the faces of the M. C. B. coupler, which is absolutely necessary in a single 
stem to permit of curving, can be dispensed with, and thereby the knuckle is always held 
more closely in contact with its constructed lines, thus reducing very materially the wear 
of the knuckle. The reasons why this feature can be employed in the three-stem and 
not in the single-stem coupler are, as stated by the inventor, that " the contour lines of 
the single-stem coupler must provide for the curving within the head of the coupler itself, 
but with the three-stem coupler, the rotating of the head itself is four times greater than 
the allowance made in the contour lines of the single-stem, and provides for four times 
greater curving feature than the single-stem, without any strain whatever to the platform. " 

On the theory that more cars can be started with a close M. C. B. coupling than 
with the link and pin, and that more cars coupled with link and pin can be drawn around 
curves with less draft on the engine than with the single-stem M. C. B. coupler, is based 
the claim that the three-stem coupler has another advantage, in that the rotating of its 
head produces the benefits of the close coupler in starting trains, and the benefit of free 
movement of link and pin cars around curves. 

This coupler couples and uncouples on curves upon which a single-stem M. C. B. 
coupler simply cannot be operated. This fact was conclusively shown to many interested 
observers at Old Point Comfort last June, during repeated tests on the government tracks, 
where the coupler was coupled and uncoupled on 58 and 76 degree curves. This coupler, 
the invention of Mr. H. C. Buhoup, is sold by the McConway & Torley Company, of 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



THE GILMAN-BROWN EMERGENCY KNUCKLE. 



The 
knuckles 



and safe 
division 



expensive and vexatious delays following the breaking or disabling of coupler 
while on the road could be in large part avoided by the use of the emergency 

knuckle shown herewith. It is impracticable 
to carry in the caboose a line of spare knuckles 
of the almost innumerable patterns now in use ; 
it is bad practice and dangerous to couple up 
with a link and pin connection with the draw- 
bar lugs ; and it is also bad practice and dan- 
gerous to "chain up'* a connection. The 
Gilman-Brown emergency 
knuckle fits into the neces- 
sities of the case as neatly 
as it does into over 90 per 
cent of the couplers now in 
use. 

It should be under- 
stood that it is intended 
for emergency use only. 
But it gives a strong, close 
coupling, amply efficient, in all its functions, to bring a train safely into its 
point, where the proper knuckle replacement can be made. This knuckle 




Gilman-Brown Emergency Knuckle. 



Personal Mention [89 



is offered by the Railway Appliances Company, Old Colony Bldg., Chicago, and it is of- 
fered only after the manager of that company, Mr. George H. Sargent, has satisfied him- 
self by several months of experiment and trial that it is not only practical, but that it will 
fit most of the couplers now in use. As above intimated, it has been found that it 
will fit over 90 per cent of the couplers now used, and that those couplers that it will not 
fit are not commonly met with in present practice. 



PERSONAL MENTION. 

Mr. W. O. Davies, Jr., formerly foreman of freight repairs on the Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Paul, at Chicago, is now connected with the Chicago Railway Equipment Co. 

Mr. Edward Hiserodt, who was for many years connected with the old Indiana, 
Bloomington & Western as master mechanic, and later as foreman of a wrecking crew 
on the Lake Erie & Western, died recently at Tipton, Ind. 

Mr. George W. Taylor, until recently master mechanic of the Wisconsin & Michigan 
Railway, has been appointed master mechanic of the Copper Range Railroad, with head- 
quarters at Houghton, Mich. 

Mr. Richard Meade has been appointed assistant division master mechanic of the 
Santa Fe, with headquarters at Wellington, Kan. 

Mr. George Reichel, of Horton, Kan., has been appointed foreman in the shops of 
the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western at. Scranton, Pa. 

Mr. David Van Alstine, heretofore division master mechanic of the Chicago Great 
Western at St. Paul, Minn., has been appointed master mechanic to succeed Mr. Tracy 
Lyon, promoted to be general superintendent of that road. 

Mr. William H. Stearns, who from 1872 to 1895 was master mechanic of the Con- 
necticut River Railroad, which is now a part of the Boston & Maine, died at his home 
in Springfield, Mass.. on July 14. Mr. Stearns was engaged in railroad work for over 
fifty-seven years, being seventy-seven years of age when he died. He began when, four- 
teen years old to learn the machinist's trade, and he completed his apprenticeship with 
Wilson Eddy in the machine shops in Lowell. He was afterward foreman in the Boston 
& Albany machine shops under Mr. Eddy. He went to Springfield when nineteen years 
old and began work at once in the Boston & Albany shops, or as they then were, the 
Western road shops. In 1842 the Springfield car and engine shop was started. Mr. 
Stearns took pride in the fact that he helped put in the machinery and set it up, and that 
he was put in charge of the second engine, the " Hingham,'' that was turned out of the 
shop. A large share of this engine he made himself. It was the custom in those early 
days to put the machinists in charge of the engines which they had a hand in constructing. 
He left this work after a few years service, and next began running on the Old Colonv 
road between Boston and Cohasset, where he was employed for several years, and after 
this was for several years engineer on the Boston & Albany. In 1862 he was made fore- 
man in the Boston & Albany shops, where he remained until 1872, having worked nearlv 
twenty-two years with that railroad. In 1872 he became master mechanic of the Con- 
necticut River Railroad, and continued in this position until 1895. The Connecticut 
River road was then absorbed by the Boston & Maine, and Mr. Stearns was retired from 
his position to that of foreman of the round-house, where until his death he had charge 
of sending out the engines and assigning the engineers to run them. — Raihvay Reirieiu. 

Mr. W. L. Harrison has been appointed superintendent of the West Superior shops 
of the Eastern Railway of Minnesota, vice Mr. H. A. Bayfield, resigned. Mr Harrison 
has for several years past been general foreman of the Great Northern shops at Barnes- 
ville. Minn. 



L90 Railway Master Mechanic 

Mr. H. F. Ball has been appointed mechanical engineer of the Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern, the appointment dating from July 15. Mr. Ball has hitherto been general 
car inspector of this road. The position that he relinquishes to accept his promotion has 
been abolished. Those who have watched Mr. Ball's bright and progressive work in past 
years well realize how thoroughly deserving he is of the recognition of his talents that 
has now come to him. 

Mr. Tracy Lyon, hitherto master mechanic of the Chicago Great Western, has been 
appointed general superintendent of that road. Mr. Lyon is a graduate of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, and has been master mechanic of the Chicago Great 
Western for some time. Mr. Lyon was a comparatively newcomer in the railway 
mechanical world, but he had rapidly made himself welcome and influential, and his 
passing into the operating field causes regret among his associates of recent years. 

Mr. L. B. Paxson has resigned as superintendent of motive power and rolling equip- 
ment of the Philadelphia & Reading, and has been appointed consulting mechanical 
engineer of that road, a position recently created. Mr. Paxson has been in the service of 
the Philadelphia & Reading during all his business life. He commenced with the road as 
a brakeman on a coal train, and later served as master mechanic, engineer of machin- 
ery, and superintendent of motive power and rolling equipment. He is now seventy-two 
years old. 

Mr. J. McGie, heretofore master mechanic of the Montana division of the Great 
Northern, has been appointed master mechanic of the Montana Central Railway, a pro- 
prietory line of the Great Northern. 

Mr. Theo. H. Curtis, mechanical engineer of the New York, Chicago & St. Louis, 
has resigned to accept the position of mechanical engineer of the Erie, with office at 
Susquehanna, Pa. Mr. Curtis will assume his duties on August 10. Mr Curtis first 
commenced railroad work in the office of superintendent of motive power of the Terre 
Haute ex Indianapolis at Terre Haute, and after a period of two years in the drawing 
room entered the shop, taking up all branches of the care and maintenance of locomo- 
tives and cars. He next went to the Big Four as chief draftsman at Cleveland. To 
further learn railway engineering he, later, entered the service of the Brooks Locomotive 
Works, and still later went to the Pittsburg Locomotive Works. Some ten years ago he 
left the latter concern to become chief draftsman of the New York, Chicago & St. Louis. 
later becoming mechanical engineer of that road. Mr. Curtis will be remembered as an 
occasional contributor to our columns. He has a wide circle of friends in the west who 
will dislike to lose him, but they will be gratified that he has been given such an impor- 
tant post. 

Mr. W. H S. Wright, purchasing agent of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis A: 
Omaha, has resigned to become northwestern sales agent for the Illinois Steel Co. He 
will be succeeded by Isaac Seddon, who has for a long time been Mr. Wright's chief clerk. 

Mr. S. N. Crawford, for several years with the Peoria & Eastern, has been ap- 
pointed general foreman of the Ohio Southern shops, vice H. K. Schorer, who has re- 
signed to go to the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne ex Chicago. 

Mr. W. C. Pennock, until recently master mechanic of the Pennsylvania Lines, 
southwest system, at Logansport, Ind., was drowned July 17, at Hudson Lake, Ind., 
while endeavoring to rescue two companions who went overboard. Mr. Pennock was 
'!>< >rn at Cardington, Ohio, in 1862, and received an excellent technical education. In 1SS0 
he entered the service of the Pennsylvania Lines as a fireman on the Ft. Wayne division, 
and three years later was appointed road foreman of engines on the Richmond division, 
later holding similar positions on the Indianapolis and Cincinnati divisions. In 18 
Mr Pennock was made master mechanic of the Chicago division, at Logansport. 



Personal Mention 



101 



Mr. Frank Cain, master mechanic of the Texarkana & Fort Smith, has resigned 
Mr. F. M. Dean, for the last twelve years foreman of the Huron (S. D.) shops of the 
Chicago & North-Western R'y, has resigned to accept a responsible and lucrative position 
with the Baldwin Locomotive Co., at Philadelphia. Mr. Dean has been in the employ 
of the North-Western R'y for a quarter of a century. He is the inventor and patentee of 
Dean's locomotive track sander, now being used in all parts of the country, and which 
has brought him into wide prominence. 

Mr. J. G. Tomlinson, superintendent of motive power of the New Orleans & North- 
eastern, Alabama & Vicksburg, and Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific Roads, whose head- 
quarters are at Meridian, Miss., was killed at Meridian July 25. He was run over by an 
engine while attempting to cross the track. 

Mr. Geo. W. Morris, formerly Gen- 
eral Manager of the A. French Spring 
Co., of Pittsburg, Pa., died at his sum- 
mer home in Virginia, on July 8, 1899, 
age fifty-three years. The funeral was 
held from the Church of the Ascension, 
of which he was a member. The 
services were conducted by the Tan- 
cred Commandery No. 48 K. T. of Pitts- 
burg. He is survived by his wife and one 
son. It is hard to realize that "George " 
Morris has passed away, and that neither 
at the June conventions nor anywhere else 
in all the world shall we see him again 
The suddenness of his death adds greatly 
to the shock of it. Only a few weeks be- 
fore it occurred he was at the conventions 
at Old Point, apparently in good health 
and, as ever, full of friendliness and good 
fellowship. His acquaintance with all the 
older members of the associations was 
intimate, and he had the respect and 
hearty liking of them all. He had at- 
tended these conventions for the past thirty 
years. No one in the railway supply field was more widely known nor better liked. He 
was a successful business man, a good citizen, a loving husband and a loyal friend. 

Mr. R. E. McCuen, heretofore general foreman of the Lexington & Eastern Rail- 
road, has been appointed master mechanic of that road, with office at Lexington, Ky. 

Mr. J. M. Burford has been appointed master mechanic of the East Louisiana, with 
headquarters at New Orleans, La. 

Mr. A. Hendee has been appointed master mechanic of the Panama Railway, with 
headquarters at Colon, Colombia, vice Percy Webb, resigned. 

Mr. P. L. Cochrane, formerly master mechanic of the Central of Georgia, at 
Columbus, Ga., and afterward master mechanic of the Seaboard Air Line, died at 
Atlanta, Ga., on July 4, at the age of seventy-one years. 

Mr. A. Fen wick has been appointed master mechanic of the Wisconsin & Michigan, 
vice Geo. W. Taylor, resigned. 

Mr. N. W. Best has been appointed superintendent of motive power and machinery 
of the Los Angeles Terminal Railway. 




Mr. Geo. W. Morris. 



L92 Railway Hastes Mechanic 

Mr S. S. Smedley, formerly division master mechanic on the Missouri Pacific, died 
at Jackson, Mich., on July 4, at the age of fifty-seven years. 

Mr. David X. Pasho, formerly master mechanic and traveling engineer of the Erie 
died at Dunkirk, X. Y , on July 6, aged seventy years. 

Mr. G. T. Sanderson has been appointed master mechanic of the Great Xorthern at 
Havre, Mont., vice T. McGie, who has been made master mechanic of the Montana, 
Central. 

Mr. W. Barcley has been appointed master mechanic of the Mexico, Cuernevaca & 
Pacific Railway, with headquarters at Cuernevaca, Mex. 

Mr. Samuel F. Prince, Jr., has resigned as superintendent of motive power and 
equipment of the Long Island Railroad, to accept the position of superintendent of 
motive power and rolling equipment of the Philadelphia & Reading, with headquarters 
at Philadelphia, Pa., vice Mr. L. B. Paxson resigned. Mr. Prince was formerly mechan- 
ical engineer of the road to which he now returns as head of the mechanical department. 

Mr Philip Wallis has been appointed superintendent of motive power and equip- 
ment of the Long Island, and Xew York & Rockaway Beach railways, vice Mr. S. F. 
Prince, Jr., resigned to take charge of the mechanical department of the Philadelphia & 
Reading. Mr. Wallis has been for some years master mechanic of the Lehigh Valley at 
Easton, Pa. He is well remembered in the west as one of the coterie of bright young 
men who have graduated from the mechanical department of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy 

As previously noted, Mr. A. M. YVaitt, superintendent of motive power and rolling 
stock of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, has appointed Mr. F. W. Brazier as 
assistant superintendent of rolling stock and Mr. E. E. Davis as assistant superintendent 
of motive power, both with headquarters at Xew York. The full reorganization of the 
mechanical department is outlined in the following extracts from official circulars : The 
motive power department will be operated under five grand divisions: (1.) Hudson 
division, including all points on the Xew York Central & Hudson River Railroad proper, 
south of Rensselaer, and including the Harlem and Xew York & Putnam divisions ; also 
all points on the West Shore south of Ravena, and including the Wallkill Valley Rail- 
road. (2 ) Middle division, including all points on the Xew York Central & Hudson 
River Railroad proper, north of and including Rensselaer, and east of DeWitt ; also all 
points on the West Shore east of Syracuse to and including Ravena ; also all points on 
the Mohawk & Malone Railway, and St. Lawrence & Adirondack Railroad. (3.) West- 
ern division, including all points on line of the New York Central & Hudson River Rail- 
road proper, west of and including DeWitt, and all points on the West Shore west of and 
including Syracuse ; also including all points on the Dunkirk, Allegheny Valley & Pitts- 
burgh Railroad. (4.) R., W & O. division, including all points on the Rome, Water- 
town & Ogdensburg Railroad, Carthage & Adirondack Railroad and Gouverneur & Oswe- 
gatchie Railroad, except Suspension Bridge, Rochester, Syracuse, Rome and Utica. 
Pennsylvania division, including all points on the Pennsylvania division of the 
road, except Lyons and Geneva. Mr. E. E. Davis, assistant superintendent of motive 
power, with headquarters at the Grand Central Station, New York, will have supervision 
of the locomotive shops and the repairs, maintenance and distribution of the motive 
power of the road. All reports and correspondence connected with the locomotive 
department should be addressed to the superintendent of motive power and rolling stock. 
Such communications should have the words "Loco. Dep't" stamped or written in the 
lower left hand corner of the envelope. Mr. F. W. Brazier, assistant superintendent of 
rolling stock, with headquarters at Grand Central Station, Xew York, will have super- 
vision of the car shops and the care and maintenance of the car equipment of the road. 



Si i'J'ly Trade Notes L93 



All reports and correspondence connected with the car department should be addressed 
to the superintendent of motive power and rolling stock, but in the lower left hand corner 
the words "Car Dep't" stamped or written. Mr. H. M. Butts is appointed supervisor of 
the passenger equipment, and will have supervision of the cleaning of passenger equip- 
ment, when not at the shops ; and such other duties as may be assigned to him from time 
to time. The headquarters of Mr. George Thompson, division superintendent of motive 
power of the Pennsylvania division, are transferred from Jersey Shore, Pa., to Corning, 
N. Y. The title of Mr. James Buchanan, heretofore assistant superintendent of motive 
power, will be division superintendent of motive power, with jurisdiction over locomotive 
department business on the Middle and Hudson divisions. The title of Mr. G. H. 
Haselton, heretofore assistant superintendent of motive power, will be division superin- 
tendent of motive power, with jurisdiction over locomotive department business on the 
Western division. The title of Mr. P. T. Lonergan, heretofore master mechanic, will 
be division superintendent of motive power, with jurisdiction over locomotive department 
and car department business on the R.. W. & O. division. The jurisdiction of Mr. 
James Macbeth, master car builder at East Buffalo, is extended over the entire Western 
division in car department business. The position of master car builder at East 
Rochester is abolished, and Mr. J. Westervelt, formerly master oar builder, will have 
the title of general foreman, reporting to the master car builder of the Western division, 
The jurisdiction of Mr. F. W. Chaffee, master car builder at West Albany, will extend 
over the Middle division in car department business. The jurisdiction of Mr. S. T. Case, 
master car builder at Mott Haven, is extended over all points on the Hudson division in 
car department business. 

Mr. F. von Schlegell, superintendent of the St. Cloud shops of the Great Northern, 
has been made assistant superintendent of the Fergus Falls division of that road, with 
office at Melrose, Minn. Mr. Charles H. Putnam succeeds Mr. von Schlegell as super- 
intendent of the St. Cloud shops. 

SUPPLY TRADE NOTES. 

We are in receipt of a little book called "The Imprisonment of the Heat Unit," by 
Wallace W. Johnson. If the members of the engineering class of Sibley College. Cornell 
University, are not convinced of the immense superiority of magnesia lagging over all 
other forms of lagging used for heat insulation it is not the fault of Mr. Wallace Johnson, 
or of the bright little lecture which he gave to them, and which is published under the 
above title. Those who have heard Mr. Johnson expatiate upon the excellencies of the 
Keasbey & Mattison product, or tell stories of happenings in the army during the civil 
war, know that he is a convincing and picturesque talker, and in this address he has 
maintained his own high standard. The title given it is a happy one, and the little book- 
let will be read through by many people. 

Mr. G. E. Macklin, until recently special agent of the Pressed Steel Car Company 
has been made assistant general sales agent, with headquarters in the Empire Building, 
No. 71 Broadway, New York City. Mr. R. L. Gordon, for a long time with the Fox 
Pressed Steel Equipment Company, and more recently in the Chicago office of the Pressed 
Steel Car Company, has been transferred to the Wood's Run (Allegheny) plant of the 
Pressed Steel Car Company, where he will confine himself largely to engineering work. 

The importance and volume of the business of the Pressed Steel Car Company, entirely 
apart from the manufacture of pressed steel cars, is not generally understood. The pressed 
steel car is of comparatively recent development, that is, such cars have only been in use 
about three years. But the manufacture of pressed steel bolsters, truck frames and center 
plates by the old Fox Pressed Steel Equipment Company, and the Schoen Pressed Steel 



104 Railway Masteb Mkchank 

Company, which two, combined, make the Pressed Steel Car Company, has a history of 
more than ten years. In the manufacture of parts referred to, the company has plenty 
of competition, a large number of concerns offering competing products ; but despite 
this, it is doing at an outside estimate more than 75 per cent of the business of the country 
in this line. Figures at hand for the past five weeks show a volume of business during 
that period above S575.000, apart from car deliveries. The profits of the business are not 
given out. but its volume would seem to indicate the truth of the company's assertion 
that it is not far from 40 per cent of the total business done, and sufficient to alone pay 
much more than the 7 per cent required for the annual dividends on its preferred stock 
-1 2. 500.000. 

Mr. Edward N. Hurley, president of the Standard Pneumatic Tool Company, has 
gone to Europe to perfect arrangements relative to the appointment of agents for the 
disposition of his company's "Little Giant * ' pneumatic tools on the other side of the 
Atlantic, and establishing of works in England. The company's foreign business has 
increased remarkably during the past year, especially in Great Britain and Germany, 
and it is now making shipments of machinery to all parts of the civilized world. 

The business done by the Chicago Pneumatic Too! Company during the month of 
June was the largest in its history, over five hundred orders for pneumatic tools of various 
kinds being booked. The company's shipments included a large number of tools for 
Europe, one large order to South African Republic, and one to Australia. The factory 
of the National Pneumatic Tool Company, of Philadelphia, the control of which has 
recently been acquired by this company, is running to its fullest capacity both day and 
night, as is also the case with the St. Louis factor}-, it being necessary to do this to keep 
pace with the orders. 

The new illustrated catalogue of The Egan Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, is very elaborate. 
It measures 12 ' 2 inches long by c)}4 inches wide and contains 340 pages. It is printed on 
very fine enameled book paper, handsomely bound in cloth, and lettered in gold. The 
introduction is not only in English, but is printed in Russian, French, German and Span 
ish. This company has been endeavoring for several years past to perfect and improve 
their line, so as to make it far superior and in advance to any other machinery in the 
world, and they have brought out quite a number of new and advanced types of machines, 
which are certainly triumphs of mechanical ingenuity and skill. This new catalogue 
shows all of these new machines and many more besides, so that no factory or superin- 
tendent, who wishes to keep in touch with the latest devices for turning out work, can 
afford to be without one of these new books. They are sending out these new catalogues 
free of charge, express prepaid, and if any reader has not received one he should write 
at once, referring to the Railway Master Mechanic, and they will be pleased to send one. 

Chicago rabbeted grain doors will be used on the 500 Illinois Central box cars, recently 
let to the American Car & Foundry Co. The 500 cars about to be built by the C, M. 
cV. St. P. R'y will also be equipped with the Chicago grain door. 

Pressed Steel Car Co. 's pressed steel bolsters have been specified for 500 Illinois Cen- 
tral coal cars and 200 Swift & Co. refrigerator cars, recently ordered. 

The Pressed Steel Car Co. informed us, under date of July 11, that since December 
13. last year, 12,598 steel cars have been ordered of that company for delivery this year, 
of which nearly half has been delivered. The Penn'a R. R., B. & O., B. & O. S. W., 
Lehigh Valley, Phila. & Reading, P. B. & L. E., Oregon Short Line, Union Pacific, L. S. 
& M. S., P. & L. E , L. S. & I., Great Northern and Egyptian State Railways are roads 
which have ordered heavily. Cars were ordered the first six months at the rate of $25,- 
000,000 per year. Schoen patent truck bolsters and miscellaneous pressed steel parts 
ordered make up a magnificent volume of business for the year 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 

WALTER D. CROSMAN, Editor. EDWIN N. LEWIS, Manager. 

Vol. XXIII. CHICAGO, SEPTEMBER, 1899. No. 4 

The International Association for Testing 

Materials. 

The recent meeting in Pittsburg of the American section of the In- 
ternational Association for Testing Materials, was the second in its 
history, the first meeting having been held in Philadelphia, August, 1898. 
The membership now numbers 125, and the society is successfully 
launched and bids fair to have a permanent and honorable career in the 
history of technical and scientific societies. 

The enormous amount of material used by railways — especially iron 
and steel — and the importance of the highest intelligence in regard to 
its economical application, renders the subject of testing materials of 
peculiar interest to the engineering departments of railroads. We will, 
therefore, give a brief account of the rise and progress of testing mate- 
rials of construction, and of the International Association, which deals 
with this department of human knowledge. 

The measurement of the strength of materials for industrial applica- 
tion was not taken up until the present century. During the first half 
of the century some progress was made in the knowledge of elastic 
resistance. The necessity for safe construction in railroad bridges rap- 
idly developed investigation of the strength of iron and steel, in order 
that the greatest strength could be obtained with proper economy in 
amounts of material used. 

After the year 1850 practical testing machines were built with provis- 
ions for measuring elongation, and the work of testing rapidly progressed 
until, in 1870, it was generally recognized by manufacturers that the phys- 
ical tests of metals were necessary in order to secure uniformity of product. 
It seems remarkable now, when iron and steel have such extensive appli- 
cation in all kinds of construction, that it is only within the last thirty 
years that the measurements have been made which arc necessary to 
insure its scientific and economical use. 

After numerous tests of iron and steel had been made, and the 
results were studied by experimenters at different stations and the infor- 



196 Railway Master Mechanic 

mation exchanged and compared, it was soon found that the strength 
depended upon the size of the specimen and the manner in which the 
load was applied. It then began to dawn on the engineer of tests that, 
in order to obtain results which were comparable, there must be uniform- 
ity in the manner of testing. The struggle to obtain this uniformity 
throughout the world finally resulted in the organization of the Interna- 
tional Association for Testing Materials. The subject was discussed by 
numerous engineering societies without definite conclusions. 

In 1882 that great genius who seems to have been raised up for the 
purpose — John Bauschinger, of Munich — organized conferences which 
met in the cities of Germany and Austria, and in 1895, as a result of the 
conference held in Zurich, the International Association for Testing 
Materials was formally organized. In 1897 the second congress of this 
association was held in Stockholm, there being present 361 members, 
representing 18 different countries. It was now arranged that in 
order to facilitate the progress of the work in different countries, that 
the members in each country should meet and form a national section 
of the International Association. The machinery for conducting the 
work is thus similar to that of the various railway clubs in this country, 
which now largely do the preliminary work of the national railway 
mechanical conventions. 

The second meeting of the American section of the association for 
testing materials, recently held in Pittsburg, brought together represent- 
atives of the largest steel works, and of the principal testing labora- 
tories, in the country. The presidential address by Prof. Mansfield 
Merriman, of Lehigh University, gave a history of the movement, out- 
lines of which we have given above. Prof. Hatt, of Purdue, read a 
paper on " Comparison of Steel Plates under Flexure and Tension," and 
the discussion soon brought out the fact that commercial testing and 
scientific testing are two very different things, and that accurate results 
for comparative purposes can only be obtained by very careful measure- 
ments with the aid of micrometers, and autographic recorders, and other 
such reliable auxiliaries to the testing machine proper. 

An interesting investigation which will be of especial value to rail- 
ways is that made by Prof. Hatt on " Impact Tests," wherein he shows 
that European practice has demonstrated the practicability of impact 
tests in a remarkable degree. The development of this method of test- 
ing will throw new light on the necessary resistance of M. C. B. couplers, 
rails, and other railway structures subject to blows. Reports of prog- 
ress were made by chairmen of committees on " Standard Specifications 



The Special Appbenth i: 1!>T 



for Testing Iron and Steel," and on the collection of data for establish- 
ing standard rules for test pieces, with special reference to axles, tires, 
springs, etc. 

We must not close this article without a brief reference to the early 
history of railway testing rooms, which belongs to the present gener- 
ation. The first railway testing laboratory was established in Altoona, 
Pa., by the Pennsylvania railroad in 1874, and in 1876 the chemical 
laboratory was equipped. The operation of this test room was the 
first systematic application of science to the mechanics of railroading in 
this country. The results of its work soon made their appearance in 
specifications for material, which were then first made ; and the practice 
thus commenced, of buying railway material to specification, is now quite 
general. The credit of all the advantages which come from specifica- 
tions should therefore be given to the testing laboratory. 



The Special Apprentice. 

The above headline hardly conveys a full idea of the subject which 
is to be briefly treated in the following lines ; but because the special 
apprentice has received so much attention at the hands of the associa- 
tions, and the clubs, and by the press and in conversation, and because 
every writer is sufficiently conceited to appreciate a fair consideration of 
his writings by a large number of readers, the particular headline is used 
as, to be frank, a " catch." 

The term "special apprentice" is very generally misapplied; gener- 
ally those who use it accept it as synonymous with " technical graduate " ; 
but under the broad meaning of the term, either a graduate of a tech- 
nical college or of a manual training school, or a person particularly apt 
in some special line of business and with only the rudiments of an educa- 
tion, may make an equally good special apprentice. The misconception 
of the meaning of the term is due largely to the too general impression 
that a technical graduate is necessarily a very good journeyman, both in 
the shop and in the drawing room, and too frequently the graduates have 
assisted in the spreading of such impression. It is the intention of this 
article to point out the fact that it is only in the drawing room that a 
man can get the experience that will make him a draftsman, and only 
the experience in the shop that will make him a machinist, a boilermaker, 
a blacksmith or what not. It is intended to confine our remarks to the 
technically educated man and to present some ideas which may be of 



198 RAILWA1 NiASTEB Mk(1I.\M< 

value to such a man and to his prospective employer, and on this ac- 
count the headline is somewhat misleading. The general remarks will 
apply to other than the railroad business, but it is this line of work to 
which particular reference is made. 

It is fitting to address, first, the young man and to impress upon him 
the value of the education which either he has obtained or which he is 
about to obtain. First, he should understand that the ideally educated 
man is he who has had the practical experience and has obtained the 
theoretical learning; then if he appreciates the proper relation of one to 
the other, and is guided in his work by such appreciation, he is quite sure 
to meet with success. It may be remarked that the demand is ever 
growing greater for the men who can so combine both branches of learn- 
ing ; and although the theoretical man may express disdain of the prac- 
tical man and the practical man look similarly upon the man of theoret- 
ical attainments, each appreciates his own want. 

Mr. C. P. Huntington has taken the position that the time spent in 
attending college is as good as lost, and while some might say, at first 
thought, that the idea was not a correct one, further consideration may 
possibly indicate differently. Assuming that the practical and theoret- 
ical should be combined for the best results, it naturally follows that, for 
proper appreciation of either, they should be associated as closely together 
as possible. Then it follows that a man should enter the practical side 
and carry the theoretical along with it. Some young men would be 
sufficiently farseeing to carry both along with an even pace, but with a 
majority the experience would be obtained at the expense of theory. 
Perhaps this applies more particularly to technical work than to financial 
affairs, with which Mr. Huntington is more closely associated. 

The colleges produce just the opposite condition, although it is their 
continual effort to bring the practical and theoretical as closely together 
as possible. A young man has the choice of three courses ; viz: getting 
the practical and theoretical together, (and for some this may be best); 
getting the theoretical and then the practical, with a college education 
first; or he may get the practical and then the theoretical. There have 
been successes secured from every one of these courses, but it is believed 
that the second has furnished the greatest number and that it is the one 
to be preferred at present for the average young man. The strong ob- 
jection to the last is that by the time a man has obtained some idea of the 
practical, he feels that his age or other incumbrance prohibits him 
obtaining the theoretical. 

Having obtained the college education, it is desirable that the young 



A Si mmkr's Half-houb with Definitions L99 

man get the practical education as quickly as possible, and to do this he 
should make compensation, and everything else, secondary to gaining 
experience; too frequently, the young man feels that he "knows it all " 
and bears himself accordingly and his advancement awaits his learning 
the contrary. It should be appreciated also that even in the theoretical, 
the college course merely starts the education and a most important part 
of the teaching is where to find certain information when it is wanted. 

It is safe to say that the more desirable class of technical graduates 
are gradually placing a fairer and truer estimate of value on their educa- 
tion. As evidence of this, there are young men with the title of civil en- 
gineer working with section men, and mechanical and electrical engineers 
taking correspondingly low places in the shops ; they may start too low, 
but their education assures that they will rise above their fellows — how 
far above being dependent upon themselves. 

The employer has made the same error of overestimating the grad- 
uate, as the graduate has made, but the employer, also, so far as shop 
work is concerned, at least, now appreciates more and more that the 
graduate, generally, is only in a condition to learn the practical more 
rapidly than others do, and is treating him accordingly. There is a 
very general opinion, however, that a graduate is necessarily a drafts- 
man — but his training in a technical school does not make him so ; he 
should be treated in the drawing room just as he is in the shop— as a 
beginner who should be capable of rising rapidly ; and the opportunity 
should be given him to rise, instead of starting him at the top only to fall. 



A Summer's Half-hour with Definitions. 

The term Mechanic is denned by Webster as " one employed in 
shaping materials into any structure," and was primarily applied to the 
individual who worked with hand tools. The artisan who shaped metals 
by the use of tools, the wood carver, and the mason who is skilled in 
the art of building, are mechanics in the strict sense of the term ; but 
the common acceptance of the word mechanic refers to the metal 
worker, who, as he began to devise appliances to assist in his work, be- 
came known as a machinist, then as he expanded into a constructor of 
tools and machinery, and skilled in the theory of mechanism, he grew 
to be a master workman, which term became master mechanic, when he 
was placed in charge of other workmen or machinists. The master 
mechanic is, therefore, the title given to one who is in responsible charge 
of other mechanics in control of the machine shop. 



200 Railway .Master Mechanic 

In railroad work the title of master mechanic refers to the official in 
charge of the repairs to locomotives and cars, and the machine shops in 
which these repairs are made, and who directs and controls the work- 
men engaged therein. This work is often divided under two heads ; 
that of master mechanic and master car builder, but each official is a 
mechanic in the strict sense of the word, as the duties of each are along 
similar lines ; that of directing the operation of mechanics in shaping 
materials into the various structures desired. 

The title of superintendent of motive power or machinery is to des- 
ignate a still higher grade of the mechanic, and denotes the individual 
who is the directing head of the various mechanical departments of the 
railroad, as relates to the care of the rolling stock. He is a mechanic 
in the fullest sense of the word, and is expected to be skilled in the 
theory, construction and use of the machinery of the shops and the 
motive power and cars of his road. He is the general in charge of an 
army of mechanics, who do his bidding in the same manner as the offi- 
cers in the army execute the orders of the commander-in-chief. 

The old-time superintendents of machinery (if one may use the 
term), are men who have grown up from the ranks, having started as 
apprentices in the shop, and worked their way up to the top of the lad- 
der through sheer force of will and character, gaining each step by 
diligence in their work, being promoted by reason of their marked intelli- 
gence in the construction and operation of machinery, and special fitness 
to command men ; having won the successive titles of machinist, master 
workman, master mechanic and superintendent by hard work, and the 
display of high ability in the performance of duty. 

The development of railroads has been so rapid that the title of 
superintendent of motive power and machinery is only of recent origin, 
growing out of the necessity of having a central governing head to con- 
trol the many departments and divisions into which the railroad systems 
are divided ; each division has its machine shop and its master mechanic 
in charge, who must take care of his particular division, reporting to the 
superintendent of motive power, who is the referee, and from whom he 
receives his general instructions. 

The superintendent of motive power must, therefore, be a broad- 
minded and experienced mechanic, as his duties are to direct and govern 
the mechanical operations of his road. He must be liberal and just, 
but he is no longer a mechanic in the sense of looking after the details 
of shop management, which he must leave to his master mechanics. 
His experience must enable him to decide, when they cannot agree, but 



Advantages of the Indicator 



201 



his province is to deal with the larger problems of management, such as 
the selection of equipment, government of employes, and the carrying 
out of the policy dictated by the management of his road. He must 
keep in sympathy and close touch with his assistants, but his success 
depends upon his close application to the general problems of manage- 
ment, rather than looking after the details of operation, which should 
be left to his subordinates. 



ADVANTAGES OF THE INDICATOR ON A STEAM 

ENGINE. 



BY W. E. SYMONS. 



Some years ago the writer was connected with a western road on 
which there was a 1 7 x 24-inch eight-wheel engine that seemed to 
baffle the skill of all enginemen and mechanics who endeavored to 



M.E.R 13LBS 



/.H.P.372.66 




No.z 




Cards from a Locomotive. 

locate and remedy an apparent difficulty in the valve gear. The en- 
gine's valves were repeatedly gone over and accurately adjusted with 
the trams by the best talent in the mechanical department. The sound 
of the exhaust was apparently even and square until the engine attained 
some rate of speed, when the exhaust gradually became weaker on one 
side, until at a high rate of speed it was quite feeble and almost indistinct, 
thus reducing, in a remarkable degree, the efficiency of the machine. 



202 



Railway Master Mechanic 






Cards from a Corliss Kncink 



Numerous attempts were made to locate and remedy the trouble, 
with but one result; that of failure. Finally, the indicator was resorted 



Advantages of the Indicator 203 



to. A series of cards were taken from the right-hand cylinder, which 
proved to be all right at the different speeds attained ; card No. 2 hav- 
ing been taken from this cylinder at a speed of fifty-six miles per hour. 

The left-hand cylinder was then piped, the instrument applied, and 
from zero to a speed of eight or ten miles per hour there was no percep- 
tible falling off of the initial pressure line. From this speed, however, 
up to the high speed attained, the line gradually fell off, producing a 
card similar to one secured from an engine that is being closely throt- 
tled, showing clearly that there were some obstructions in the steam 
passage on that side ; card No. 1 being taken at a speed of about fifty- 
six miles per hour. 

The engine was taken into the shops, the steam chest and valves 
removed, and steam pipes taken out ; the steam channels were filled 
with water, and on removing the water it was both measured and 
weighed, and showed that the steam passages were of the proper area 
of opening. Next, the steam pipes were taken in hand, and on examina- 
tion it was found the steam pipe to the left cylinder held about one 
gallon less water than the one leading to the right. Probing with a 
wire located an apparent obstruction near the center of same, and on 
putting the pipe on a planer and cutting it in two, it was found that a 
large lump, obstructing about two-thirds of the opening or area of the 
steam passage, was the cause of the mischief. A large sized piece of 
the steam pipe core had evidently fallen out in arranging the mould in 
the foundry, and this error on the part of the foundryman had been the 
cause of the whole trouble. A new pipe was applied to the engine, and 
the engine from that time on rendered creditable service, and a great 
weight was taken from the minds of a number of employes of the 
mechanical department, whose skill had been bafned in their vain 
attempts to locate the trouble by the old-time orthodox methods. 

The Corliss engine cards shown herewith were taken from an engine 
driving a large sawmill in Arizona. About twelve cords of wood per clay 
were being consumed in a vain attempt to cut eleven to twelve thousand 
feet of lumber per day with the engine in the condition shown by cards 
Nos. 1 and 2. The valve motion was overhauled, properly adjusted and 
put in condition, as shown by card No. 3, after which, with a consump- 
tion of about five cords of wood per day, forty-eight to fifty thousand 
feet of lumber was cut with ease. 

Both of these I consider very good practical lessons in indicator 
practice. 



•204 



Railway Master Mechanic 



PNEUMATIC RAM FOR METALLIC PACKING. 



One of the neatest of late appli- 
cations of compressed air is that shown 
in our engraving, which gives quite 
full details of a pneumatic ram for 
compressing the spring in metallic 
packing to get the gland in place. We 
are permitted to illustrate this device 
through the courtesy of Mr. Herbert 
Roberts, superintendent of motive 
power of the Norfolk & Southern, the 
general foreman of whose shops at 




Mr. R. P. Schilling- 



Berkley, Va., 
designed it. 

The device consists of a frame 
which, in operation, is laid upon the 
piston rod. This frame carries in its 
two lower longitudinal members two 
plungers, which, upon the admission 
of air through the ports shown, 
emerge from their casings quickly and 
strongly. They carry the gland to its 
place squarely, as may be readily 
understood from a study of the en- 
graving. In operation this device does 
not get soft rings out of shape, as is 
so often done with a bar, because it is 
impossible to get a central purchase 
on a gland with a bar to prevent cock- 
ing. As is well known, soft rings are 
very often made defective in this way, 
causing them to blow and leak steam 
the first time put in service. 

An important feature of this ram 
is that it does not disfigure or mar the 
piston rod or valve stem. The pur- 
chase against the rod is obtained by 
the use of the copper friction rollers 
shown. These rollers, loosely strung, 



Nickel Steel fok Locomotives 205 

are laid over the rod and, engaging with the beveled inside face of the 
rear portion of the ram, effect a firm grip, providing ample resistance 
against the back thrust when the plungers are forced forward. 

This device has shown itself in actual work to be not only simple 
and cheap, but durable, and an important time and labor saver. With 
it, one man can easily get a gland to its place. In cases where air plants 
are not used, the ram can be coupled to the train line of the engine 
being worked on, or with any engine within reach, for the air hose 
attached to it has the standard Westinghouse coupling. It is thus very 
convenient for working on hot engines in round-houses or in the yards. 

This device is also readily used in putting in hemp or other soft 
packing, for it will compress such packing in the stuffing-box as hard as 
may be desired, thus saving screwing nuts up several times. This ram 
has gained such favorable attention that it has, we understand, been 
recently taken up by the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., which will shortly 
add it to its line of pneumatic tools. 



NICKEL STEEL IN LOCOMOTIVE 
CONSTRUCTION. 

At the recent convention of the Master Mechanics Association, a 
report upon the use of nickel steel in locomotive construction was pre- 
sented by a committee consisting of Mr. Tracy Lyon, chairman, Mr. 
Pulaski Leeds and Mr. A. E. Mitchell. This report is of especial value, 
just at this time, when nickel steel is meeting with growing favor for 
the purposes indicated. There is very little exact knowledge of the 
nature and behavior of nickel steel — very little, that is, that has been 
generally distributed among railway men, at least in this country. In 
fact, here, this material has really been only experimentally used in loco- 
motive work, and so used for but a very few years. Accordingly, the 
information now compactly presented by the committee merits pre- 
sentation in practically its complete form. It will be remembered that 
in a recent issue (July, 1899, P a & e 9°) we criticised the specifications for 
nickel steel for locomotive parts, given in the report as supplied by a 
" prominent American manufacturer ; " and that we, at the same time, 
questioned the conclusiveness of the tests referred to at the close of the 
report. This should be borne in mind in reading the report, which, 



206 Railway Masteb Muiiank 

however, because of its value as introducing the subject, we append 
nearly in its entirety. The report is as follows : 

It is only fair to state that this report was not undertaken uutil late in April and that 
no more was proposed than to lay the foundation for the work of a future committee on 
Nickel Steel. *' 

This material was first brought into practical prominence at the time of the armor 
plate tests of the Government at Annapolis in 1890. It also came to be used by the Gov- 
ernment for deck plates and stay bolts, but it was not until about 1896 that its use in this 
country began for locomotive construction ; first in piston rods, crank pins, axles, and 
later in fire-box plates, side rods and stay bolts. 

Up to this time, however, nickel steel has only been used in locomotive construction 
in an experimental way, judging from the answers received to the circular to members 
from this committee. Out of thirty replies, some twenty-five confessed to no experience 
at all with this metal, and most of the others stated that their experience had been too 
limited to enable them to give any information on the subject. 

There follows some general information regarding nickel steel which has been 
gathered from the best authorities within reach, both at home and abroad. It is not 
attempted to give a general history of the use and development of nickel steel, but rather 
to bring out the features of this alloy which are of practical interest to the members of 
this association. 

Nickel steel is stated to be not a difficult alloy to manufacture, requiring no special 
furnaces, tools or thermal conditions. The cost of the nickel itself was, until 1875, $6.00 
to $7.00 a pound, so high as to make its use for such a purpose impossible, but the open- 
ing in Canada of the most extensive nickel mines yet discovered has reduced the price to 
from 30 to 40 cents a pound. 

Although nickel has been alloyed with steel in almost every proportion, what may 
now be called commercial nickel steel contains from 2 to 5 per cent of nickel. Such a 
material possesses great uniformity, the nickel being uniformly distributed throughout 
the ingot and not subject to segregation like other ingredients of steel, although some of 
the earlier experiments seemed to indicate a tendency, with more than 2 l / 2 per cent of 
nickel present, toward the formation in the heart of the ingot of long needle-shape 
crystals, which forging, hardening or annealing would not cause to disappear 

The addition of the nickel to steel adds particularly the qualities of toughness, dura- 
bility and resistance to corrosion. Commercial nickel steel may possess the same elon- 
gation as ordinary steel with a tensile strength 30 per cent higher and an elastic limit at 
least 75 per cent higher (Wiggin, Jour. /. & S. Institute). This greater strength, and 
particularly the higher elastic limit, would appear to make its use for structural material, 
boilers and machinery, far more advantageous than ordinary steel, especially where a 
saving in weight is desired and the parts are subjected to alternating stresses. 

With increased steam pressures, boiler plates two inches and more in thickness are 
demanded, bringing with them serious difficulties in handling and construction which it 
may be possible to obviate by using nickel steel plates 25 or 30 per cent thinner. 

Most of the nickel steel made in this country contains about 3 per cent of nickel, and 
it is stated that such material can be worked without difficulty ; rolled, forged, pressed in 
dies without cracking, flanged, punched, welded and machined. There seems to be no 
doubt, however, but that nickel steel cannot be machined as easily as low carbon steel. 
It takes the edge off tools very rapidly and the finishing cut is apt to sliver. The best of 
machinery and tools are required to cut a clean thread on stay bolts. One authority says 
that an alloy containing 1 per cent of nickel can be easily welded, but that with more 
nickel the difficulty of this operation increases. With more than 5 per cent of nickel, all 
of these operations become considerably more difficult A French authority states that 



Nickel Steel fob Locomotives 



201 



it requires ten times more time to corrode a 5 per cent nickel steel when clipped in dilute 
muriatic acid than an ordinary soft steel containing o. 18 carbon. Other experiments, 
made by leaving planed plates exposed to the action of sea water for a year, showed a loss 



TABLE I. 





C. 


Mn. 


s. 


p. 


Ni. 


Hard-forged steel. . . 


0.24 
0.30 to 0.35 
0.25 to 0.30 


O.78 
0.60 to I .00 
0.60 to 0.80 


0.027 
0.03 to 0.05 
0.03 to 0.07 


0.027 
0.03 to 0.05 
0.03 to 0.06 


3- 2 5 



TABLE II. 



Shape. 



a 

Rounds - b . . . . 

f c , 

Angles -| 



Universal plates ) 
Longitudinal. . . ) 



Universal plates 
Transverse ... 



Sheared plates, j 
Longitudinal. . . "j 

Sheared plates . ) 
Transverse . . . ) 



Kind. 



Nickel 

Hard forgin 
Forging 

a 

b 

c , 

a 

b 

c 

a 

b 

c 

a 

b 

c 

a 

b 

c 



Ultimate 

strength. 

Lbs. per 

sq. in. 



86,015 
87,663 
78,066 

86,960 
87,820 
76,970 

85,773 
82,773 
78,996 

86,417 
85^73 

85,173 

85,337 
85,012 
78,918 

84,377 
84,327 
84,327 



Elas 
Limit. 



Elastic 

Ratio. 

Per 

cent. 



63,575 
58,055 

5J,793 

58,553 
54,i53 
49,544 

58,410 

5°, l6 3 
46,654 

58,203 
50,000 
50,000 

58,169 
50,000 
49,128 

57,26o 
50,000 
50,000 



73-9 
66.2 

66.3 

67.3 
61 .7 

64.4 

68.1 
60.6 

59-i 

67.4 

58.7 
58.7 

68.1 
58.8 
62.3 

67.9 

59-3 

59 • 3 



Elong. 

8 in. 

per 

cent. 



20. 19 
16.70 

23-94 

21-75 
I9-25 
I9-25 

21 .08 
20.50 
26.78 

16.50 
18.83 
18.83 

I9.OO 

22 . IO 
22 .03 

17.13 

21 .71 

21 .71 



Elong. 

2 in. 

per 

cent. 



34-00 

24.44 
24.44 

39.66 
34.83 
34.83 

39 25 
37.67 
37.67 

28.92 
23.17 
23.17 

35-50 
39 -4o 
39-40 

32 50 

37 -oo 
37.00 



Red. 
Area. 



46.3 

30.3 
52.O 

50-5 
43-3 
49.6 

52.0 
47.o 

52 1 

36.1 
27 4 
27.4 

48.3 
48.4 
50.8 

43-4 
4i 3 
4i.3 



The result of a recent comparative test of nickel steel stay bolts as compared with iron 
is also given below : 





Diameter. 


Tensile. 


Elongation. 


Per Cent Reduction. 


.894 
.865 


52250 

1 

60560 


Iron. 
8 inches 20 . 5 

4 " 3° -o 
2 " 40.0 

Nickel Steel. 
8 inches 27 .0 
4 " 38-0 
2 " 52.0 


47- ' 
69 2 



208 



IiAii.WAY Master Mechanic 



by corrosion of nickel steel plates of 1.36 per cent ; of mild steel 1.72 per cent ; wrought 
iron 1.89 per cent. A nickel steel has been offered for use for locomotive tanks on 
account of its non-corrosive qualities. 

The Government specifications for the nickel steel propeller shafts of the U. S. S. 
Brooklyn required a tensile strength of 85,000 pounds and 50,000 pounds elastic limit. 
The navy appears to be using nickel steel very extensively now, and provides the follow- 
ing general specifications covering its-present-use : 

High-Grade Machinery Forgings. — To have a tensile strength of not less than 
95,000 pounds, elastic limit not less than 65,000 pounds, elongation not less than 21 per 
cent in two inches. Oil-tempered and annealed. Used for main engine shafting, cross- 
head pins, connecting rods, piston rods, tie rods, valve stems, links, eccentric rods, etc., 
with their bolts, nuts, keys, feathers, etc. 

Class A, No. 1, Machinery Forgings. — To have a tensile strength of not less than 
80,000 pounds, elastic limit not less than 50,000 pounds, elongation not less than 25 per 
cent in two inches. Oil-tempered and annealed or not, at option of manufacturer. 
Used for columns and other stationary parts of the main engines. 

Class A, No. 2, Machinery Forgings. — To have a tensile strength of not less than 
80,000 pounds, elastic limit not less than 45,000 pounds, elongation not less than 26 per 
cent in two inches. Annealed only. Used for bolts or studs in flanges of steam cylin- 
ders, valve chests, steam and water pipes. 

An ultimate resistance of 90,000 pounds can be obtained from 3 per cent nickel steel 
with very low carbon, say 0.175, when to obtain this strength in ordinary steel would 
require at least 0.50 carbon, sufficient to make the material so brittle as to be unreliable 
It is claimed that with the right treatment an ultimate resistance of as much as 135,000 
pounds can be obtained with steel containing about 3 per cent of nickel (J. B. Nau, An- 
nates des Mines). In general, the elastic limit of nickel steel may be depended upon 
to be above 50 per cent of the ultimate resistance. 

H. H. Campbell, in the Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, gives the results 
of some tests of nickel steel as compared with other steels. The analyses are shown in 
Table I and the tests in Table II. [Se page 207.] Four tons of nickel steel were made, 
cast into two ingots and rolled to the various shapes mentioned. 

A prominent American manufacturer gives the following specification as proper for 
nickel steel parts of locomotives : 

SPECIFICATIONS. 



3 per cent 
Nickel Steel. 



Crank pins 78,000 

Piston rods 78.000 

Driving axles 74,000 

Side rods I 60, 000 



Minimum Maximum 

Tensile Tensile 

Strength. Strength. 



Fire-box plates, 
Stay bolts. . . . 



60,000 
58.000 



84,000 
84,000 
80,000 
68,000 
68,000 
66,000 



Minimum 
Elongation. 



255? in 2 in. 
25^ in 2 in. 
30JJ in 2 in. 
255C in 2 in. 

20' , in 8 in. 
20 r r in 8 in. 



Elastic Limit. 



y z of Ultimate 



Oil- 
tem- 
pered. 



Maximum P. o 03, S. o 03, Mn. 0.40, C. 0.25, Si. 0.03. 

From some experiments made in Belgium in 1894, comparing ferro-nickel steel con- 
taining carbon 0.06 and nickel 7 5, and a high carbon steel containing carbon 0.55. the 
following general deductions as to the comparative results of hardening and tempering 
may be made : In the natural state the carbon steel was considerable superior to the 
ferro-nickel in point of limit of elasticity and ultimate resistance, but showed a much less 
elongation and contraction. When hardened in water at 900° or in oil, the ferro-nickel 



Nickel Steel fok Locomotives 209 

showed itself to be the superior at every point, still retaining a silky fracture, while the 
fracture of the hardened carbon steel was dry and granular. When annealed at 500° 
after hardening, the difference was not so marked, the carbon steel showing a greater 
ultimate resistance, but an inferiority in other respects. These tests show an ultimate 
resistance of the ferro-nickel of from 76,788 pounds per square inch in its natural state 
(elastic ratio 75 per cent) to 177,750 pounds when hardened in water (e. r. 85 per cent), 
and 141,631 pounds when hardened in oil (e. r. 97 per cent). The carbon steel showing 
122,292 pounds (60 per cent), 104,943 pounds (72 per cent), and 132,815 pounds (76 per 
cent), respectively. 

The results of quite exhaustive tests of nickel steel made by the St. Jacques Steel 
Works in France, are of sufficient practical interest to be quoted here in full. These 
permit the classification of the metal into three different groups : 

"1. Steels containing 2 to 5 per cent of nickel. Their resistance increases with the 

percentage of nickel, especially when the carbon content is low. When carbon reaches 

0.50 per cent or more the presence of nickel has little influence. Steel of this class 

eforges and rolls well. When hardened, the ratio of elastic limit to ultimate resistance 

becomes very great. 

" 2. Steels containing from 10 to 20 per cent nickel. The resistance increases again 
with the amount of nickel. An addition of 0.10 per cent of carbon increases the ultimate 
resistance from 42,660 pounds to 92,430 pounds. Such steel containing 20 per cent 
nickel has a resistance of 156,420 pounds. If at the same time the carbon increases up 
to a certain limit, a resistance of more than 284,000 pounds can be obtained. The upper 
carbon content, at which the resistance of a 10 per cent nickel steel begins to decrease 
again, is 0.50 per cent. 

" Steels of the second class do not harden much, and do not harden at all when the 
carbon is higher than 0.10 per cent; 20 per cent nickel steel never hardens. All are very 
brittle. They forge and roll well, but when containing more than 0.10 per cent carbon 
they cannot be machined. 

"3. Steels containing from 20 to 25 per cent of nickel. Their elastic limit, as well 
as ultimate resistance, is low. They have great elongation, and are nearly free from 
brittleness. When forged at a low temperature without annealing, their elastic limit 
increases notably, and has reached 78,000 pounds, with an ultimate resistance of 113,700 
pounds, and an elongation of 25 per cent. 

"With carbon content of less than 1 per cent, the steel can be easily forged and 
rolled. Steel with 1 per cent of carbon can be forged between 500 and 1,000 degrees with 
light blows. Machining is difficult, but not impossible. 

"From these tests it results that only the steels of the first and third classes can be 
used for practical purposes, the steels of the second class being too brittle and too difficult 
to machine." (A. Abraham in Iron Age.) 

The suitability of nickel steel for tires is particularly mentioned. "The usual test 
of a tire is that it should stand compressing one-sixth of its diameter without cracking, 
but one of nickel steel stood compression from a diameter of 39^2 to 19 inches without 
signs of fracture. A crack appearing in the metal does not develop as in carbon steel, 
and this renders it peculiarly applicable for shafts and axles." (W, Beardmore m Jour. 
I. & S. hist.) 

The experience of one of this committee with two piston rods of commercial nickel 
steel would confirm in a way this latter statement. After having been in service for two 
years, transverse cracks appeared extending over about one-third of the circumference of 
the rods, and of a maximum depth of fo inches. When removed, however, the rods could 
not be broken with the heaviest sledges, one being finally fractured in a hydraulic press, 
while the other had to be drilled in two. These rods appeared to be soft, and the wearing 
surface did not glaze over, although no unusual wear of metallic packing was observable 



210 Railway Masteb Mechanic 



A user of nickel steel locomotive crank pins states that there seemed to be quite a 
variation in the hardness of different pins in the same lot, as evidenced by the behavior 
of the metal under the tool, and that the reduction in diameter of the softer pins under 
the pressure of the burnishing roll was particularly noticeable. 

Another reports the trial of nickel steel bolts in place of iron (where the latter were 
failing and could not be made larger), but with no benefit. 

A few members reported the recent use by them of nickel steel crank pins for loco- 
motives, piston rods and fire-boxes. Among the few comments made was one which 
referred to the rough appearance of nickel steel fire-box sheets, and another that it 
appeared, from a limited number of nickel steel piston rods in service, that they were 
more apt to break than those of ordinary steel. (No particulars given.) 

It has not been attempted to touch on the use of nickel steel as a material for cast- 
ings, but much may be looked for in that direction. 

The committee performed a good service in giving in its report a 
list of references to the literature of the subject, and this list we append 
as follows : 

"Allovs of Xickel and Steel,' Jas. Riley. — Journal Iron and Steel Institute. 
Vol. I.. 1S89. 

"Magnetic Properties of Alloys of Xickel and Iron." — Proceedings Royal Society. 
Vols. 47. 48, 50, 1S90. 

'Xikkel-forekomster og Xikkel-produktion, " Kristiana, 1892. — Journal Iron and 
Steel Institute, Vol. II.. 1892 ; Vol. I., 1893. 

"Production in the United States of Heavy Steel Engine, Gun and Armor Plate 
Forgings. " — Transactions .Yaz-al Architects and Marine Engineers^ Vol. I., 1893. 

"Xickel Steel."' — industries and Iron, Xovember 2 and 23, 1894. 
"British Armor and Ordnance." — The Engineer, March 23, 1S94. 

"The Armor Plate Question." — Engineering Magazine, December, 1894. 

"The Present Status of Face-Hardened Armor." — The Iron Age, December 6, 1894 

"Xotes on the Metallurgy of Xickel in the United States.'' — Transactions Amer- 
ican Institute Mining Engineers, Vol. XI 

"The Development of American Armor Plate." — Transactions Franklin Institute 
Vol. CXXXIII. 

Stahl and Risen. — Xos. 4, 8, 10, 19, 1893; Nos. 11, 12, 1894; Xo. 1, 1895. 
'Xickel and Xickel Steel," F. L. Sperry. — Transactions American Institute 
Mining Engineers, March, 1895. 

"Xickel Steel and Its Advantages Over Ordinary Steel." H. A. Wiggin. — Iron and 
Steel Institute, Vol. II., 1895. 

"High-Grade Steel," J. C. Danziger. — Detroit Engineering Society, June, 1896. 

"Xickel Steel as an Improved Material for Boiler Shell Plates, Forgings and Other 
Purposes," W. Beardmore. — Institute Naval Architects (Br.), April, 1897. 

Journal Iron and Steel Institute, Vol. II., 1897, W. Beardmore ; C. E. Guillaume. 

"Steel for Forgings, " A. L. Colby — Engineers' Club, Philadelphia. 

"Xickel Steel for Crank Pins and Axles," H. K. Porter. — Western Railway Club. 
February, 1898. 

"Tests of Xickel Steel Stay Bolts." — Railivay Gazette, February, 1898. 

"Improvement in the Manufacture of High-Grade Boiler Materials." — Railway 
and Engineering Reviezu, April 22, 1899. 

"Special Xickel, Chromium and Silicon Steels" {Annates des Mines), A. Abraham. 
— Iron Age, February 2, 1899. 

"Xickel Steel," H. K. Landis, A. I. Mg E. — Engineering Magazine. 



Rigs fok Fitting up Air Hose 



211 



RIGS FOR FITTING UP AIR HOSE. 

The fitting up of brake hose by compressed air appliances is followed 
in many different ways at different shops. Wherever there is an air 
supply, shop-men have exercised their ingenuity in devising clever ways 
and means of utilizing that power to aid them in rapid hose fitting. But 
there are many places where hose has to be fitted up, that are without 
air supply, and it was at one of such places that the devices here 
shown were built, in order that the old time bench methods might be im- 
proved upon. Our first engraving shows a rigging for fitting on the coup- 
ling and the nipple ; and the second, a device for rapid clamping. The 
drawings are so complete that the operation of these riggings may be 
readily observed. In putting on nipples and couplings the hose is held, 
as shown, in a clamp, the foot treadle holding it firmly ; the nipple, held 
in the lever, is then brought around and forced into the hose. A rod or 
tube may be placed in the hose to stiffen it if desired ; but it is not nec- 
essary. The clamping is effected by the tong-shaped appliance shown, 




Kig for Fitting vp Air Hose — Nipples and Couplings 



'2 1 2 



Railway Master Mechanic 



.',.4.-M.-M.M.V7n 




Rig for Fitting up Air Hose— Clamps. 

operated by the counter-weighted lever, below and in front of the bench. 
These devices were designed by Mr. H. Herwig, air brake inspector 
of the Chicago, Lake Shore & Eastern Ry., at Chicago, 111. They are 
simple, but very effective. With them, one man can fit up fifty hose com- 
plete in two hours ; whereas, by the old way, the same amount of work 
takes two men six hours. 



STATION TREATMENT OF WATER— SOUTHERN 

PACIFIC RAILWAY. 

It has long been considered by many, that the ideal way to purify 
water for use in locomotive boilers is to treat it before it reaches the 
engine tank ; but the cost of the necessary plant has prevented the gen- 
eral following of this practice. The Southern Pacific Railway has, how- 
ever, gone into this matter quite extensively, and with satisfactory 
results. In the report on " Best methods of preventing trouble in 
boilers from water impurities," presented at the June convention of the 
Master Mechanics' Association, an account of the practice on that road 
is given as furnished to the committee by Mr. Howard Stillman. The 
latter's description of the plant and its operation follows: 

The Southern Pacific have introduced and have in operation at pres- 



Station Treatment of Wateb 



213 



ent, four plants for treatment of hard scaling waters. By introducing 
quicklime and soda ash in such proportion as required in water to neu- 
tralize carbonic acid and convert incrusting sulphates, allowing the pre- 
cipitates to settle in ample tankage and drawing settled water from 
surface of tank, the method prevents corrosion, and eliminates about 80 
per cent of the scale salts. The accompanying engraving shows the 
plant at Santa Paula, Cal. As shown, it was designed to be entirely 
automatic, but it has been found best to operate it for a required period 




"L^^-^^ - " "" Yv.. 6. 

Water Purifying Plant, Santa Paula, Southern Pacific Rv. 



214 



Railway Master Mechanic 



at one time during the day, so as to allow more time for settlings. The 
float valve shown is, therefore, not in use, and the water is cut out at a 
valve in the main, just before entering the motor shown in the plan. 
This motor consists simply of a horizontal water wheel, enclosed in a cast- 
ing, with a cover about as heavy as locomotive cylinder heads. The wheel 
has ample clearance within its case, and is driven from a nozzle at the 
entrance of the water main to the water casing. The shaft of the water 

wheel projects through a stuffing 
box and carries two small wheels. 
One of these wheels is a gear, 
engaging in a larger gear driving a 
regulating valve for the purpose of 
controlling the chemical feed from 
the upright chemical tank, on the 
lower floor ; the flow from the 
chemical tank, through the regu- 



IgfcrforZfe stop coc* 





■ f/ffnge fo Con/?ec/ 6 */'Sa'/'05& near 
If j Ooffom c f Staff 





Details of Tank Fixture. 



lating valve, is controlled by air 
pressure to suit the conditions under 
which the apparatus works, and 
gauged to be proportioned to the 
average hourly rate of flow through 
water main. 

The second wheel on the motor 
shaft is a sprocket, and drives a cen- 
tral shaft and paddles, within the 
upright chemical tank. When in 
operation, this paddle churns up the 
chemical mixtures while feeding 
out. 
The chemical solution, after passing the regulating valve, flows on 
through a 24 -inch pipe which taps into the water main at a point just 
before entering the large or circulating tank on the ground plane. This 
upright tank contains alternate baffle plates, to effect mixture of the 
chemical solution with the water in its upward flow through the circu- 
lating tank. 

The water discharges into the service tank about four feet from the 
bottom through a horizontal nipple, giving a slowly rotating motion to 
the treated water. A wired 6-inch hose connects with the tank valve, 
the upper end of the hose being attached to a float, and by this means, 
the upper (open) end of the hose draws water about a foot from the 



Station Treatment of Wateb 215 



surface, rising and falling with the level. The discharge from the grav- 
ity supply at Santa Paula is at a constant rate of 6,200 gallons per hour, 
and the amount of water used per day is about 24,000 gallons. 

Precipitated matter in the service tank is removed by the spider- 
drain system of tank bottom outlets, discharging at the 9-inch mud 
valve, shown just between the chemical house and tank foundation on 
the ground level. The water still contains about one-fifth the incrust- 
ing matter, but some falls in the boiler as sludge, and does not stick to 
the boiler inside. 

The plant at San Luis Obispo is similar in principle to the one 
described, but circumstances are somewhat different, and the water is 
also of a different character. There are engines at San Luis Obispo 
using the treated water almost entirely, and it is now possible to let 
them go with boiler washing once a week, where formerly they were 
washed every night. Hard scale does not form with washing once a 
week, where formerly the washing daily did not remove the hard scale. It 
should be understood that the treating plants referred to are each on a 
different division of the road, and waters are poor on either side of points 
at which the plants are established. It is, therefore, difficult to state a 
figure for locomotive service that is reliable as to amount saved for boiler 
washing, etc. 

The cost of water treatment at treatment plants is : 

Santa Monica 4.00 cents per 1 ,000 gallons. 

Santa Paula 2.25 

San Luis Obispo 2.30 " " 

El Paso 2.50 " " 

The analysis of the water from the Santa Paula plant before and 
after treatment, shows it to contain : 

Treated. Untreated. 

Carbonate lime 1 .98 T o 85 

Sulphate lime Trace 4.36 

Carbonate magnesium 2.68 1 .05 

Sulphate magnesium 70 7.00 

Silica 41 1 .05 

Alkali carbonates 1 . 28 .... 

Alkali sulphate 2 °-53 S.51 

Alkali chlorides 4. 20 4. 20 

Total matter 3178 36 92 

Total incrusting 5 67 24.21 

Total non-incrustings 26.11 12.71 

Reagents for treating 1,000 gallons : Lime, % pound ; soda ash, \% pound 

Directions for care and management of water-treating plants at Santa 

Pan la and San Luis Obispo. 

The treatment is effected by injecting into the water main, by air 



216 Railway Masteb Mechanic 

pressure through the feed regulator attached to the motor shaft a chem- 
ical mixture from the upright chemical tank on the lower floor. 

The chemical tank is filled, as the mixture is required, from the mix- 
ing vat on the upper floor. 

The open vat contains the stated amount of chemicals, with water, 
for 10 inches depth of liquid when mixed and ready for use. 
Directions for mixing chemicals in the open vats. 

Weigh out the required amount of lime and place in the vat, cover- 
ing with water. Allow to stand about half an hour, by which time the 
lime should be thoroughly slacked. Now put in water until nearly the 
required 1 2-inch depth, and stir thoroughly, adding the soda ash by 
sprinkling into the mixture from end of a shovel, and continue stirring 
with the hoe to dissolve the soda. 

Note. — If the soda ash is dumped into the vat in a mass, it will form 
the equivalent of sal soda, and not dissolve easily. 

Now fill the vat to the 12-inch depth with more water and additional 
stirring. 

The above mixture may be made up in one-half or other proportional 
quantities and kept on tap as required for the upright chemical tank on 
the lower floor. Care should be taken to stir up the solution while 
being run off from the vat. 

Any accumulation of sand or rock remaining in the vat when 
drained, should be shoveled out and thrown away. 

When held in the open vat, the chemical mixture will keep its full 
strength for a week or more. 

When run off into the chemical tank, with all cocks closed, the mix- 
ture will keep indefinitely. 

All chemicals should be kept dry before use. 

Care of settling tanks. 

No rule can be established for the disposal of sludge. The valve 
outlet to the spider-drain attachment to the tank will require attention 
about once a month, probably, and should be opened at a time (as near 
as possible) longest since the treating plant has been in operation. 

The valve should be wide open only long enough to draw off the 
heavy sludge. 

THE ENGLISH have been quite stirred up over the recent sales of 
American locomotives for their railways ; but it is not the first time that 
they have been so worried. In 1839 they had a little scare, occasioned 
by some bidding by the Baldwin works. A paragraph appearing in the 



The Car Foremen's Association 21*3 

"Railway Magazine" for November 9, 1839, nas been resurrected. It 
bore the title of "A Pill for Locomotive Makers of England." It must 
have been a bitter pill, judging from the comment made. The paragraph 
reads as follows : 

"We have just seen a sort of prospectus of Messrs. Baldwin, Vail 
& Hufty, of Philadelphia, offering to supply England, German}-, etc., 
with locomotives of 12^-inch cylinders for ,£1,646 ; 12-inch for ^£ 1,543, 
and 10^-inch for £1,337% ', an additional sum of $1,710 will purchase 
duplicate driving wheels, axle and eccentrics, tenders and truck wheels 
and axles, a set of brasses and twenty copper tubes. If five engines are 
ordered at once, these gentlemen promise to leave in the hands of the 
purchaser, for twelve months, ,£100 for every engine, as a guarantee 
that the expenses of repairs for the first year, if the engines do not run 
above twenty miles per hour and over 100 miles per day, shall not exceed 
$500. To these promises a long list of testimonies is added. We have 
before us drawings of these engines, and smutty-looking things they are. 
Their cylinders are placed outside near the front of the engine, and the 
connecting rod is attached to the driving wheels near the end of the 
cylinder. We should be sorry to condemn any man's wares untried but, 
in our opinion, from the appearance of the machines, Messrs. Baldwin & 
Co. are either beings of some years past, or have actually mistaken a 
retrograde for a direct motion in the march of improvement. We should 
not hesitate to say that one of these engines is not to be compared with 
one of our best of an equal power in economy of working." 



THE CAR FOREMEN'S ASSOCIATION OF 

CHICAGO. 

AUGUST MEETING. 
The regular meeting of the Car Foremen's Association of Chicago, 
was held in the rooms of the Western Society of Engineers, 1 741 
Monadnock Building, Chicago, August 10. 

MISCELLANEOUS BUSINESS. 
President Morris called the meeting to order at 8 p. m. Among 
those present were : 

Bond, L. K. Gruhlke. E. Kramer, Wm. Showers, G, \V 

Blohm, T. Guthenberg, Bruno Kroft, F. C. Smith, R. G. 

Bates, Geo. M. Gardner, L. S. Manthey, H. H. Spohnholtz, J. C. 

Callahan, John Grieb, J. C. Mattes, J. Stocks, Jas. 

Coleman, T. Green, C. E. Miner, W. H. Stuckie, E. J. 

Cook, W. C. Hultman, Chas. Morris, T. R. Swoboda, J. 

Constant, E. T. Hansen, A. P. McAlpine, A. R. Thinerge, J. C. 



218 Railway Mastkk Mechanic 



Gather, C. C. Helwig, H. Nightengale, H. Van Vleit, J. 

Davies, W. O., Jr. Hensel, Fred Olsen, L. Wensley, W. H. 

Etten, L. Kehm, H. C. Reinhard, F. B. Weschler, Henry 

Gehrke, Wm. Konze, Win Saum, Geo. Wentsel, Geo. 
Groobey. Geo. 

Secretary Cook : We have applications from L. E. Thomas, of the 
Illinois Central Railway at Centralia, 111., and G. M. Bates, of the 
C.| B. & Q. R. R., at Chicago. They have been approved by the exec- 
utive committee and will be enrolled as members. 

President Morris : The names of the committees that were provided 
for at the last meeting are as follows : Committee on Revision of the 
Constitution and By-Laws: J. C. Grieb, chairman; G. W. Showers, 
C. C. Cather. Committee on Annual Entertainment : W. H. Wensley, 
chairman; H. C. Kehm, T. B. Hunt, John Thrall, William Miller, George 
Groobey and H. V. Kuhlman. 

THE INTERCHANGE RULES. 

The first question for to-night's work is discussion of the changes 
made in the M. C. B. rules, effective September i, 1899. The Secretary 
will please read the changes, section by section, and they can be taken 
up and discussed. 

[The Secretary read, section by section, the changes that had been 
made in the rules. The following only were the subject of discussion] : 

Secretary Cook: Rule 3, Section 19a. A new section is added, 
following Section 19, as follows: 

" Journal bearings which require renewal by reason of change of 
wheels or axles, for which the delivering company is responsible. (De- 
livering company responsible.)" 

Mr. Reinhard : Suppose we receive a car with a cut journal and a 
defect card for it from connecting line ; would that cover the brass, or 
would you have to ask for another defect card ? 

President Morris : The defect card would have to cover everything 
you billed for. 

Mr. Reinhard : That would be my understanding, but my question 
is, whether it would go or not. 

Mr. Kramer : I think that is all right. If the journal is cut badly 
enough to come through the journal box, and the journal box is cut, the 
journal box should be carded too. 

President Morris : Mr. Reinhard's question was, whether journal 
bearings would have to be mentioned on the defect card. 

Mr. Kramer : I think that is all right ; they should be ; the delivering 
road should be responsible for them. 

Mr. Kroff : Suppose brasses are worn out, would you ask delivering 



The Intekchange Rules &L9 

company for a defect card in case of cut journal or bent axle ? I think 
the rule is good enough the old way. 

Mr. Kramer : I think if the brass has been worn out before it was 
delivered, the delivering road was privileged to renew the brass before 
the journal got hot on account of the brass being too thin ; therefore, I 
think the delivering road should be responsible for the cut journal and 
cut brass. 

Mr. Grieb : I wish to ask another question regarding what would 
be done in a case of slid flat wheels interchanged. If you had a pair of 
flat wheels under a car, and there was a card on it, and you had to apply 
new journal bearings, would you ask for another card for the journal 
bearings, or how would you dispose of the charge for the bearings ? 

Mr. Kramer : In my opinion, I should say that the delivering road 
should be responsible for the renewal of the brasses, if they should be 
renewed. 

President Morris : We would like to have a few opinions on this 
subject. It is one that is interesting, and it is bound to bring out more 
or less discussion at one time or another. We had better have an 
understanding in regard to it now. 

Mr. Gradl : Section 21, of Rule 3, says delivering company is 
responsible for journal bearings. (Reads the rule.) 

Mr. Stuckie : For instance, if the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
carded for a cut journal or a slid wheel, and the Belt delivered the 
car home — who would be responsible for the brass then ? The Belt is 
the last delivering road. 

President Morris : The delivering company is responsible. That 
seems to be clear. The Belt would be the delivering company, and 
they would be responsible, but they might shift the responsibility, if 
their records showed some one else in for it. 

Mr. Stuckie : The St. Paul cards for the slid wheels. 

Mr. Grieb : It seems to me that the responsibility for the whole 
deal, both for journals and slid wheels, as well as the brasses, must rest 
with the party that cards for it, under these rules. 

Mr. Oleson : My opinion is, that where there is a pair of wheels 
changed, which is chargeable to the delivering road, such as slid wheels 
and cut journals, it should be charged to the delivering road if they re- 
move the brass ; but where a pair of wheels is changed on account of 
being slid flat, the owner should be charged, because he is getting the 
benefit of it. 

Mr. Wensley : I think if I was taking out a pair of wheels with cut 



220 Railway Masteb Mechanic 

journals, and the bearings were damaged on account of those journals, 
I should expect a card for the bearings as well as the journals. If bear- 
ings are worn out, I should certainly charge owners for them. 

Mr. Reinhard : I don't believe the gentleman sees into what I am 
trying to get at. The question is, suppose a car is delivered with cut 
journals, would the card covering the cut journals be authority for the 
brasses, or would you have to get an additional card, or would it have 
to be enumerated on this defect card, "one cut journal and so main- 
brasses ?" For instance: In renewing end posts you can remove two 
boards of siding and bill for it ; but the question in my mind is whether 
this one card will cover two brasses which you will have to put in, in 
case the journals you apply in replacing those cut journals have to have 
two new brasses — whether this one card will be authority to make bill 
for the two brasses and the cut journals. 

Mr. Stocks : This rule, so far as I can see, don't say anything 
about defect cards, whatsoever ; it simply says that the road making- 
repairs — that is, replacing a pair of wheels — is responsible. If they 
renew the brass, they will do it at their own expense. If you take a car 
with a cut journal, it is unfair usage. If the brass is destroyed and the 
journal is cut, of course you would have to card for both ; but this rule, 
I believe, just means — we will say, for instance, bent axle, and you 
change the wheels on your road and the old brasses will not fit the new 
journals, being a different size. Well, then, it would be necessary to 
put in new brasses. You have to put them in at your own expense. 
Of course you can use the old brasses. That is the way I look at the 
rules, and I believe it is correct. 

Mr. Grieb : In order to settle this question, I would make a motion 
that, according to the understanding of this association, in renewing jour- 
nal bearings on account of defects to either wheels or axles, for which 
the owner is not responsible, the responsibility for the bearings will rest 
upon the party who accepts responsibility for the renewal of the wheels 
or axle ; whether one bearing is renewed at that time, or two. The 
very fact that you have treated a car unfairly to the extent of cutting 
the journal, sliding a pair of wheels or bending an axle, et cetera, places 
the responsibility for the one or two journal bearings which are inter- 
ested in the transaction, upon you ; but I do not think we ought to 
make bills on defect cards for any more items than the defect card 
especially mentions ; and in case we receive a car with a cut journal 
and we find it necessary to renew one or both of the journal bearings, 



The [ntebchange Kules 221 



we ought to get another defect card authorizing charge for the bearings, 
before we put the bill through. 

Mr. Stocks: I would object to that, for these reasons: If we get a 
car with a bent axle, and the other road is willing to take that car on 
that card, if they change the wheels we can't go beyond the rules as 
they are written down. The rules state very plainly that the company 
making the repairs to any car — that is, when they are responsible for 
the defect — should do it at their own expense. Slid wheel, bent axle, 
or broken wheel, is unfair usage. But in issuing a defect card, I do not 
believe I would be in favor of charging them for everything afterwards ; 
it should be stated on the defect card. 

Mr. Davies, Jr. : I don't see why we should make a motion to live 
up to these rules. 

President Morris : The motion is, that " It is the understanding of 
this Association, that according to the section, delivering company is 
responsible for all brasses removed with wheels having defects for which 
the delivering company is responsible." It is a question of proper un- 
derstanding of the rules. 

Mr. Showers : The gentleman on the other side of the house refers 
to responsibility for brasses wherein wheels or axles have been removed 
on account of defects the owner is not responsible for. I believe we 
have a decision prior to the issuance of these rules, which has made the 
owner of the car responsible for brasses. This rule, in my judgment, or 
this part of a rule, was affixed to overcome that part, wherein journals 
are cut, axles are bent, wheels are chipped or slid flat. It is more to 
the company's interest in making repairs to apply a different axle ; that 
is, they can make the change of axle to better advantage than to press 
off the wheels and apply the same axle. Consequently, an axle may be 
larger or smaller, and the journal bearings will not fit. Now, to begin 
with, the owner of the car is not responsible for the wheels, neither is 
he responsible for the journals ; neither is he responsible if the party saw 
fit to apply a different axle. If it is to their interest to apply a different 
axle, they should stand for the journal bearings. 

Mr. Kramer : That is what I was getting at. It is just like this : 
if I should deliver a car to another road, with a bent axle, and they 
should demand of me a defect card for the bent axle, if they haven't got 
an axle to fit that car, that would not be our road's fault. If the brass 
should be carded for, it should so state on the card. 

Mr. Showers: I believe I misunderstood him a moment ago. I 
don't mean the party that makes the repairs ; I mean the party that is 



222 Iiailway Mastkk Mechanic 

responsible in the beginning-, should stand responsible for the brass. 

President Morris : That is Mr. Grieb's motion. 

Mr. Bates: Mr. Kramer is all right. The Arbitration Committee 
have decided, time and again, that if you put work onto some other road, 
you can't dictate how they shall make repairs. Whatever they do, the 
carding road must pay for. If any road bends an axle and puts the 
work onto its neighbor, it certainly is responsible for the brass as well 
as the bent axle. 

Mr. Grieb's motion was here put and carried. 

Secretary Cook: Rule 5, Section 3c. This section is changed to 
read as follows : " The joint evidence card shall not be used as authority 
for rendering a bill, but shall be sent to the company against which 
evidence is presented, and it shall furnish defect card covering the 
wrong repairs if it made them. The joint evidence card, accompanied 
by a proper repair card upon which a bill has been made, shall be used 
as authority for rendering bills, but if accompanied by such repair card 
the joint evidence card shall be sent to the company against which the 
evidence has been presented, and it shall furnish a defect card covering 
the wrong repairs if it made them." 

Mr. Showers: Does this association understand that joint evidence 
cards are to be signed without, being accompanied by a repair card, 
where there is no proof that the repairs are wrong? 
- Mr. Grieb : I would like, for my personal information, to ask Mr. 
Showers why they should not be signed. 

Mr. Showers : I have no reason at all, except it has been refused to us. 

Mr. Grieb : It seems to me that any one understanding the use and 
purpose of the joint evidence cannot object to signing it. It is simply a 
statement of facts and conditions as they find them — whether repairs are 
proper or not. I do not see what the absence or presence of a repair 
card has to do with signing it. 

Mr. Showers : The only reason I had was, perhaps, to get some 
information from the inspectors as to whether in a given case they 
would refuse to sign joint evidence. 

Mr. Wensley : I want the repair card sent along when I sign it, if 
I don't see the repairs myself. I know one or two men not over fifteen 
miles away, who, never having seen a car or never having seen the 
repairs, sign a joint evidence card and fire it back. Last spring we 
received a request from a party on the West side for wrong repairs to a 
deadwood 4x10. Two feet four inches was the length of the deadwood. 
I went down to seethe gentleman and asked him to show me his car. He 



The Intek< iiange Kules 223 



was not present; his foreman was there, but he couldn't find a deadwood 
any larger than 4x10. They claimed deadwood should be 4^. 1 took 
one of my inspectors and went back two or three days afterward and 
saw the gentleman himself. I asked him to show me his stock on hand. 
We went through all the stock he had in his yard and he didn't find a 
deadwood 4x10. If the second man had seen that, he never would sign 
a joint evidence card. The actual facts in the case are, his deadwoods 
are 434x9, and he hasn't any larger. Now, I claim any man who signs 
a joint evidence card without seeing the repairs is doing wrong. 

• Mr. Showers: That is not the question. It is a matter of repair 
card. Would you ask anybody to sign a joint evidence card without 
seeing the repairs ? I must say that if it keeps on, I will have to have 
more time waiting for men to come and look at repairs, and will also 
have to enlarge the yard. 

President Morris : 1 don't think it is possible for a railroad to do 
business in Chicago and hold a car for an inspector to come five to fif- 
teen miles to look at it. 

A Member : We keep a man for that purpose. 

President Morris : I will say for the St. Paul, that if we get a car 
with wrong repairs from a foreign road we are not going to hold it over 
a single train to have a man come to look at the repairs. We can't do 
it. We will tell them nothing but the truth, and we expect they are 
equally honest. We hold material fifteen days for inspection. I think 
it is the practice to hold material, if anyone expresses a wish to see it. 
As a rule, inspectors don't go from one road to the other, looking for wrong 
material. They think the other road is honest, and take their word for 
it. 1 don't see how else it can be done in Chicago. 

A Member : I don't think Mr. Showers is talking on the same argu- 
ment at all. The question that Mr. Showers is getting at is, if you ask 
an inspector to come look at a car he will say, Where is the card for that 
car? he will also say, 1 won't sign it, unless I can see who made repairs. 
It is not whether they see it or not. 

President Morris: There is nothing in the rules that justifies a 
person in refusing to sign a joint evidence card merely because there is 
no repair card on the card showing when these repairs were made. 

Mr. Showers : We will admit there is nothing in the rules, but in 
general practice there is something. 

Mr. Miller: 1 make a motion to the effect, that it is the sense of 
this meeting that no inspector should refuse to sign a joint evidence 
card where wrong repairs are made, regardless of whether there is a card 
on car to show who made the wrong repairs of not. 



%24 U ail way Master Mechanic 



A rising vote resulted, 42 to 3, in favor of the motion. 

President Morris: This winds up the subject, with the statement 
that there is no change made in the golden rule, which is that every- 
body should do as he wishes to be done by. 

WORN AXLE FILLETS. 
We will now take up the next question, which is as follows: 
"To what extent are axles found with fillets entirely worn away; what 
is the genera] practice in turning up new fillets; what is the custom- 
ary charge for such work ?" 

Mr. Kroff, of the Pennsylvania Company, has promised to open 
the discussion ; we would like to hear from him. 

Mr. Kroff: I do not know that I can say to what extent the fillets 
are worn away, but I do know that there are axles with fillets entirely 
worn away ; some are almost entirely worn away. Our practice over on 
the Pennsylvania line is that axles must be removed from service when 
the journals have any one or all of the following defects : 

1. When the collar has been worn down to 3-16 in. thick. 

2. When the journal has been found J^-in. longer than the 
standard length. 

3. When the inside fillet has been worn down to a radius of 1-16 in. 
We do not condemn axles simply because the fillet is entirely worn 

off; that is, if we have a chance to turn up fillets. But in no case will 
we allow journals to run y 2 -m. from the standard size. Say, for instance, 
a journal is 7-in. ; if we turn on a fillet that would make it 7^-in., and 
we condemn the axle ; otherwise, we turn a fillet on the other axle. But 
I do not know to what extent axles do run out of fillets entirely. We 
have only been practicing that for the last two or three months now. 
As to the charge, I do not know what the practice is, but I think that 
10 cents for turning on a fillet is sufficient pay. 

Mr. Grieb: In case you condemn an axle, by reason of not having 
sufficient metal left without making it more than ^-in. longer than the 
original size — in case you have such an axle, do you charge the owners 
for replacing it ? 

Mr. Kroff: We certainly would. 

Mr. Showers: Is it the practice, generally, for railroads to turn up 
fillets where they are worn on the inside next to the collar ? 

Mr. Kroff : We do not pay any attention to the fillets on the collar. 
If the collar is worn 3- 16 in. thick we condemn it. The inside fillet is 
turned, if we have sufficient metal there to turn the fillet up. 

President Morris : Do you have the front, as well as the back fillet ? 



WOkn Axle Fillets 225 



Mr. Kroff: We only have the back fillet. 

Mr. Reinhard : This seems to be something new to me. I don't 
know that I have seen a great many axles that have had fillets entirely 
worn awav or badly worn. When we catch an axle so badly worn as 
3-16 in. on the collar, and fillet worn, it is condemned. 

Mr. McAlpine : It has not been our custom yet to pay any atten- 
tion to the fillets. It is a new subject with us. But this week we had 
a bill sent us for repairing fillet on a new axle on account of fillets worn. 
I would rather have them make a new bill and charge us for removing 
the axle. 

Mr. Miller : It has been our practice when we find a fillet worn 
away, to turn it up if the size of the journal permits it. But I would 
like to ask what would be done in a case of an axle having no fillet on, 
and the size of the journal only large enough for, say, turning up a fillet 
1 -1 6 in. in radius, which cannot be condemned under the rules. If the 
size of the journal is large enough, so it will permit the turning up of a 
fillet 1 -1 6 in. in radius, — /^-in. or 3-16 in., — can such an axle be 
scrapped if the party saw fit to turn up the journal ? 

President Morris : Can you answer that, Mr. Grieb ? 

Mr. Grieb : No, sir ; I can not. 

President Morris : Can any gentleman answer it by telling what his 
practice is ? 

Mr. Kroff: When fillet is worn down to 1-16 in. radius, axle is 
removed. 

President Morris : On foreign cars ? 

Mr. Kroff: On our own cars. 

President Morris : Mr. Miller's question refers to foreign cars. 

Mr. Kroff: Well, 1-16 in. radius is not much of a fillet, although I 
think a man could turn a fillet on there with ^-in. radius ; %-in. radius 
would leave that axle running for a good many months. 

Mr. Gradl : I would like to ask if such charges are being made ? I 
suppose it is a private arrangement, and that each company has its own 
practice. It seems to me, we run axles as long as we think they are fit 
to run. 

Mr. McAlpine : We have been charged for removing axles on 
account of sharp fillet, and while the rules do not say anything, yet the 
Arbitration Committee have decided in case 362 of September, '96, 
that, " It is believed that axles become dangerous and liable to fail when 
the journal fillets are worn sharp, and that it is good practice to condemn 
axles that have no journal fillets." 



226 Railway M lsteb Mechanic 

President Morris : Mr. Kehm, will you state what your practice is ? 
Mr. Kehm : We have never made such a charge to my knowledge. 
President Morris: Have you ever been charged for the work ? 
Mr. Kehm: Never have; no, sir. 

CREDIT FOR REMOVED WRONG BRASSES. 

President Morris : We will now take up the next question, in regard 
to wrong brasses : 
" In the case of a wrong brass removed by ear owner upon authority of a 

defect card, what is the proper credit to be allowed as regards weight ? 

Is it an arbitral} credit of one-half the weight of the standard brass 

applied, or should it be actual weight removed, in accordance with 

third paragraph, on page 28, of the M. C. B. code of rules?" 

Mr. Kehm: We have always allowed an arbitrary credit of 5 or 
6y 2 pounds, as the case mav be, and no charge for labor. That has 
been our practice. 

Mr. Showers : As regards credits, 1 think the practice generally in 
effect is an arbitrary credit of one-half the weight of the bearing. 
Possibly, it may be less than a half. 

Mr. Weschler : If a defect card is issued for a wrong brass applied 
and we remove that brass, we allow the owner credit for the actual 
weight removed. That is the way we understand that section, which 
says : " Material applied on defect card, in which case the weight and 
kind of metal removed shall be credited." 

Mr. Grieb : I cannot see that the rules provide for any credit other 
than the arbitrary one-half, which is the rule governing the removal of 
brasses in general. I do not see that brasses removed on defect cards 
should be treated any differently. That portion of Rule 5, recited by the 
gentleman who spoke previously, also contains a provision which reads, 
"except as otherwise provided in the rules." Now there is a definite 
provision made otherwise in these rules for journal bearings. 

Mr. Hates: I do not think there is any argument to make on this 
question, for the reason that the Arbitration Committee has decided 
that an arbitrary scrap credit is the proper thing to allow on a defect 
card, in case Xo. 533. 

President Morris: Before adjourning I would like to state that one 
of the members has suggested for discussion at the next meeting, the 
comparative efficiency of M. C. B. couplers now in use on freight cars. 
This is an interesting subject, and will bring out a good many very 
interesting facts, if the members will give their experience. I believe 



Development oe Gauges eor Worn Couplers 



22? 



the intention is to call a spade a spade, and not to try to cover up any- 
particular makes of couplers by any name that would tend to hide their 
identity. It is something that ought to be very interesting, and we 
would like to have a full and free discussion. 
The meeting here adjourned. 



DEVELOPMENT OF GAUGES FOR WORN 

COUPLERS. 

A part of the duties of the committee on M. C. B. couplers, reporting 
at the last convention of the Master Car Builders' Association, was to 
define the contour lines more fully when worn. The committee found 
that this assignment took it into the field of gauges for worn couplers, 
and it accordingly prepared a brief history of the development of such 
gauges, from the time that the late Mr. D. L. Barnes designed such a 
gauge up to the designing of the gauge shown later in this article, which 
gauge is now before the association for letter ballot as recommended 
practice. We append this history, quoting literally from the report, as 
follows : 

In taking up this matter of gauges for worn couplers it was found 
that the first effort to meet the new conditions was made by Mr. D. L. 




Fig. 1. — Barnes* Gauge. 



.,.,, 



Railway Mastkk Mkchanh 



Scr/6ejth/s //ve; on L/f7t/er . 
s/'c/e, wear not foexce&J tf/6 




^^sy s : -kk 



Fig. 2.— B. & O. Gauge. 

Barnes in 1890. His gauge is shown in Fig. 1. His analysis of the 
effects of wear is quite correct and the gauge is a very ingenious one. 

The objections are, first, that it is assumed that the front face of the 
knuckle is a plane, and permanent in location, which is not by any means 
correct. Some couplers, unfortunately, even when new, do not have the 
front face plane, but crowned. This would at once throw slide H D out 

MorH sfiowmq extre/rre. /Tzeefscy/s^e^/ . 
oz/owea ar /xrt/7/- o fGocp/ery* " ran a 77 0/7 

Mart stow/va fftc 005/ f/otf of- Qr/z/xr* 
iv/?en coczp/er zsoew . \ 




Fig. 3. — Fildes' Gauge. 



Development of Gauges for Worn Couplers 



229 



of register with scale J. Another objection is that the bearing point of 
scale L E is not at the end of the guard arm, though that could be 
easily remedied, but the more fatal defect is that in case of a worn 
guard arm the point gets still further away from the end, instead of 
moving in the direction of the length L M of the arm of the slide. The 
result of this combination of defects is that inspectors would have to be 
provided with a sliding scale of condemning points to go with the gauge. 
It is also rather awkward to handle and carry around. 

The next attempt is the B. & O. gauge shown in Fig. 2. The 
objection to this gauge is that it requires the use of a rule by the 
inspector, together with other defects which will be considered later. 

We next come to the gauge in Fig. 3, designed by Mr. Thomas 
Fildes and shown by Mr. Waitt at the last convention. This was by far 
the best attempt to solve the gauge problem that had then been made. 
The trouble with this gauge seems to be that on account of the solid 
point for wear of inside face of knuckle, it is difficult to drop the gauge 
into the coupler if the knuckle is not worn ^ of an inch. It is, there- 
fore, awkward to measure guard arm wear or bending, and wear of pivot 
pins, lock, etc., in the combinations in which they sometimes occur. 

The first step, therefore, in the improvement of this gauge was to 
arrange to drop it fully down into the contour, and this was accomplished 
by making the solid point for knuckle wear a slide. It could then be 
pushed back to the 
position it should oc- 
cupy in a new con- 
tour, and the gauge 
would drop into the 
coupler below the top 
of the knuckle. For 
the curved caliper 
point a slide was sub- 
stituted. The slide in 
the guard arm end of 
the gauge was moved 
out to the end of the 
contour, increased in 
size, strength and ac- 
cessibility, and the gauge shown in Fig. 4 was thus evolved. 

It will readily be seen from its construction that if the guard arm is 
in good shape a considerable wear of pivot pin and lock may be allowed 




3 Off/P/S 



Fig. 4. — First Form of Proposed Gauge. 



230 



Railway Master Mechanic 




^ £ p 
^ 



I 

ft 
I 



k 






n & 









$ 




^ 




*» 




J? 




1 




&> 




Jk 




v$ 



< 

w 

C 



H 
O 

< 





o 

a. 
C 
u 
Q- 

It. 

o 

S 

o< 
O 
j- 

< 

z 



Development of Gauges for Worn Couplers 



831 



to take place without rendering the coupler dangerous. Likewise, if the 
knuckle is in good shape, the guard arm may be much worn or distorted 
without allowing the couplers to part. In using this gauge, however, it 
was soon demonstrated that although the gauge might not pass through 
with any one slide fully out, yet a combination of wear might exist which 
would make the couplers dangerous. To cover this point the gauge 
shown in Fig. 5 was designed. The gauge is almost self-explanatory, but 
it may be said in addition that it provides for allowing more wear to take 
place in long guard arm couplers than in short ones, which is as it 
should be. 




Fig. 6. — Condemned by First Point. Fig. 7. — Couplers thus Condemned. 

The application of this gauge in the condemnation of couplers is 
shown in the following figures. It must always be remembered that if 
a coupler has been in service long enough to allow one part to become 
badly worn, all the other parts are pretty sure to be partly worn also. 
Thus, in Fig. 6, where a coupler is shown to be condemned for wear of 
inside face of knuckle, it is also seen that the heel of the knuckle is 
somewhat worn; the pivot pin and lock have worn so as to allow the 
whole knuckle to move over sidewise, and the guard arm is a little back 




Fig. 8. — Condemned by Second Point. 



Couplers thus Condemned 



232 



Railway Master Mechanic 




Fig. 10. — Condemned by Third Point. 



Fig. 11. — Couplers thus Condemned. 



of the original contour as shown by the clotted line. It must also be 
remembered that this badly worn coupler may at some time be coupled 
with another as badly worn as itself, and therein lies the danger. If it 
should always be coupled to a new contour there would be no liability to 
parting, though in that case one guard arm would be doing all the work ; 
but when it meets with another as badly worn as itself, as shown in Fig. 
7, it is then high time to renew the knuckle. It can be seen that it 
would not take a very severe jerk to allow spring enough in these parts 
to permit the couplers to slide past each other without unlocking. 

Fig. 8 shows a coupler condemned because the gauge passes with the 
second point fully out. When knuckles are pivoted far back, this con- 
dition is the more noticeable, and arises from wear of pivot pins and 
locks — i -i 6 of an inch wear in either of these parts is magnified to ^ 
of an inch displacement of the point of the knuckle. Fig. 9 shows a 
pair of such worn couplers running together, and proves that they ought 
to have been condemned. Fig. 10 shows a coupler which is worn too far 
on the guard arm. This condition may arise due to legitimate wear, 
though it is more likely to appear as the result of blows which have 
sprung and distorted the guard arm to the shape shown. Two couplers 
in this condition are shown in Fig. 1 1. 




Fig. 12 — Condemned by Combination. Fig. 13. — Couplers thus Condemned. 



Development of Gauges for Wokx Couplers 233 

The conditions shown in Fig. 12 are submitted as embodying the 
distinguishing features of this perfected gauge, namely, to provide for a 
combination of wear taking place all around the coupler. It must be 
remembered that there are a good many points where wear can take 
place, and a list of these points is herewith added : 

1. Heel of knuckle, where the coupler comes in contact with the 
guard arm of the opposing coupler. 

2. Inside of guard arm. 

3. Inside face of knuckle where pulling stress is greatest. 

4. Rear side of pivot pin hole in knuckle. 

5. Front side of pivot pin hole in lugs of drawbar. 

6. Pivot pin. 

7. Locking surface of tail of knuckle. 

8. Surface of lock in contact with knuckle. 

9. Surface of lock in contact with drawbar. 

10. Drawbar where lock comes in contact with it. 
The common and final result of all this wear is to so diminish the 
effective width of the knuckle, and to so increase the space between the 
guard arm and the point of the knuckle of the opposing coupler that the 
couplers can slip past each other. This the gauge is designed to prevent 
by the action of the cam-shaped lever A. When this is pushed over to 
the end of its curved slot it throws all the slides part way out. Exper- 
ience seems to indicate that the distance from guard arm to point of 
knuckle should not be greater than 5 ^ inches and this is the dimension 
used in the gauge. It is easily seen that the gauge would not pass 
through with any one slide fully out, and yet that the couplers are dan- 
gerous may be seen by an inspection of Fig. 13. What comparatively 
small amounts of wear are permissible at the various points, when this 
wear occurs simultaneously, may be seen by observing this drawing. A 
departure from the original contour of 7-16 inch on the inside of the 
knuckle, ^-inch on the point of the knuckle, 3-16 inch on the guard 
arm, and with the heel of the knuckle worn off 3-16 inch, allows the 
couplers to take the position shown in Fig. 1 3, and the merest glance 
at these couplers shows that they are in a dangerous condition. When 
couplers are found in this condition the proper thing to do is to renew the 
knuckle, pivot pin or lock so as to restore the knuckle to its original con- 
tour. Couplers found as in Fig. 10 should have the coupler body scrapped, 
for it is worn out. The other parts may be retained for future use. 

It is easy to see from what precedes, that members, for their own 
interests, should see that all couplers purchased should conform full}' to 



234 



Railway Master Mecha n i i 



the provisions in regard to gauging new couplers. If the gauge passes 
with any movable point out, the coupler should be rejected. A coupler 
which is i^-inch slack to gauge is just the same as one that has been in 

service long enough to be worn off 
l /% -inch, so that by allowing slack- 
ness in the gauge, one is practically 
applying worn couplers. If a wear 
of ^ -inch on the inside face of 
knuckle is permissible, and is called 
ioo per cent., then ^6 -inch slack 
ness of the gauge at that point rep- 
resents 1 6 per cent of the life of 
the coupler thrown away. 

A resolution recently adopted 
by the Chicago Association of Gen- 
eral Superintendents calls attention 
to the matter of trains parting with- 
out couplers unlocking, and asks 
that the Master Car Builders' As- 
sociation take some steps to remedy 

Fig. 14. — Worn Couplers that Parted. ^ e trouble 

Fig. 14 shows a pair of worn couplers which were found to be con- 
demned by the gauge shown in Fig. 5. In order to prove that the gauge 
was correctly proportioned, the two cars on which these worn couplers 
were found were put in the middle of a train, and on starting up the drill 
engine the cars parted without knuckles unlocking. 




PENSION FUND FOR EMPLOYES OF PENNSYL- 
VANIA RAILROAD COMPANY. 

The recent announcement that the Pennsylvania Railroad company 
contemplated inaugurating a Pension Fund on behalf of its employes in 
the near future, has reliable confirmation in an extended statement sent 
to us by a prominent official of that road, who is in a position to speak 
authoritatively on the subject. 

According to his statements, the pension feature is of long contem- 
plation with the company. A number of years have passed since it was 
first officially suggested, during which time unremitting study and obser- 
vation were devoted to the question in all its aspects. 



Pension Fund on Pennsylvania Railroad 235 



During the early operation of the present Relief Fund, the pension 
adjunct was brought in view, provision for that end being made in the 
department regulations, wherein it is expressly stated that such surplus 
as should arise during specified triennial periods of the operation of the 
fund is to be set aside as a foundation for the Superannuation and Pen- 
sion Fund. The plan then considered involved, however, restrictive 
action, being confined in its working to such employes only as were 
members of the Relief organization. The working fund was to be ex- 
clusively the Relief Fund surplus. The real labor which eventuated in 
the development of a feasible plan for the creation of a general Pension 
Fund was not commenced, however, until the amount available for such 
purposes, grew to proportions that warranted serious consideration of 
the subject. 

A special committee on Superannuation and Pension Fund was ap- 
pointed by the Advisory Committee of the Relief department. The 
committee examined into and reported upon the various systems of pen- 
sioning in operation on upwards of seventy of the leading railways of 
Europe, America, Asia, Africa and Australia. It prosecuted investiga- 
tion along this line, with a view of securing data which could be used in 
constructing a preliminary basis. This necessarily' involved the respon- 
sible and arduous task of collecting, analyzing and collating information 
for guidance in forming a plan suitable to the requirements of prevailing 
conditions in the United States. The information obtained from the 
various sources, however, while edifying and of much interest, did not 
enable the committee to reach any final conclusion as to the best plan 
to be adopted, and it became necessary to give the matter original 
thought, and work it out from that standpoint, rather than upon any 
basis that existed, the result being an exhaustive preparation of statis- 
tical information, embodying results of such a scheme from many dif- 
ferent bases, and finally selecting one that would carry with it the 
assurance of success. 

Such a plan was submitted to the President for action of the board, 
when the whole matter was referred to a special committee of that body. 
The plan named only embodied the care of superannuated employes, 
members of the Relief Fund, and the allowances were to be made from 
that fund. It was subsequently, however, thought advisable and more 
liberal to make general provision for all old employes, by the company 
assuming the obligation of providing them with a pension allowance, in 
addition to what the Relief Fund could afford to grant to its members 
who might be retired by the company. Subsequently, the characters- 



236 Railway Masteb Mechanic 



tics inevitably allied to a question of such magnitude were narrowed 
down and crystalized into a purely pension basis for all employes, and 
the result laid before the directorate's special committee in a revised 
plan for pensioning employes, whether members of the Relief Fund 
or not. 

The Pension Fund, as practically agreed upon, is to be established 
as of January I, 1900, the company is to contribute the money neces- 
sary for its operation, and will be relieved from any further payments of 
amounts heretofore made by it on account of what is known as " Com- 
pany Relief," i. c, carriage with its own money of Relief Fund members, 
the length of whose sickness exceeds the regulation maximum benefit 
period of 52 weeks, and who are, in consequence, entitled to no further 
relief fund benefits on account of such sickness. 

A board of officers has been created and invested with full power to 
make and enforce the rules and regulations incident to the care and 
conduct of the fund, and adopt such means as may be necessary to de- 
termine the eligibility of employes to receive benefits therefrom, and fix 
the amount of allowance that shall be paid in each case. 

This board consists of : First Vice-President, John P. Green ; Sec- 
ond Vice-President, Charles E. Pugh ; Third Vice-President, Sutherland 
M. Prevost ; Fourth Vice-President, Samuel Rea ; General Manager, 
Joseph B. Hutchinson ; and Assistant Comptroller, Max Riebenack. 
They are officers of the highest standing in their several departments, 
each commanding the fullest public and company confidence in the 
fields of railway statistics, financing, accounting and general ability. 
Better selections could not have been made for an undertaking at once 
so comprehensive and important, their appointment being, in fact, tanta- 
mount to its speedy, thorough and eminently satisfactory consummation. 

Retirements will be voluntary and involuntary ; that is, all employes 
seventy years of age and over, will be considered as having attained the 
maximum age limit for active service, and will be retired and placed 
upon the Pension Fund roll, while those whose ages range from sixty- 
five to sixty-nine years, and who, in the opinion of the fund administra- 
tors, have become physically disqualified, or otherwise permanently 
incapacitated after thirty or more years of service, may be either volun- 
tarily or arbitrarily retired and pensioned. 

The pension allowance to such retired employes will be determined 
on the following basis : For each year of service, a fixed per centum of 
the average regular pay for a specific period immediately preceding 
retirement, with a minimum monthly allowance. It will thus be seen 



Pension Fund on Pennsylvania Railroad 231 



the bases of retirement are age and service, with allowance proportioned 
to pay received during a designated period preceding retirement. 

For such employes, members of the Relief Fund, as may be retired 
by the company, it is proposed to grant to them from the interest on 
the Relief Fund surplus an additional allowance on a fixed basis in pro- 
portion to the amount they contributed while a member of the Relief 
Fund, so that each member retired by the company will receive this 
additional allowance because of his membership in the Relief Fund, and 
it will be paid from the interest on the surplus from the operations of 
that fund. 

In addition to this, the Relief Fund, through its Advisory Committee, 
proposes to amend the regulations of the Relief Fund in order to make 
general provision for all its members, so that, in case of sickness or 
disability, benefits on account thereof will be continued at one-half 
rates, irrespective of the duration. 

From the above, it will be seen that the idea involved in the estab- 
lishment of the Pension Fund is far reaching, and covers a much wider 
and broader field than is conceivable upon first thought. The principle 
involved in the proposed action of the company, and that of the Advis- 
ory Committee of the Relief Fund, the membership of the latter being 
partly composed of employes of the company, members of the Relief 
Fund, and elected by the contributing members of the Relief Fund, will 
make provision for every employe, a member of the Relief Fund, in case 
of sickness, disability, or total incapacity, from the time he enters the 
service of the company until the relations are severed. 

The Relief Fund, the expenses of the operation of which, together 
with any deficiency arising therefrom, are met by the company, affords 
every employe physically qualified, and within the proper age limit, an 
opportunity to make such provision as will insure for himself benefits in 
case of sickness or disability, during the entire duration thereof, and, 
in case of retirement by the company, a superannuated allowance in 
addition to the pension of the company, and to his beneficiaries benefits 
in case of death. 

The object that has been attained, or rather, endeavored to be, is to 
grant every employe an opportunity to provide for himself in case of 
sickness, disability, or death, through the medium of the Relief Fund— 
which is co-operative and supported jointly by the employes, members 
thereof, and the company — and when the retirement age is reached 
the company to reward by granting a pension allowance, in addition to 
what he will receive from the Relief Fund, to which he has contributed, in 



238 Railway Master Mk< •manic 

the shape of a superannuation allowance on a fixed basis in proportion 
to the amount he contributed while a member of the Relief Fund. 

A very important feature is the protection afforded the Pension 
Fund, through the purpose of the company to fix an age limit for 
admission to the company's service, provision in this respect being that 
from and after January 1st, next, no person shall be employed who is 
over thirty-five years of age, or who cannot pass the required physical 
examination, except that former employes desiring reinstatement may 
be permitted to re-enter the service at the discretion of the Board of 
Officers, provided, however, they meet the requirements of physical 
examination, and possess other necessary qualifications ; also, that the 
temporary employment of men, regardless of age limit and physical con- 
dition, shall be permitted for a period not exceeding six months, subject 
to requisite extension, when engaged upon temporary work. 

The necessity for action of this character is requisite, for the reason 
that the company will then have in its service only men who, if they 
desire, may become members of the Relief Fund, and in this manner 
make . preparation for any illness to which they might be subjected in 
the future, or accident that might befall them. In this way every 
member is afforded an opportunity to make provision for himself during 
his early service with the company, when it has not yet received from 
such employe service, both in length and quality, that would entitle him 
to special consideration at the hands of the company in case of inability 
to perform his daily labor. 

A series of conferences between the Pension Board and the Advis- 
ory Committee of the Relief department in the near future will, no 
doubt, result in completing the necessary changes in the Relief depart- 
ment regulations, and securing such other information as may be 
required to finally establish the Superannuation Fund in connection 
with that department, and thus place the Board of Officers in position to 
place before the Special Committee of the Board of Directors, in the 
fall of this year, a report giving details respecting final arrangement for 
the company's Pension Fund, and the Relief Department Superannua- 
tion Fund, and so insure final action by the directorate preparatory to 
putting same in effect by the first of January. 

While the Pension Fund is a distinct and separate provision by the 
company, from its own funds, for the benefit of its employes, and will 
be operated from a distinctive company standpoint, its relation to the 
Relief organization will be unavoidably so intimate as to make it appear 
as an auxiliary feature thereof. By the addition of the superannuation 



Pension Fund oh Pennsylvania Railroad 239 

and pension features to the benefits afforded by the Relief Fund, the 
company has virtually established for its employes a relief and pension 
institution, which will be more apparent when it is remarked that the 
aims and results of the two features are inseparably interwoven in one 
fundamental principle — humanization. 

The new fund will affect the entire force of employes, on the lines of 
its system east of Pittsburg and Erie, and scattered along a trackage of 
over 4,100 miles, located in the states of New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, and the District of 
Columbia. 

In response to the query, as to what are the main objects of the 
consolidated fund, it was said: First, the manifestly humane purpose 
to protect the immediate interests of active, and preserve the future 
welfare of aged and infirm, employes ; and second, to increase and 
improve the effectiveness of the company's service. The interests of 
active employes are guarded by a fixed responsibility voluntarily as- 
sumed by the company toward the fund, which insures them, during 
their period of efficient service, fair wages, and an adequate allowance in 
the event of sickness, accident or death ; while their future welfare is 
amply protected by the same assumption of company responsibility, 
which guarantees them, upon incapacitation by age or infirmities, a fixed 
life annuity. The company's benefits consist, for the most part, in the 
efficiency of service naturally consequent upon the employment of 
younger and more robust men in the stead of those whose incapacitation 
has rendered their retirement beneficial, both to themselves and the 
service, also in welding more firmly the mutual interests of employer 
and employe, thereby the better enabling that concentration of effort 
and uniformity of action so essential in the management and conduct of 
corporate affairs. 

No other railway company in the world, whether under state or 
private control, possesses a joint fund whose direct and general bene- 
ficial features present the admirable system and thoroughness that are 
so manifest in the one under consideration. 

The employes eligible to retirement will not receive the pension 
allowance as a favor, nor as a charitable act on the part of the company 
extending it. They will be in position to consider themselves the recip- 
ients of a permanent annuity, earned by and merited through years of 
faithful, efficient and loyal service ; for it is, above all else, a mark of 
regard shown by a great corporation, through its administrative repre- 
sentatives, toward each and every employe who has won it by conscien- 



240 Railway Master Mechank 

tious and capable performance of assigned duties. With this view of the 
facts at hand, and conceding the company's representative rank among 
the world's greatest railways, it cannot be successfully denied that the 
most conspicuous, as well as most enduring, evidence of the company's 
greatness rests in this time-lasting humaneness toward its employes. 

No act of the company's directorate, or the officers who have been 
prominently identified with the pension work, will redound so much to 
their individual credit, nor reflect so much honor and dignity upon their 
official accomplishments, as the part they have played in the establish- 
ment of this, one of the noblest and grandest of modern beneficent 
organizations, and one, too, which stands for one of the greatest strides 
toward sound advancement in moral ethics that has been taken in this 
greatest era of enlightenment and progress. It may, indeed, without 
fear of contradiction, be styled a triumph in modern philanthropy, involv- 
ing in its execution an outlay on the part of the company estimated at 
considerably over the large sum of three hundred thousand dollars 
per annum. 

COKE AGAIN FOR LOCOMOTIVE FUEL. 

The Boston & Maine has been successfully following experiments 
with the use of coke as a locomotive fuel. It seems to have secured a 
fine article of coke at a low price. Mr. Lucius Tuttle, president of that 
road, is reported to have expressed himself as follows, concerning his 
experience with, and future plans for the use of this fuel : 

"Coke, as produced by the New England Gas & Coke Company, is a 
perfect locomotive fuel, and we are changing over our locomotive equip- 
ment so as to adapt same to the burning of coke as rapidly as we can get 
engines into the shops. We expect to have 50 locomotives changed over 
this summer and 100 before next January, unless some new conditions 
arise which we do not anticipate. We already have about a dozen 
changed over, and are using most of them in our suburban service be- 
tween Boston, Gloucester and Marblehead. We have one on our through 
Portland express and it is fulfilling all our expectations. It costs about 
$ 5 0.00 to change over an engine by placing in water grates, which we 
find best adapted for the purpose. The coke creates such an intense 
heat that cast-iron grates are not serviceable. By building up our en- 
gine tenders we are able to run our engines from 125 to 150 miles, 
without refueling, and we cannot do better than this with coal. Of 
course, the great advantage in the use of coke is that it is dustless 
and smokeless. On the run from Boston to Portland, there will hardly 
remain a handful of ashes, whereas in the burning of coal almost three 
bushels of ashes would remain. The cost of coke is just about the same 
as bituminous coal, while the advantages are innumerable. Through the 



A New Mechanical Movement 241 

oiling of our roadbed and the burning of coke we will be able to give a 
passenger service as clean as electric roads. We estimate that the 
Boston and Maine will effect a saving of at least $100,000 a year, that it 
now pays in damages by reason of fires from sparks. Coke, as a locomo- 
tive fuel, is only made possible through Mr. Whitney, for he sells coke 
as a by-product. If coal was turned into coke simply for the coke the 
cost would make its use prohibitive. The use of coke is just as econom- 
ical for freight engines as for passenger, and when we can get to it, it 
will be used on both freight and passenger engines. The engineers and 
firemen much prefer it to coal and understand its use. Bituminous coal 
requires constant firing, whereas coke only requires re-firing about every 
twelve miles." 

A NEW MECHANICAL MOVEMENT AND ITS APPLICATION 

TO A RATCHET DRILL. 

In the ratchet drill shown herewith, the sleeve carrying the pawl, or, rather, in this 
case, the pawls, has formed upon it two trunnions the common axis of which is inclined 
at an acute angle with the axis of the drill; and the divided, or fork-shaped, handle is 
made so as to turn freely upon the two trunnions (see Fig. i). This simple construc- 
tion, all the bearings being cylindrical, makes possible a new movement. 

Suppose that the drill is set in a vertical position. Now, if the handle is moved up 
and down in the vertical plane, the sleeve is caused to turn in one direction and then in 
the other direction on the spindle of the tool and so, through the medium of ratchet and 
pawls, to drive the drill held in the spindle. The idea is so elemental that it is strange 
that it has not been applied before. By the upward motion of the handle, the upper 
trunnion is caused to move around backward and the lower trunnion is caused to 
move around forward. That is, the sleeve turns in the left hand direction on the spindle 
and the pawls in the sleeve run back over the ratchet teeth, which have been milled into 
the spindle. Next, the handle is moved downward in the vertical plane and the reverse 
or right hand motion is imparted to the sleeve. 
The result is that the drill is driven in the 
work. The handle may be moved not only in 

the vertical plane but in any other direction f| jfcj«gij ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ 
and still drive the drill : up to the right and 
down to the left at any angle, or in the plane 
at right angles to the axis of the drill like the 

S F I ( i 

ordinary ratchet — in any direction except one. ^ 

When the handle swings in the plane at right angles to the axis of the trunnions, that is, 
up to the left and down to the right (the parts being arranged as in Fig. i) no motion 
of the sleeve or the drill is produced. 

But even the motion of the handle up to the left and down to the right, may be made 
effective. First, remove the drill from the socket. Then swing the handle downward to 
the right, past the lower end of the spindle or socket, and up on the other side of the tool. 
Now turn the whole tool around, so that the handle points toward the operator, and it 
will be seen that the upper trunnion is now at the left of the axis of the drill and the 
lower trunnion is at the right (Fig. 3). When the parts are arranged in this manner the 
motion of the handle up to the left and down to the right drives the drill, for the handle 
pulls directly against its bearings instead of swinging upon them as before. Thus, taking 
into consideration the two arrangements of the parts, the effective motions of the handle 
are universal in direction, and the tool is properly called a universal ratchet. 

This quality of the tool makes it available for work in close places, as in drilling out 




242 



Railway Master Mechanic 




Fig. 3 




Fig. 4. 




Fig. fi 




b\<,. 



broken studs in steam pumps, and many 
kinds of erecting and repairing of ma- 
chinery, where there is little or no room to 
move the handle in the ordinary direction, 
but where there is space in some other di- 
rection. But, unlike the bevel gear tool, 
devised many years ago to accomplish the 
same object, this tool is convenient for or- 
dinary drilling. The difficulty with this 
present tool also, as at first designed, was 
that when the handle was moved in the 
ordinary direction it had a tendency to fly 
up, turning on the trunnions without driving 
the drill. To overcome this difficulty, a 
screw with a conical end (and pinholes for 
operating it) is contained in the handle in 
such position that the conical end can be 
set up into a countersink in the sleeve 
(Figs, i and 2.) Thus the handle can 
be held in a fixed position as related to the 
sleeve, and be just as rigid, and just as 
comfortable to operate, as any ratchet 
handle in ordinary work. 

The up and down motion of the handle, 
first described, is not comfortable ; a man 
must constrain his muscles and compel it to 
go as he desires. But he ought to be glad 
in that he can drill a hole at all in many 
places. If the parts are arranged as shown 
in Fig. i, the motion up to the right and 
down to the left is very easy and effective; 
or, if the parts are arranged as in Fig. 3. 
the motion up to the left and down to the 
right is easy ; for in both cases the handle 
pulls directly against the bearings. 

There is one other adjustment which 
is very important : The handle may be ele- 
vated and the handle screw, mentioned 
above, may be set up into a different coun- 
tersink (Fig. 4). The operator now has a 
rigid handle set at an angle with the maiD 
axis of the tool, so as to escape a valve stem 
or some other obstruction. 

Fig. 1 is a vertical section, and Fig. 5 a 
cross section of the tool half way down the 
sleeve. There are five pawls so arranged as 
to engage only one at a time with the twelve 
teeth of the ratchet. The pawls are 7 /& in. 
long, and the teeth \ l / z in. long. The diame- 
ter of the ratchet is 1% in. This multiple 
pawl arrangement, with the few large teeth, 
make possible a very strong tool with, at 



A New Mechanical Movement 



243 



the same time, only about 2 inches of lost 
motion at the end of its 16-inch handle. 

A feature of this ratchet, which will ap- 
peal to every practical man, is the feed stop. 
It is well known that the most frequent reason 
for throwing a ratchet aside for repairs is 
that the feed screw has been withdrawn too 
far, when under pressure, and the last thread 
or two spoiled. A left hand screw with a 
large head is screwed into the lower end of 
the feed screw before all the parts are assem- 
bled. The head comes up against the nut 
(Fig. 1) which is threaded left hand where it 




Fig. 5. 



Fig. 1, 



244 



Railway Masteb Mechanic 



screws into the spindle. The feed screw is always engaged with the nut the whole depth 
of it, which is i inch. In Figs. 6 and 7 are shown, respectively, the beginning and ending 
of one of the many angular movements which the lever of this drill may be caused to 
effectively take, when not, for special purposes, fixed in the countersinks. 

Harvey D. Williams, of Stamford, Conn., formerly assistant professor of machine 
design at Cornell University; Horace G. Hoadley, of Waterbury, Connecticut, and Ever- 
ett C. Lewis of Woonsocket, R. I., are the patentees of this tool, which is called the 
Williams Universal Ratchet, No. 6. For several months it has been on the market, 
being manufactured by the Waterbury Tool Co., Waterbury, Conn. 



THE "CLIMAX" REDUCING VALVE. 

The "Climax " reducing valve possesses some features of merit that are command- 
ing interested attention at the hands of railway men. It is claimed for it that it will ac- 
tually control steam under all conditions, whether steam be flowing through it or not. 
Our illustration fully reveals its interior structure. 

In operation the steam enters the valve from the side marked " inlet," and following 
the arrows -passes around the main valve, 1, and through the small port, 9, into.the con- 
trolling steam chamber, 13, passing thence through the auxiliary valve, 16, which is held 
open by the controlling spring. 7, until such time as the spring is compressed by the 

steam rising through the ports 3 and 
11 to the point at which valve is set. 
Then the auxiliary valve, 1G, closes, 
when the passage through port, 9, into 
the controlling chamber, 13, overcomes 
the pressure on the under side of the 
main valve, 1, when the valve closes 
sufficiently to allow the desired pressure 
to pass through to the low pressure side 
of the valve. 

In cases where a throttle valve is 
desired, the valve stem should be 
screwed out, relieving all pressure on 
the auxiliary valve 16, which retains full 
steam pressure in the controlling cham- 
ber, 13. The area of this being greater 
than that on the under side of the main 
valve, 1, keeps the valve closed and 
allows no steam to pass through until 
such time as the auxiliary valve, 1(5, is 
again open. 

The objectionable feature of a 
diaphragm which is continually break- 
ing under high pressure is dispensed 
with in this valve entirely. The dash 
pot, 14, being above the flow of steam, 
is entirely free from sediment. The 
main valve, 1, is so loose that there is 
no danger whatever of the valve sticking 
from any sediment which might get 
around it. 




Personal Mention -i4."> 



This valve does very close work, not varying more than )> pounds to 5 pounds on the 
outgoing system, with an increase of boiler pressure from 100 pounds to 225 pounds. 

Every valve is made of the very best steam metal and is guaranteed to not steam-cut 
at 250 pounds steam pressure. It will work equally as well on air or steam, and is now in 
use on some of the largest roads in this country. This valve can be furnished with any 
size coupling desired and with either screwed ends or union, and one will be sent to any 
railway company in the United States on trial. This valve is offered by Mr. F. G. Street, 
535 Temple Court Building, Chicago. 



PERSONAL MENTION. 

Mr. A. C. Hone has been appointed superintendent of motive power and rolling stock 
of the Evansville & Terre Haute, Evansville & Indianapolis, and Evansville Belt Rys., 
vice Mr. John Torrance deceased. 

Prof. Robert Wilhelm Eberhard von Bunsen, the famous German chemist, died at 
Heidelberg on August 16. Prof. Bunsen was the inventor of the world famous Bunsen 
burner ; and his studies and discourses in blast furnace practice have greatly cheapened 
the production of iron. Bunsen, with Kirchoff, created the foundation of modern spec- 
trum analysis which has revealed so much of value in chemistry, astronomy and optics. 

Mr. E. B. Thompson has been appointed mechanical engineer of the Chicago & North- 
western vice Mr. F. M. Whyte, resigned to go to the New York Central in a similar ca- 
pacity. Mr. Thompson formerly for many years held this same position, resigning about 
two years ago to accept the position of mechanical engineer of the Northern Pacific. He 
resigned the latter position some months ago and has since been engaged on special detail 
work in the office of Mr. Chas. Schroyer, superintendent of car department of the North- 
western. Mr. Thompson's friends are very much pleased to see him back at his old post. 

Mr. James Buker has been appointed superintendent of the Consolidated Cattle Car 
Co., at Chicago, vice Mr. Joseph Buker, resigned to become assistant superintendent 
of machinery with the Illinois Central. 

Mr. Isaac H. Congdon, formerly superintendent of motive power and car departments 
of the Union Pacific, and patentee of the Congdon brake-shoe, died at his home in Omaha, 
Neb., on August 21, at the age of sixty-six years. He was born at Granville. Mass., on 
June, 1, 1833, and entered railway service on July 11, 1851, as machinist with the Cleve- 
land, Columbus & Cincinnati. He was afterward for one year, machinist with the Spring- 
field, Hartford & New Haven, but on August 1, 1853, returned to the Cleveland, Colum- 
bus & Cincinnati as foreman of machine shops, which position he held until December 
31, 1859. From i860 to 1865 or 1866 he was master mechanic of the Great Western Rail- 
way at Springfield, 111., and in 1865 or 1866 went to the Union Pacific as general master 
mechanic. In 1882 he was made superintendent of the motive power and car departments 
of that road, holding that position until 1885, when he resigned. Mr. Congdon was a 
leading man in his profession in his day. He was not only a man of strong administra- 
tive powers, but he was an excellent mechanic, with original ideas. His name has been 
perpetuated chiefly through his brake-shoe patent, but among many other details of prac- 
tice original with him we may include the extended front end for locomotives. 

Mr. Joseph Buker has been appointed assistant superintendent of machinery of the 
Illinois Central, with headquarters at Chicago. Mr. Buker is widely known as a private 
car line man, having since July, 1890, been superintendent of the Hicks Stock Car Co., 
(now Consolidated Cattle Car Co). But he had been previously for many years in rail- 
way service. He commenced railway work in January, 1876, with the Michigan Central 



246 Railwat Mastei; Mechanic 

Ry., and remained with that road until July, 18S8, putting in four years in the water serv- 
ice and building department and eight years in the freight and passenger car department. 
In 1888 he went to the Atchison, Topeka& Santa Fe, in the freight and passenger car serv- 
ice, remaining there until he was made superintendent of the Hicks Stock Car Co., in 
1890. While Mr. Buker's railway service was distinctively in the car departments he never- 
theless had every opportunity to become familiar with the locomotive and machinery de- 
partments, and he assiduously cultivated those opportunities. Mr Buker has a host of 
friends who are glad to see him assume his important position with the great Illinois 
Central system. 

Mr. John Ebbert, who ran the first locomotive out of Chicago — the Pioneer, on the 
old Chicago & Galena Union, in 1847 — is dead. 

Mr. Daniel Whitman, an old railroad man, died at Philadelphia on August 11, at the 
age of eighty years. He served as an engineer on the Philadelphia & Reading Railway for 
a number of years, and was later on an inspector of locomotives for that company. In 
1852 he entered the service of the Baldwin Locomotive Works and took several of the 
first engines to Cuba, where he instructed men how to operate them. — Railway Age. 

Mr. F. M. Whyte, hitherto mechanical engineer of the Chicago & North-Western, 
was on August 16 appointed mechanical engineer of the New York Central & Hudson 
River, with headquarters at West Albany, N. Y. He will have charge of the drafting and 
designing, the testing department, and the inspection of new material. Mr. Whyte is a 
graduate of Cornell University. His first railway service was, we believe, on the Balti- 
more & Ohio, where he worked on drawing, designing and testing under the mechanical 
engineer and the engineer of tests. He was later in the motive power drawing room of 
the Lake Shore, and after that was on the staff of Mr. David L. Barnes, the famous con- 
sulting engineer, working on a wide range of testing and designing. Still later, after a 
brief period in which he was engaged as a consulting engineer on his own account, Mr. 
Whyte was, in 1897, appointed mechanical engineer of the Chicago & North-Western, 
which position he held continuously until his present engagement with the New York 
Central. Mr. Whyte takes east with him the congratulations of a wide circle of western 
friends who have interestedly watched bis fine record in railway work, and his admirable 
discharge, for the past two years, of the duties of Secretary of the Western Railway Club. 

Mr L. B. Heers has been appointed master mechanic of the new Pittsburg, Shaw- 
mut & Northern Railroad Company, with office at Angelica, N. Y. Mr. Heers has hith- 
erto been master mechanic of the Central New York & Western, one of the roads forming 
the new system. 

Mr. Howard James has been appointed purchasing agent of the Great Northern, 
vice S. F. Forbes resigned. Mr. James has hitherto been purchasing agent of the North- 
ern Steamship Line at Duluth. 

Mr. Wm. P. Danforth has been appointed traveling engineer of the Missouri, Kan- 
sas & Texas in Texas, with headquarters at Denison, vice A. C. Loucks, who, as else- 
where noted, has been promoted to be master mechanic. Mr. Danforth has hitherto been 
a passenger engineer on the Choctaw division. 

Mr. Charles Graham, Jr., master mechanic at the Kingston shops of the Delaware, 
Lackawanna & Western, has been transferred to Buffalo and placed in charge of the 
shops there, to succeed Mr. F. B. Griffith, resigned. 

Mr. John Calvert, formerly engineer on the middle division of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, has been appointed road foreman of engines on the Philadelphia & Erie. 

The office of Mr. F. C. Gates, purchasing agent of the Wheeling & Lake Erie, has 
been moved from Toledo to the Arcade Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 



Personal Mention 247 



Mr. Amos Turner has been appointed master mechanic of the Lehigh Valley at 
South Easton, Pa., vice Mr. Phillip Wallis, who, as previously noted, resigned to become 
superintendent of motive power and equipment of the Long Island. 

Mr. James K. Brassill, assistant master mechanic of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minne- 
apolis & Omaha at Sioux City, Iowa, has resigned to become master mechanic of the Cali- 
fornia Northwestern, vice Mr. John Bonner, resigned. 

Mr. Samuel Potts has* been appointed master mechanic of the Los Angeles & Red- 
ondo, vice Mr. W. N. Best, resigned. 

Mr. Frederick B. Griffith, master mechanic of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
at Buffalo, and for a long period in the service of the company, has resigned. Mr. Grif- 
fith served as an apprentice under Mr. Wm. Buchanan on the New York Central from 
1865 to 1870, and had been with the Lackawanna since 1883. 

Mr. L. L. Smith has been appointed division master mechanic of the Chicago Great 
Western, at St. Paul, vice Mr. D. Van Alstine promoted to be master mechanic of the en- 
tire system. Mr. Smith comes from the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy — a road famous for 
turning out bright young men from its mechanical department. He was for a long time 
detailed on special work on the Burlington, establishing the piece work system etc., and 
conducting its brass foundry at Aurora. Of late he has been round-house foreman for that 
road at Streator, 111. His long upward step to his new post pleases a host of friends. 

Mr. Joseph Longstreth, of Germantown, Pa., who was engaged in superintending the 
erection of a number of locomotives built for the Brazilian government by the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works, died at Para, Brazil, on July 28. Mr. Longstreth was thirty-five 
years of age, and after graduating from Harvard University entered the service of the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works. — Railway Age. 

Mr. G. A. Gipple has been appointed general storekeeper of the Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis & Omaha at St. Paul. Minn., vice Mr. George Herbert, who has been made 
chief clerk to the purchasing agent. 

Mr. J. G. Laughlin has resigned as storekeeper of the Seattle & International, to 
accept a similar position with the Pacific Coast Company at Seattle, Wash., vice Mr. J. 
M. Gibbon, resigned. 

Mr. F. M. O'Meara has been appointed storekeeper of the Seattle & International at 
Seattle, Wash., vice Mr. J. G. Laughlin, resigned. 

Mr. J. M. Ward has been appointed master mechanic of the Galveston, Houston 
& Northern, with headquarters at Houston, Tex. 

Mr. A. B. Quimby has been appointed foreman of the Dakota Central division of 
the Chicago & North-Western, vice Mr. F. M. Dean, who, as previously noted, resigned 
to enter the service of the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

Mr. J. A. Danks has been appointed master mechanic of the St. Louis, Kennett & 
Southern, vice Mr. F. Glover. 

Mr. Oliver Galbraith has resigned as general foreman of the machine department of 
the St. Louis Southwestern shops at Pine Bluff, Ark., to accept a similar position with 
the Wabash at Springfield, 111. 

Mr. Robert Libby, who for so many years represented the New York Air Brake 
Company in the South, with office at Atlanta, Ga., died recently at the home of William 
Rutherford in Owensville, Ohio. Mr. Libby for the last year or two, by reason of blind- 
ness and physical suffering, has been incapacitated for business. While his death was 
not unexpected, it was a source of grief to the large circle of friends which Mr. Libby 
had among railway men and railway supply men. — Railway Age 



848 Railway Master Mechanic 

Mr. F. W. Williams has been appointed master mechanic of the S. 13. & N. Y. and 
O. & S. divisions of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, with headquarters at Syra- 
cuse, X. Y., in place of Mr. L. Kistler, resigned. 

Mr. John Torrance, superintendent of motive power and rolling stock of the Evans- 
ville & Terre Haute, died at Evansville, Ind., on August 2. 

Mr. T. \Y. Demarest, round-house foreman of the Pennsylvania lines at Indian- 
apolis, Ind., has been appointed master mechanic of the Logansport division, with head- 
quarters at Logansport, Ind., vice Mr. \Y. C. Pennock, deceased. 

Mr. Cornelius D. Wall, formerly at different periods master mechanic of the Central 
of Georgia at Macon, Ga., and Columbus, Ga., master mechanic of the Western of Ala- 
bama, at Montgomery, Ala., and master mechanic of the Atlanta & Charlotte Air Line at 
Atlanta, Ga., died at Columbus, Ga., on August 2, from a stroke of paralysis, at the age 
of seventy years. He retired from active work about five years ago. — Raihvay Age. 

Mr. John O'Brien, master mechanic of the Richmond & Petersburg division of the 
Atlantic Coast Line at Richmond, Ya., has been appointed general fuel clerk of the At- 
lantic Coast Line at Manchester, Ya., and his son, Mr. Robert O'Brien is appointed mas- 
ter mechanic at Richmond to succeed him. 

Mr. C. C. Harter has been appointed general storekeeper of the Mexican Central, 
with headquarters at the City of Mexico. 

Mr. L. J. Guyon, road foreman of engines of the Northern Central and Philadelphia 
& Erie divisions of the Pennsylvania Railroad, died at Sunbury, Pa., some weeks ago, at 
the age of fifty-five years. 

Mr. Alonzo Hendee, who, as previously noted, was recently appointed master mechanic 
of the Panama Railroad at Colon, Colombia, began his railroad career, says the Railroad 
Gazette, in 1868 as fireman on the old Cincinnati & Zanesville Railroad, and for over 
thirty years has been employed on various roads as locomotive runner, shopman and air 
brake inspector. 

Mr. James P. Callahan has been appointed general foreman of the Baltimore & Ohio 
at South Chicago, 111., vice Mr. J. A. Jones, resigned. 

Mr. W. F. Dixon, formerly of Paterson, N. J., and now manager of the locomotive 
works of the Sormovo Company, at Nijni-Novgorod, Russia, sailed for Liverpool on 
August 10, after having spent about two weeks here. He was accompanied by his 
Russian wife, acquired since his sojourn in the land of the Tzar. Upon the completion of 
the one hundredth locomotive turned out from the works Mr. Dixon was given a vacation 
and all his traveling expenses paid, to visit England and America. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, Mrs. Dixon was ill during her entire stay in this country, so that the pleasure of the 
visit was much marred. — American Machinist. 

Mr. Cornelius Yanderbilt, Jr., received last month the degree of Mechanical Engi- 
neer from the Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University. In 1895 he received from 
Yale the Bachelor of Arts degree and after two years of practical railroad work took up 
the scientific course, receiving the Bachelor of Philosophy degree in 1898, and after 
taking the prescribed course received at the last commencement the degree of Mechan- 
ical Engineer. The past year Mr. Vanderbilt has been carrying on his engineering 
studies in addition to his duties in the motive power department of the New York Central 
& Hudson River Railroad, and credit was given at the Sheffield Scientific School for some 
of his engineering work on the railroad. He is about to take up work again in the civil 
engineering department of the road. Mr. Vanderbilt has shown actual mechanical abil- 
ity and has had a good deal to do with the designs and details of the latest locomotives 
built for the New York Central. He has taken a serious interest in the work of the motive 
department and has been a conscientious employee of that department. — Railroad Gazette . 



Supply Trade Rotes 249 



Mr. L. B. Rhodes, foreman of machine shops of the Georgia Southern & Florida, 
has been given the title of master mechanic. 

Mr. Walter G. Nixon has been appointed purchasing agent of the Missouri Pacific, 
St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern and leased and operated lines of those systems, vice 
Mr. Abram Gould, deceased. Mr. Nixon has for a long time been Mr. Gould's chief 
clerk. Mr. George Snodgrass, in charge of stationery supplies, has been appointed assist- 
ant purchasing agent. 

Mr. P. H. Hickey has been appointed assistant road foreman of engines on the 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis. 

Mr. A. C. Loucks, of Dallas, has been appointed acting master mechanic of the Mis- 
souri, Kansas & Texas, of Texas, vice C. T. McElvaney, resigned to enter private busi- 
ness. Mr. Loucks has for many years been traveling engineer for the Missouri, Kansas 
& Texas. 

Mr. Harry J. Hoar, of Altoona, has been appointed assistant foreman in the vise shop 
of the Pennsylvania railroad. 

Mr. A. Sherwood has been appointed master mechanic at Wellington on the Santa 
Fe. He has hitherto been foreman of the company's round-house at that point. 

Mr. C. T. McElvaney, master mechanic of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, of Texas, 
who has been connected with that road as master mechanic for many years, has resigned 
his position to take charge of the mechanical department of the American Cotton Com- 
pany. His territory will embrace all of the cotton states, and he will have charge of the 
mechanical department of all the plants operated by the above named company, which 
number in the neighborhood of two hundred. His headquarters will be in Denison. 

The office of Mr. J. W. Taylor, secretary of the Master Car Builders' and Master 
Mechanics' associations, is now in room 667, Rookery Building, Chicago, 111. 

Mr. R. W. Morgan has been appointed purchasing agent of the Wagner Palace Car 
Company, vice Mr. D. O. Talbot, resigned. 

Mr. James O'Connor has been appointed general storekeeper of the Delaware, Lack- 
awanna & Western, with headquarters at Scranton, Pa. 

Mr. J. E. Capps, foreman of car repairs of the Georgia Southern & Florida, has been 
given the title of master car builder. 



SUPPLY TRADE NOTES. 

The Sargent Company, the well known manufacturer of brake shoes and steel cast- 
ings at Chicago, is to remove to Chicago Heights. Four buildings will be erected, 100x500 
feet each, at a cost of $175,000. The present plant at 59th and Wallace streets, Chicago, 
will be torn down when the new works at Chicago Heights are completed, which will 
probably be in about two years. The company has taken up eighteen acres of land at 
Chicago Heights, and employment will be given to 700 men on the completion of the 
new plant. 

The Atlantic Brass Co. has been incorporated at Trenton, N. J., with a capital stock 
of $1,000,000, to manufacture and deal in brass fittings and patented car axle bearings and 
railroad appliances. The incorporators are Scott Lanahan, Charles M. Reynolds, Henry 
Meyers and Charles H. Burke, of New York, and Robert L. Green, Elizabeth, N. J. 

The Brown Hoisting & Conveying Machine Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, is installing 
for the Cramp Ship & Engine Building Company three electric traveling cranes, which 
will greatly facilitate their work. 



250 Railway Master Mechanic 

The Buffalo Forge Company, of Buffalo, has secured the contract for the entire 
supply of the forges and blowers, for use in the temporary machine shops on the Port 
Arthur section of the Chinese Eastern Railroad. The order calls for 106 forges and 
14 blowers. The Buffalo Forge Company, has also, after severe competition on the 
part of English and German manufacturers, been awarded a Hawaiian contract for 
the supply of four 50-horse power and two 75-horse power, high speed, ver- 
tical center, crank engines, which will run in oil. A direct connected pressure blower 
will also be supplied, and a 300-light generating set. This machinery is intended for the 
American Sugar Company's newly acquired plantation, which is situated on the island of 
Molokai, one of the Hawaiian group. 

The Reliance Machine & Tool Company, Cleveland, Ohio, has recently shipped bolt 
cutters to the American Shipbuilding Company, of Lorain, Ohio ; the Southern Mis- 
souri & Kansas Railroad Company, Point Girardeau, Mo., and the L. P. & J. A. Smith 
Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

The Niles-Bement-Pond Co. has been incorporated under the laws of New Jersey. 
The companies involved in this combination are the Pond Machine Tool Company, of 
Plainfield, N. J.; the Philadelphia Engineering Works, of Philadelphia; Bement, Miles 
& Co., of Philadelphia, and a control of the Niles Tool Works Company, of Hamilton, 
Ohio. The new company has the following staff of officers : Robert C. McKinney, of 
the Niles Tool Works Company, president; James K. Cullen, of the Niles Tool Works 
Company, first vice-president ; A. C. Stebbins, of the Pond Machine Tool Company, 
second vice-president; Walter L. Clark, of the Niles Tool Works Company, third vice- 
president; Charles L. Cornell, of the Niles Tool Works Company, treasurer, and E. M. 
C. Davis, of the Niles Tool Works Company, secretary. Alexander Gordon, president 
of the Niles Tool Works Company, is chairman of the board of directors. The other 
directors are Charles A. Moore, of Manning, Maxwell & Moore, and the Pond Machine 
Tool Works; Clarence S. Bement and Frederick B. Miles, of Bement, Miles & Co.; Gor- 
don Shillito, Thomas J. Gaff and Daniel H. Holmes, of Cincinnati; Frederick W. Gordon, 
of the Philadelphia Engineering Works; George T. Reiss and James K. Cullen, of the 
Niles Tool Works Company; E. C. Burke, of Cleveland, Ohio, Walter L. Clark, of the 
Niles Tool Works Company; A. C. Stebbins, of the Pond Machine Tool Company, 
W. S. McKinney, of Pittsburg, and Robert C. McKinney, president of the Niles Tool 
Works Company. Frederick B. Miles and George T. Reiss have been appointed engi- 
neers for the company. The capital of the new company is $8,000,000 — $3,000,000 of 6 
per cent cumulative preferred and $5,000,000 common stock. Of this is issued #2,000,000 
in preferred and $5,000,000 common, $1,000,000 in preferred shares being retained in the 
treasury of the new company to acquire the minority interests in the Niles Tool Works 
Company. The main office of the new company will be at 136 Liberty street, New York. 

New shops and additions thereto are reported by our exchanges during the past 
month, as follows: The Philadelphia & Reading will erect an addition to its present 
shops at Reading, Pa. The building will be 85 feet wide by 403 feet long, built of brick, 
with frame trusses and slag roof, and is intended for a general car repairing shop. A 
compressed air hoist, capable of lifting loaded freight cars, will be installed. —The 
Lehigh Valley will build a large locomotive coaling and ashes receiving station at South 
Plainfield, N. J., and the New York Central & Hudson River will build coaling stations 
at Kingston and Utica, N. Y., and Weehawken N. J. ; the Link Belt Engineering Co., of 
Nicetown, Pa., has the contract for all these coaling plants. — The Southern Pacific 
Company is preparing plans for the enlargement of its car shops at West Oakland, Cal. — 
Work on the new Great Northern shops and round-house at Minot, N. D., has com- 
menced. — The Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad Company has begun the preliminary work 
on the erection of a large air-compressing plant at the McKees Rocks shops, to furnish 



Supply Trade Notes 251 



power to the shops. Every department of the building and repairing shops will be fully 
equipped with air-compressor machinery, and all the small machines will be operated in 
the same manner. Plans are now being prepared for the changes and improvements to 
be made in buildings and locations of various departments composing the Pittsburg & 
Lake Erie Railroad erecting and repairing shops and round-houses at McKees Rocks. 
Work on the new buildings is to begin this fall, as the present round-house is proving 
entirely inadequate for the business done. — The St. Louis Southwestern has acquired a 
body of land comprising five acres in East Waco, Tex., near the city limits, upon which, 
it is said, shops will be located— Work has been begun at the machine shops of the 
Pecos Valley & Northeastern Railroad at Roswell, N. M.— The Rock Island Railroad 
intends to equip a machine shop at Council Bluffs, Iowa. It will occupy a building already 
erected, 40x80 feet. — The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy contemplates the erection of a 
round-house on property recently acquired at West Ninth street, Des Moines, Iowa. — 
The Louisville & Nashville will remove the shops at Bowling Green, Ky., to Paris, 
Tenn., on the Memphis branch, in the near future, the new shops at Paris being nearly 
completed. — Contracts have been awarded by the Chicago Great Western Railway Com- 
pany to James T. Brady, St. Paul, Minn., for the erection of buildings valued at $90,000 
along the St. Paul and Kansas City divisions. The principal improvements will be a 16- 
stall addition to the round-house at Oelwein and some smaller buildings for the store- 
keeper and the machine shops at that point, an 8-stall addition to the round-house in Des 
Moines and a new 8-stall round-house in St. Joe. — The Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago 
& St. Louis Railway is building new shops at Mount Carmel, 111. The buildings will be 
of brick, with slate roofs, and will be composed of a 10-stall round-house, 60x200 feet, 
machine shop, 35x52 feet, storeroom and office, sand-houses, ashpits and coal platforms. 
The power plant will contain two ico-horse power boilers and one 14x36 Corliss engine. 
The buildings will be heated with steam and lighted by electricity. — Excavation work has 
been begun for the foundation of the new buildings of the Union Pacific plant at Rawlins, 
Wyo. The buildings are to be used as a boiler house and engine house. The dimensions 
will be 50x60 feet. — The Panhandle will shortly begin some extensive improvements in 
<ts shops at Logansport, Ind.— The Oregon Short Line will build brick and stone loco- 
motive and repair shops at Pocatello, Idaho. — The Northern Pacific will build new shops 
at Mandan, N. D., to replace those which burned in May. — The Texas & Pacific Rail- 
way is rapidly pushing to completion a complete circle brick round-house, rearrangement 
of tracks and the building of round-house conveniences, such as sanding, watering, cinder- 
dumping and coaling arrangements at Fort Worth, Tex. — The Houston & Texas Central 
Company is putting in a new round-house and turntable at Fort Worth. — The Boston & 
Maine round-house at Lyndonville, Vt., was destroyed by fire recently, and of the eight 
locomotives in the house at the time, six were badly damaged by flames. The loss on 
the building is estimated at $15,000, on locomotives $15,000. — The Chicago & North- 
western has taken out a permit for the construction of new buildings at its Chicago car 
shops. The buildings include an addition to the machine shop IUOX150 feet, 34 feet high, 
and boiler shop 120x300 feet. — The C, B. & Q. road is planning for the construction of 
a machine shop at McCook, Neb. — The work on the new Hutchinson & Southern ter- 
minals and buildings at Hutchinson is being pushed ; the round-house will be located 
between Madison and Jefferson streets, and will be a large brick structure, accommodat- 
ing twelve engines. The round-house will be 266 feet wide in the rear and 162 feet in 
the front. Just in front of the round-house will be a large 60-foot turntable, and farther 
west a 50,000-gallon water tank. The shops will be located east of the round-house 
between the river and Madison street. — A contract has been let by the Santa Fe for the 
building of a car shed 80x300 feet, a lumber shed 20x300, and another car shed 20x185 
feet, at Cleburne, Tex. 

Merchant & Co., of Philadelphia, New York and Chicago, have recently made a 



252 Railwai Master Mechanic 

shipment of 35,000 pounds of seamless brass condenser tubes to Scotland. This com- 
pany has long been well known in the brass and copper business, and the order above 
noted is an indication that it is pursuing its aggressive business methods, not only in this 
country, but generally in the world's markets, which are now becoming tributary to the 
I'nited States. 

Mr. George C. Dressel, president of the Dressel Railway Lamp Works, New York, 
died last month. He was born in Germany in 1828, and came to this country and entered 
the service of the New York & Harlem Railroad, where he remained for eighteen years, 
until he began the manufacture of railway signal lamps in 1881. 

The American Locomotive Sander Company, of Philadelphia, has been organized to 
manufacture or control the following locomotive sanding devices : Leach, Houston, 
Dean, Curtis and "She'' sanders. The general offices of the company are at Thirteenth 
and Willow streets, Philadelphia ; the officers being C. Longstreth, president ; John 
Reilly, vice-president and treasurer ; Elliott Curtis, secretary, and Harry Visserin^, 
superintendent. 

The Gold Car Heating Co., and the Gold Street Car Heating Co., report that the 
number of orders which they have taken during the past few months are of such magni- 
tude as to surpass all former records of the companies. It is a certainty that the 
improved Gold electric heaters have struck a popular chord among railway officials. 

The Niles Tool Works Company, Hamilton, Ohio, have received a large order for 
machine tools for the temporary machine shops now being built in Manchuria, by the 
Chinese Eastern Railway. The order includes a large car lathe weighing about 42,000 
pounds, double axle lathes of various sizes, large vertical boring mills, double steam 
hammers and hand and portable twist drills. This is the second order the Niles Tool 
Works Company have received from this company, the first order which they filled being 
entirely satisfactory and leading to the placing of the second. The Niles Tool Works 
Company have also a contract for furnishing a full complement of tools for the plant of 
the Alabama Steel & Ship Building Company, at Ensley, Ala. 

The W T estinghouse Electric Manufacturing Company, of Pittsburg, with its kin- 
dred interests, has been awarded the entire contract for the equipment of the numer- 
ous electrical plants which will be installed on the Chinese Eastern railroad. About 
5200,000 is involved in the contract. A Paris cable to the New York Commercial reports 
that the bulk of the contracts for the extensive equipments of the electric roads now 
under construction, and particularly for the lines to run to and in the exhibition grounds, 
are being executed at the Westinghouse Electric Company's works. 



SITUATION WANTED— As Chief Clerk Motive Power Department or in similar 
capacity. Have had 15 years' experience in practical mechanical work and in 
administrative duties Have a thorough knowledge of all classes of equipment in 
detail. Have had extended experience in the organization of forces and discipline 
of same. Can offer endorsements and recommendations by many high railway offi- 
cials and others more or less intimately connected with railway affairs. Address 
"Charles," care Railway Master Mechanic. 

POSITION WANTED — By a capable general foreman of locomotive repairs. Per- 
fectly satisfactory reason for leaving present position. Address G. F., care of Pail- 
way Master Mechanic. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 

WALTER D. CROSMAN, Editor. EDWIN N. LEWIS, Manager. 

Vol. XXIII. CHICAGO, OCTOBER, 1899. No. 5 



The Vanderbilt Boiler. 

All master mechanics will be interested in the experiment now being 
made on the New York Central R. R. with the corrugated marine type 
locomotive fire box, designed by Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jr., for it now 
seems probable that this type of fire box has been so successfully 
adapted to locomotive practice that it will have more extended use than 
heretofore. It is another instance in which railroad engineering is fol- 
lowing marine practice and there are good reasons why this should be 
so. The highest development of steam engineering is always found in 
the navy department, for the government spares no expense in the edu- 
cation of her engineers, or in the design and construction of the ma- 
chinery of her war vessels. With the demand for higher speeds came in- 
creased boiler pressures and, as these pressures increased, steam could only 
be used economically by compound and triple expansion engines. Our 
railroad engineers have thus been fortunate in having the compound en- 
gine developed before it was necessary to adapt it to locomotive practice. 
The necessity of lightness combined with strength, for high pressures, 
led to the use of the corrugated tubes for marine fire boxes — and the 
trouble with broken stay bolts in high pressure locomotive boilers is 
now suggesting their use for locomotive fire boxes. 

Coming now to the Vanderbilt design, the first marked feature to 
notice is the large size of the corrugated tube. It is 63^ inches exter- 
nal diameter, and 59 inches internal, and we believe it is the largest cor- 
rugated furnace which has ever been made. On account of this large 
diameter the sheet is made ^-inch thick to resist external pressure, 
and it was subjected to a test pressure of 500 lbs. per square inch 
before being put into the boiler. The use of a fire box sheet ^-inch 
thick, which is just twice the present general practice with flat plates, 
may be considered by some as a detriment on account of the sup- 
posed resistance to the transmission of heat through the sheet due to its 
extra thickness. It is well known, however, that within such limits, the 



854 Railway .Master Mechanic 

resistance to the transmission of heat from hot gas, on one side, to the 
water on the other side of the sheet, is independent of its thickness and 
we should therefore expect as good evaporation from each square foot of 
this thick corrugated fire box as from a flat plate only ^-inch thick. 

By the use of a tube so large in diameter, it is possible to get suffi- 
cient grate area for a medium sized locomotive with one tube. The area 
of the grate is 35 square feet, which is larger than the standard grates 
used on other New York Central engines of the same type. It will be 
remembered that in the Strong boiler with twin furnaces a grate area of 
62 square feet was obtained, and this points to the fact that the grate 
area with a single corrugated tube is limited, and where ample grate area 
for very large locomotives is desirable it cannot be obtained in a single 
corrugated tube. The use of twin tubes leads to very expensive and 
complicated construction which was found objectionable with the Strong 
boiler. In considering the corrugated tube for large engines in the fu- 
ture it must be remembered, therefore, that the extent to which the grate 
area can be increased is quite limited. It is unfortunate that this is true 
because increased grate areas with flat surfaces can only be obtained by 
largely increasing the number of stay bolts, and one of the chief merits 
of the corrugated tube is that it dispenses with stay bolts. 

The advantages of a fire box without stay bolts are numerous, the 
principal one being that it eliminates one of the most uncertain sources 
of weakness, it removes the necessity of constant inspection and renewal 
of stay bolts, and the fire box can be removed for boiler repairs and 
cleaning without the laborious and expensive task of cutting out and re- 
placing hundreds of stay bolts. In examining a cross section of the fire 
box and boiler we have noted that the water space at the grate line is 
wider than the general practice with flat surfaces, and it increases so 
rapidly that it is 10 inches at the center line of the corrugated tube. 
This ample water space around the furnace and the freedom from stay 
bolts in the water space should secure much better circulation of the 
water than is obtained in the ordinary fire box, and it should contribute 
to improved evaporation. It is important that the corrugated surface 
should be kept clean and free from scale, and the conditions are favora- 
ble to ease in washing out, but if this fire box is used with water pro- 
ducing scale it will be necessary to use soda ash or other purgative to 
prevent the accumulation of scale which will have a tendency to form in 
pockets on the corrugations. 

The report of preliminary tests of the Vanderbilt boiler in freight 
service show an evaporation of 8.6 lbs. water per lb. of coal, equated to 



Locomotive Classification" Book 



355 



10.3 lbs. from and at 21 2° F. The engine is in regular freight service 
and doing satisfactory work, and trials will soon be made with the engine 
in passenger service. 

The final measure of the success of this interesting experiment with 
a corrugated furnace will be shown when it is decided whether to build 
any large number of engines with that type of fire box or not. 



LOCOMOTIVE CLASSIFICATION BOOK— 

C & N.-W. RY. 

The Chicago & North-Western Railway recently got out a locomotive 
classification book that has proved to have been designed on a very 
satisfactory plan. The book is about 4^ inches wide and 7 inches long, 
and comprises 104 pages. It is entitled " Dimensions and Classification 
of Locomotives of the Chicago & North- Western Railway Co." The first 
23 pages are taken up with a list of the engines, beginning with " No. 
1," and continuing on to the last, in sequence. The heading for these 
pages is as follows (we give also a sample line of entry beneath the 
heading) : 



Engine 


Cylinder 


Type 


Diam. 
Driving 

Wheel 
Center 


Weight 

on 

Drivers, 

Lbs. 


Tank 
Capacity 


Year 
Built 


Descrip- 


No. 


Class 


Gals. 
Water 


Tons 
Coal 


on Page 


3 


A 


19x24 


8-Wheel 


68 


78,000 


4300 


8 


1895 


25 



These tabulations give at a glance the main characteristics of any 
engine concerning which information is desired. Then comes a series 



Dimensions marked thi/S * refer to £nnj 
with^SSOO $at. Capacity Tank. 

22/mensiens without mark refer to Fnqs, 
with Q\50Q Qat Capacity Tank. 



Capacity of Tender, 
Water, 4^00 & <5B00 Qat 
Coal, 10 Tons. 




m 




U- j'-b'-A 




<s +S4 '- 



*6'\e\'-\~/o'-8'- * //-8'—4—//-74'—*/S-eA'—< 
k- 47-lli 



<S6-tO 



* -?9'-^' 



Steam Pressure, 190 Lbs. Heatinq Surface, Weiqht on Drivers, Loaded '.. 78.000 Lbs 

/nside /enqth of Fire-bo* 8'-OJl' Tubes, /76Q.27Sq.ft - of Enqine .. /2<5.600 . 

m width. . J--9J' Fire-box 172 7^7. . . . Tender . 97.ySdO. 

Tubes, A/umber of 29S Total, - I 937 OP . . .... „ . _•* / / O. 800 . 

Lenqtfi- - 11-6' 

i Diameter . .2" 



256 



Railway Masteb Mechanic 



of pages giving more detailed information concerning the engines, a left- 
hand page bearing the following heading and the oppo site page hearing 
a diagram of the engine : 



CLASS A. — Diagram on Page 25. 



Number 


Date of 
Delivery 


Builder 


Number 


Date of 
Deliverv 


Builder 


3 


Nov. '95 


Schenectady 


• 








These latter tabulations do not take the engines up in sequence by 
their numbers, but present them grouped by classes. We give here- 
with a reproduction of the form of diagram used. This is a very thor- 
ough and satisfactory scheme of presentation of the complete story 
of every engine on the line. We are indebted to Mr. R. Ouayle, super- 
intendent of motive power and machinery of the Chicago & North- West- 
ern, for the privilege of presenting this brief account of the book. 



BOILERS WITH CORRUGATED FIRE BOXES. 

Various attempts have been made to use a corrugated fire box in boil- 
ers of the locomotive and marine types, and these attempts have met 
with varying degrees of success ; the latest effort put forth in the direc- 
tion of using such a fire box in locomotive work was instigated by Mr. 
Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jr., and there is in service now on the New York 
Central & Hudson River Railroad a locomotive the boiler of which was 
adapted to a Morison suspension furnace. This furnace is of the cor- 
rugated stayless type, and is illustrated in Fig. 1, which engraving shows 
the fire box end of the Vanderbilt boiler. 

The desired goal in using the corrugated fire box is a construction 
which will not need stay bolts to prevent the collapse of the fire box, and 
it must be granted that the freedom from the annoyances of the stayed 
fire box is worthy a supreme effort. It will be seen that there are no 
stay bolts used in the design illustrated ; there is, however, a sling stay 
shown at the top front end of the fire box ; there is a row of these stays 
extending around the front end of the fire box and securing it to the 
outer shell. They are used only to secure the furnace in its proper rela- 
tion to the outer shell, and any assistance available from them to prevent 
collapse of the furnace is merely incidental. 

The center of the furnace is considerably below the center of the 



Boilers wtth Coeeuqated Fiee Boxes 



-.':.; 



boiler, in order to give as much water space as possible above the fur- 
nace ; one of the difficulties experienced in designing these boilers is to 
provide for sufficient depth of water above the furnace and, at the same 
time, leave sufficient steam space to insure dry steam in the dome, and 
to do these within allowable limits for the diameter of the enlarged por- 
tion of the outer shell. The location of the furnace made it impossible 
to support the tube sheets entirely with the tubes, and the spaces of both 
tube sheets which are unsupported by the tubes are secured to the outer 
shell by diagonal braces. The tubes are placed at an angle with the 
horizontal represented by a deviation of 5 7-16 inches in 12 feet 6 inches 
and the tube sheets are placed perpendicular to the tubes ; setting the 
furnace so low in the boiler necessitated this construction. 




Fk;ure 1. 



The corrugations of the furnace terminate at a distance of 6 or 7 
inches from the back end, and through this uncorrugated portion the 
furnace is riveted to the flange turned on the back head of the outer 
shell. A flanged casting closes the large opening at the back end, and 
in this casting are the two openings through which the firing is done 
and another, below these two, through which the ashes are handled. 
The grates are supported on side bars secured to the sides of the fur- 
nace and the ashes drop from the grates to the bottom of the furnace. 

About two feet of the front end of the grate is cut off by a perpen- 
dicular bridge wall extending across the furnace. The refuse which col- 
lects between the bridge wall and the back tube sheet is disposed of 
through the 8-inch opening through the bottom of the furnace and shell. 
The 18-inch opening through the bottom of the furnace and shell pro- 
vides a place through which the refuse of combustion may be dropped to 
the ash pan below ; the capacity for ashes inside the furnace below the 



258 



Railway Master Mechanic 



grates is limited, and the ashes must be hoed to this opening and dropped 
to the ash pan several times on a trip. 

It is understood that the construction of this boiler was well under 
way before Mr. Vanderbilt was aware that boilers very similar in con- 
struction had been designed and built by others ; had he been aware of 
the experience of others he probably would have changed, somewhat, his 
design so as to benefit by their experience. 

Several boilers similar to the Vanderbilt boiler were constructed in 
Germany some years ago, and it is understood that they have not given 
entire satisfaction although experience has indicated changes which have 
improved the service rendered by the boilers. Fig. 2 shows these boil- 




FlGURE 2. 



ers after having undergone a short period of development ; it was found 
that no air should be allowed to enter the combustion chamber between 
the bridge wall and the tube sheet from the grate immediately beneath, 
and rather, that the only communication with the combustion chamber 
should be over the bridge wall. 

Some difficulty has been experienced with the corrugated furnace 
type of boiler to get circulation of water below the furnace ; some boilers 
showing a temperature of water below the furnace of from 1 50 to i6o Q 
F., while the steam gauge showed nearly working pressure. This great 
difference in temperature between the top and bottom of the furnace 
causes unequal expansion of the furnace, and difficulty with the back tube 
sheet results. Difficulty with the back tube sheet m the boiler shown in 



Boilebs with Corrugated Fire Boxes 259 

Fig. 2. has been experienced and it is doubtful if, in other respects, the 
design has proved a success. 

The locomotive which has the boiler shown in Fig. i was built re- 
cently at the West Albany shops of the New York Central & Hudson 
River Railroad and has been put in freight service and it is understood 
is giving good satisfaction, although it is too soon yet to obtain anything 
very definite from the road as to its performance. 

The early experiments with this type of fire box were made in 
Europe. In 1 867 Maey of Zurich used a fire box with a semi-cylindric 
crown sheet, which, as well as the vertical side walls, was made 
of corrugated copper sheets. In 1875 Kaselowsky designed a boiler in 
which the vertical side walls of the fire box were abandoned, and the 
semi-cylindric furnace of Maey developed so as to embrace three-fourths 
of a circumference. In this form no stay bolts were used. In 1886 
Crampton in England designed a boiler formed of two superimposed 
partial cylinders, the lower one being fitted with a corrugated furnace flue. 

In 1889 a decided advance was made in European practice in this 
respect by the Prussian state railroad, which had built at Essen a boiler 
with a 4-foot corrugated fire box of the regular marine type. The 
design was made by Messrs Knaudt and Pohlmeyer. The construction 
at the back end of this boiler is somewhat similar to the Vanderbilt de- 
sign, but the tube plate end of the furnace flue is attached to the shell 
by means of four gusset stays. The Knaudt and Pohlmeyer corrugated 
fire box is illustrated in London Engineering, October 4, 1889, and in 
the Railroad Gazette, November 15, 1889. Another design for a stay- 
less boiler with a corrugated furnace was made for the Prussian state 
roads by Mr. Gustave Lentz in 1890, and illustrated in the Railroad Ga- 
zette for January 9, 1891. This boiler consists of two truncated cones 
with a cylindric portion in the middle, and the corrugated tube is bent 
longitudinally, a portion of it being horizontal near the tube sheet, and 
the back portion pitching downward. The steam space is thus located 
near the center of the boiler. The tubes are considered sufficient to 
stay the front end as they entirely fill the back tube sheet. In the Van- 
derbilt boiler the back tube sheet extends beyond the tubes, both top 
and bottom, and this portion is supported by stay rods. In the Knaudt 
and Pohlmeyer design and in the Lentz fire box the furnace is divided 
by a fire-brick bridge wall. The gases mix with the hot air as they pass 
the bridge and combustion is completed in the chamber beyond. It is 
supposed that the reduced speed of the gases after passing the bridge 



260 Railwai Masteb Mechanic 

wall will permit of cinders and ashes dropping in the ash pit at the bot- 
tom of the combustion chambers. 

In the United States, the only locomotive boiler with a corrugated 
fire box, built heretofore, is the Strong boiler which was designed by Mr. 
Geo. H. Strong in 1882 and first placed in service on the Lehigh Valley 
R. R. in 1886. In this design three corrugated tubes are used, two of 
them side by side in the twin furnaces and a third for the combustion 
chamber beyond, thus connecting the furnaces with the tubes. The cor- 
rugated tubes were 38^ inches diameter inside, and the grate area 62 
square feet. The heating surface of the fire boxes was 155 square feet, 
of the combustion chamber 93 square feet, and of tubes 1600 square feet, 
making a total of 1,848 square feet. Careful tests of the boiler under 
the direction of Mr. E. D. Leavitt showed an evaporation of 7.9 lbs. of 
water per lb. of anthracite egg coal, and 8.56 lbs. of water per lb. of bi- 
tuminous coal. In changing from anthracite to bituminous coal no alter- 
ation in the grate or draft appliances was found necessary. The Strong 
boiler has not been generally approved, in spite of its good evaporative 
performance and all the benefits to be derived from a stayless fire box. 
The principal objection to it is its high first cost and great weight. A 
good illustration of the Strong boiler will be found in the Railway 
Master Mechanic, for April, 1887. 

RAILWAY ACCIDENTS. 

According to figures furnished by the Inter-State Commerce Com- 
mission the total number of casualties to persons on account of railway 
accidents during the year ending June 30, 1898, was 47,741. The ag- 
gregate number of persons killed as a result of railway accidents during 
the year was 6,859, anc ^ tne number injured was 40,882. Of railway 
employees, 1,958 were killed and 31,761 were injured during the year. 
With respect to the three general classes of employees, these casualties 
were divided as follows: Trainmen, 1,141 killed, 15,645 injured; switch- 
men, flagmen and watchmen, 242 killed, 2,677 injured; other employees, 
575 killed, 13,439 injured. The casualties to employees resulting from 
coupling and uncoupling cars were, persons killed, 279, injured, 6,988. 
The corresponding figures for the preceding year were, killed, 214 ; in- 
jured, 6,283. The casualties from coupling and uncoupling cars are 
assigned as follows: Trainmen, killed, 182, injured, 5,290; switchmen, 
flagmen and watchmen, killed, 90, injured, 1,486; other employees, 
killed, 7, injured, 212. Summaries show that, with reference to train- 
men — including the term engineer, firemen, conductors, and other train- 
men — 1 was killed for every 150 employed and 1 injured for every 11 
employed. One passenger was killed for every 2,267,270 carried and 1 



Proposed Brake Shoe Tests 26J 



injured for every 170,141 carried. Ratios based upon the number of 
miles traveled, however, show that 60,542,670 passenger-miles were 
accomplished for each passenger killed and 4,543,270 passenger-miles 
accomplished for each passenger injured. 

MASTER MECHANICS' COMMITTEES. 

Committees for the current year's work of the Master Mechanics' 
Association have been appointed as follows : 

STANDING COMMITTEE. 

The extent to which the recommendations of this association have 
been put into practice. — F. A. Delano, A. Sinclair, H. Middleton. 

SUBJECTS FOR I9OO CONVENTION. 

Relative merits of cast-iron and steel-tired wheels. — J. N. Barr, A. 
M. Waitt, H. S. Hay ward, A. L. Humphrey, John Hickey. 

Advantages of ton-mile basis for motive power statistics. — H. J. 
Small, C. H. Quereau, W. H. Marshall. 

Flanged tire. — S. Higgins, W. H. Thomas, Wm. Garstang. 

Compound locomotives. — A. E. Mitchell, J. F. Deems, John Player, 
J. E. Sague, J. H. Setchel. 

Piston valves. — S. P. Bush, Henry Schlacks, Wm. Mcintosh. 

Valve oils and various bearing metals. — A. W. Gibbs, J. B. Barnes, 
Geo. F. Wilson. 

Power transmission by shafting versus electricity. — Geo. Gibbs, F. 
Mertsheimer, Wm. Renshaw, W. A. Nettleton, R. A. Smart. 

Best type of stationary boiler for shop purposes. — Frank Rearden, 
J. J. Ryan, J. F. Dunn. 

What can the American Railway Master Mechanics' Association do to 
increase its usefulness ? — T. R. Browne, G. M. Basford, L. R. Pomeroy. 

Subjects. — Robert Quayle, G. W. Rhodes, F. D. Casanave. 

PROPOSED BRAKE SHOE TESTS. 

The Standing Committee of the Master Car Builders' Association 
on Brake Shoe Tests, has decided to make another series of tests at an 
early date, which will include only brake shoes of new kinds that have 
not already been tested by the committee, and which may properly be 
considered as being in the market, or having some considerable use on 
some railroads. 

All brake shoe manufacturers who wish to avail themselves of this 
opportunity to have their shoes tested, should communicate at once with 
the chairman of the committee in reference to the details of the test, 
and should state in their communication to the chairman to what extent 
their shoes are in use. 

Communications should be addressed to Mr. S. P. Bush, superin- 
tendent M. P., P. C. C. & St. L. Ry., Columbus, Ohio. 



262 



Railway Master Mechanic 




AIR BRAKE REPAIR AND INSTRUCTION ROOMS 
OF THE ST. PAUL & DULUTH RY. 

BY G. R. PARKER, AIR BRAKE INSTRUCTOR, ST. P. & D. RY. 

The additional number of freight cars that have been recently 
equipped with air brakes involves an increased responsibility on the part 
of railroad officials, to see that this important apparatus is operated and 
maintained in such a manner as to give the highest degree of safety. 
On nearly every hand it has been acknowledged, on the part of the 
officials, that the first requisite to accomplish the above mentioned re- 
sults is to have a competent person in charge of all air brake work, in- 
cluding application to the different vehicles, and the manner in which 
it is operated in stopping or in controlling the speed of trains on grades. 
The best results can be obtained from any machine only by having it 
operated in harmony with the mechanical principles employed in its 
construction, and also by properly maintaining the apparatus, which 
includes cleaning and all necessary repairs. The accuracies demanded 
when making repairs to the different parts require each piece to be 
subjected to a severe test to insure a certain and satisfactory action 
in service. 

In addition to the person in charge of air brakes, the majority of 



Air Brake Rooms, St. P. & D. Rv. 



263 



railroad officials have also considered the necessity of two additional ad- 
juncts, namely, instruction, and repair and test plants. Without these 
three, air brake application on any railroad is like a ship at sea, without 
rudder, chart or compass. 

The usual foresight exercised by the officials of the St. Paul & Du- 
luth Railway Company enabled them to anticipate what would be 
required along these lines. This is amply shown by the fact that a 
building, as shown in our engraving (Fig. i) was erected three years ago 
to be used especially for air brake instruction and repairs. 

The building, which is located at the company's shops at Gladstone, 
a short distance out of St. Paul, has three compartments : two rooms on 
the ground floor, one for instruction, the other for repairs and tests, and 
a basement, which is utilized as a storage room for spare parts. The 
necessary piping and reservoirs for instruction, repair and test purposes 
are also located in the basement, as seen in Fig. 2 ; the train pipe for 
brakes being on the left, and the piping for the air signal toward the 
right. 

Figs. 3 and 4 show part of two sides, respectively, of the repair 
room. Fig. 3 shows the lye tank, at the left, with an air hoist directly 
above it. This air hoist is hung upon a traveler that runs upon an 



r'i ~ 




1 


1 

• 

I 


-» 1 1 f> 

- 


> 

1 4 

f 


*""' 


Jl 1 

» *■ . 


1 

\ m — — " 
• m '* 

at 

m 


•■• m 


^ 


/* : 




« 
* 






A 


7 




-*£*_».. . ~. - ♦— ~>^y» ~\ 


*— — ^ J ^ 














'f 

■ 



Train Pipe. 



Fig. 2, Basement. 



Signal Pipe 



264 



Railway Mastek Mechank 




Fig. 4. Testing Rack in Repair Room. 



overhead rail, enabling 

all heavy material to be 
readily transferred 
from one point to 
another in the room. 
The rack upon which 
all finished work is 
placed is also seen in 
Fig. 3, at the right. 

Fig. 4 shows the 
necessary and indis- 
pensable test rack 
where all brake, triple, 
signal and reducing 
valves can be readily 
placed in position, 
joints made and thor- 
oughly tested. The 
device designed by the 
St. Paul & Duluth 




Fig. 3. Storage Rack in Repair Room. 



An; Brake Rooms, St. P. & I). \l\. 



265 




Fig. 5. Tables with Sectional Apparatus. 




Fig. 6. The Engine Rack. 



266 



Railway Masteb Mechanic 



people for holding and jointing plain and special driver brake triple 
valves is worthy of notice. 

A flanged bracket is employed where all quick action triple valves, 
including freight, passenger, and special passenger triples, can be readily 
placed and tested. As previously stated, the different reservoirs are 
placed in the basement, the necessary piping being employed ; and, by 
means of stop cocks, any desired size of reservoir can be cut in, to 
accommodate the different triple valves. 

When the pumps are being tested they are run by air pressure in- 
stead of steam. This practice has been found to be very satisfactory. 
The advantages are as follows : A higher pressure is obtained than 
would be the case were steam used, as the highest steam pressure car- 
ried on stationer}' boilers is 80 pounds, while air pressure for shop pur- 
poses is 125 pounds. At Gladstone the boiler room is situated at some 
distance from the air brake room, and if steam was used there would be 
considerable condensation. After a pump has been run and tested by 
means of steam, even supposing it is reasonably dry, there is always 
some water lodged in the steam end that will produce corrosion, which 
is detrimental, especial!}' for new work when all parts are closely fitted. 




Fig. 7. The Cylinder Rack. 



Air Brake Rooms, St. P. & D. Ry. 



267 




Fig. 8. The Foundation Brake Rack. 



Then again, the absence of the heat that steam would give enables the 
pump or any part of same to be readily handled. 

The five additional illustrations show the entire apparatus for instruc- 
tion purposes. No expense has been spared to make the room com- 
fortable, attractive and complete in every detail. Both tables for sec- 
tional parts of locomotive apparatus, as shown in Fig. 5, are free to 
revolve. This enables any sectional part to be brought to the front. 
The sectional air pump is mounted upon a carriage which enables it to 
be moved in front of the class, and it can also be elevated by means of 
air pressure, the post being a cylinder with piston and packing leathei s. 
The pump can be revolved whether elevated or not, and this enables it 
to be placed in any position so that any part of it can be seen, giving all 
in the class an unobstructed view. 

Fig. 6 is what is called the engine rack, where all the principal oper- 
ative parts on an engine and tender are placed. This rack occupies a 
central position directly in front of the class. 

Fig. 7 is the brake cylinder rack, with 1 2 brake cylinders, reservoirs 
and triple valves. It is fastened to a suitable framework with supports 
at both ends. 

Fig. 8 is the foundation brake rack designed by the St. Paul & 






Railway Mastek Mechanic 



Duluth. It occupies a floor space of 2y 2 by 14 feet. One end has the 
freight or Stevens system of brake levers, and the other the passenger 
or Hodge system, with their respective hand brake staffs. The brake 
or foundation rack represents the thirteenth or last car of the thirteen. 
By closing the head angle cock, which is seen in Fig. 6 on the right of 
the engine rack, and opening an additional stop cock, it is connected 
directlv to the train line for engine and thereby becomes the head car, 
while car No. 1 becomes the rear car. This is equal to running the en- 
gine around the train and coupling the same on the rear. 




Fig. 9. Instruction Blackboard. 

As previously mentioned, the train pipes are situated in the base- 
ment, having forty-two feet of piping for each car. In addition to the 
thirteen train pipes, there is also sufficient storage to hold a volume of 
air, equal to thirty-seven train pipes. The additional volume is con- 
nected on the rear of the thirteenth car. When using the entire volume 
of air, equal to fifty cars, the brake or foundation rack, by suitable 
connections, can become the rear or fiftieth car in the train. Thus the 
foundation brake rack may be the first, thirteenth, or fiftieth car in the 
train. The value of this arrangement will suggest itself to all instructors 
n air brake work. 



Trifles and Tendencies 269 

Fig. 9 shows the blackboard used in the instruction room, its dimen- 
sions being 3^x12 feet. It is suspended in front of the foundation 
brake rack, and it can be raised, lowered, or turned, so that either side 
can be used as the occasion requires. The slides are guided by two 
pipes that extend from the floor to the ceiling, the weight of the board 
being counterbalanced by two bars of iron that slide inside of the pipes. 
The triples shown on the board are real sectionals set into the board 
with all inner parts intact and free to operate as they would in service. 
All other parts as seen on the board are painted. Colors are employed 
to express the different parts. The same colors are used on the entire 
apparatus, showing the different parts and pressures. The other side 
of the board is blank, being used for crayon sketches or examples in 
figures. 

All primary work and the greater part of descriptive instruction is 
given from the blackboard, being of a kindergarten character and it is 
attractive and simplifies preliminary work, both for the instructed and 
instructor. 

TRIFLES AND TENDENCIES AS NOTED IN A 
BRIEF EUROPEAN TRIP. 

BV WILLARD A. SMITH. 

The opposition among foreign railway managers to the American 
passenger car system seems to be gradually giving way in practice, 
although they do not admit it in conversation. It is impossible to at 
once retire the inconvenient little compartment passenger coaches ; but 
new cars show the growth of American ideas. Most of these are now 
long corridor compartment cars, permitting circulation through the train. 
Many of the new ones are sixty feet long. Entire trains of cars of this 
length are now run between Paris and Brussels ; and on some other 
routes. They are built like an American compartment sleeping car. 
The advantage of the privacy of a compartment can only be obtained by 
a party large enough to fill the compartment. It is sometimes much 
more unpleasant to occupy a small room with objectionable strangers, 
than it can possibly be to occupy a seat in the ordinary American coach. 
As an illustration, dogs are permitted to accompany their masters in the 
car, instead of being sent to the baggage van. I have a vivid remem- 
brance of the discomfort and disgust occasioned in a compartment at 
close quarters with a mangy French poodle, who spent the time in 



270 Railway Master Mechanic 

scratching and shaking himself. The system of charging for baggage 
not carried by the passenger in the coach, leads most travelers to carry 
a number of hand bags, cases and bundles, which often cumber a com- 
partment very disagreeably. One can smoke in his compartment if the 
other occupants do not object. He must notify the guard, who then 
pastes on the window looking into the corridor a label stating that 
smoking is permitted. 

These long cars are provided with toilet rooms, and as circulation in 
the corridor is permitted, they are much more comfortable than the old 
style compartment coaches. The sleeping cars are, of course, on the 
corridor plan. The newest are sixty feet long and are a decided im- 
provement over the older ones, the discomforts of which have so often 
been commented on. Folding seats are provided in the corridor for the 
use of the passenger while the compartment berths are being made up. 
Hardly as much attention is paid to cleanliness as in the best American 
service. The panels and all eligible places are occupied by advertise- 
ments, usually enameled on metal. The fact that they describe, for the 
most part, the advantages of certain hotels in which the sleeping car 
company is interested, does not make them any more ornamental. 

Advertising in cars and at stations has reached the maximum in 
England, and is fast coming to that point on the continent. Soaps, 
teas, and pills seem to be the principal articles whose virtues are thus 
extolled. Our American railway stations are generally uninviting enough, 
but their careless ugliness is less disgusting than this everlasting vul- 
garity of circus poster advertising. The fields along the right of way 
bear a plentiful crop of the same stuff, and it is "rubbing it in" to have 
the interior of your compartment similarly decorated. In some cars, 
however, there are posted convenient maps of the road. Nor is the 
practice of using photographs of scenery for interior decoration particu- 
larly objectionable. The "tidies," or "antimacassars" which protect 
the backs of the seats frequently extol, in cotton thread, the virtues of 
"the shortest line," and even illustrate noted castles, etc., along the 
route. There are no double windows in the sleeping cars. Possibly 
they are not needed in that climate ; but the single windows admit the 
dust so freely as to suggest the fact that the double variety has its 
advantages in summer as well as winter. 

The worst thing about the sleeping cars is the price of accommo- 
dations. Four or five dollars per night is the regular charge for a berth; 
and when travel is large, engagements must be made days ahead in 



Tkifles axd Texdexcies 21 1 

order to secure sleeping accommodations at all. It is no wonder that 
most people prefer sitting up in the ordinary coaches. 

One of the railways in the south of England operates a service of 
Pullman parlor cars. It was the busy tourist season when we went over 
the road, and the solitary Pullman car could have been filled several 
times over. We found out why ; the ordinary day coaches have an ex- 
ceedingly lively lateral motion, which absolutely prevents reading, and 
greatly conduces to car sickness — an interesting prelude to the main 
play on the channel — making the easy riding Pullman car just so much 
more desirable. 

Dining cars are coming more and more into use. Where they are 
run in the trains of ordinary cars, the passengers can only go to them 
and return to their compartments when the train is stopping at stations. 
The steamer trains from Paris to Cherbourg are ticketed by the steam- 
ship agents, and the passenger finds his seat reserved in the dining car 
for a certain hour and station. A good table d'hote luncheon is served. 
The coaches ride so roughly that reading is impossible, and the interval 
in the dining car is thus doubly agreeable. In other places, dining cars 
are run in complete trains of corridor cars. It is supposed that the pas- 
senger can then go to and from the " diner" at his leisure. But as 
trainmen are careless, and sometimes leave doors in the corridor locked, 
and as no one comes through the train when in motion, the promise of 
dinner is likely to prove illusory. We took a through train at Crewe 
for London early in the afternoon, after being assured by the guard that 
we could go right through to the dining car at any time. Alas, there 
was a door locked, and the occupants of one-third of the train went 
without their dinners until their arrival in London at 8:30 in the even- 
ing. On the Western railway of France we paid the "supplement " of 
one franc each for seats in the coupe cars, the especial advantage of 
which is the toilet room accommodation, accessible through the corridor. 
Another locked door in the corridor and no one to open it, caused us to 
mourn for the franc from which we so easily parted. It is easy to see 
why American conveniences of travel are not extravagantly popular in 
Europe. As there offered they have their drawbacks. 

At some stations "first-class" toilet accommodations are offered, to 
which entrance is obtained by means of a "penny in the slot." Two 
half-pennies will not work it, so it is well to provide yourself with 
pennies before traveling, and not to give them all to the cabman and 
the porters. 

On the Swiss railways the cars are divided into compartments, but 



272 Railway Masteb Mechanic 

have central aisles, on the American plan, and doors between the rooms. 
Each compartment is provided with a guide or time-table of the entire 
Swiss railway system, printed in four languages, German, French, Eng- 
lish and Italian. As free time-table folders are unknown in Europe 
this plan is decidedly convenient. The complications of Bradshaw are 
too much of a maze for the ordinary traveler. It is a marvel of com- 
pleteness and condensation and convenience, when one really understands 
it ; but there should be special courses in the schools and colleges to fit 
people to interpret it. Such a course should be made obligatory, upon 
station agents at least. 

Interlaken is one of the most popular resorts in Europe. It has its 
Casino, and has recently set up there a game very similar to the roulette 
of Monte Carlo and other places. This is, however, called the " railway 
game." A small train of cars runs around a circular track on which are 
stations marked " Paris," "London," "Berlin," " Vienna," etc. The 
long tables extend in each direction, divided into squares bearing the 
names of the stations. The player throws his coin on to the space he 
wishes to bet on. There is a great rush for these tables when the bell 
sounds, and the croupiers rake in great heaps of coin. To a looker-on 
it appears easy enough for the operator to stop the train where he 
chooses. The house, certainly, has a sure thing. 

Things, perhaps, more worth noting than those I have written of 
above are the universal use of steel car framing, the increased use of 
S -wheel freight cars with bogie trucks, the comparatively slow but 
sure progress of the air brake in freight train equipment, the wonderful 
increase of mountain railroads in Switzerland and other mountainous 
regions ; and many similar subjects. But these are vacation sketch 
notes, and there is now so much of an international character to techni- 
cal literature that your readers do not lack opportunity to learn regularly 
of the railway world's work everywhere. 



WATT AND BOLTON. 

Mr. Herman Fletcher, of Louisville, Ky., has in his possession two 
steel engravings, of James Watt and Matthew Bolton (or Boulton), re- 
spectively. These engravings, which we reproduce here, have been in 
Mr. Fletcher's family for over ioo years, they having been given per- 
sonally by Messrs. Watt and Bolton to Mr. Fletcher's grandfather — 
Luke Punchon — at the time that the latter was employed by them. Mr. 



Watt and Bolton 



273 




James Watt. 

Punchon started the first engine that came out of Bolton &^ Watt's 
shop. Mr. Fletcher, in the course of a recent letter to us says : " My 
grandfather's name was Luke Punchon, and he started the first mining 
engine at Cornwall, England. When the engine was set up ready to 
run, he told my father, the mine owners came from all parts of the 
country to see its operation, and their natural desire was to see it a 
failure. When the throttle was turned on and the engine started in suc- 
cessful motion, they dispersed faster than they arrived. They knew that 
in order to compete, they would have to follow suit and keep pace with 
the tide of progress. When the engine was in successful operation the 
fireman was an important adjunct. He was ordered to open or close the 
fire door an eighth of an inch, more or less, as dictated by the engineer, 
and was called out to open the fire door one eighth of an inch more." 

Mr. Jas. Watt, whose portrait reveals a strikingly interesting face, 
was born in Scotland in 1736. He was a mechanical engineer and 
man of science, famous as the improver and almost the inventor of the 
steam engine. In early life he had hard struggles as a mathematical 



■r, 4 Railway Master Mechanic 

instrument maker, and as a surveyor. In about 1763 a Newcomen 
engine was placed in his hands for experiment. This engine was 
designed for pumping water in mines. In it, steam was admitted to a 
cylinder and then condensed by a jet of water, atmospheric pressure 
then forcing the piston down. He experimented with this crude affair 
until 1765, when he hit upon the idea of a separate condenser, which 
insured success with the Newcomen engine. But not content with that, 
Watt soon devised the prototype of the modern steam cylinder, closed 
at both ends, and the steam engine was then substantially invented. He 
had varied business experiences with his engine (which he patented in 
1769), until finally he entered into partnership with Matthew Bolton, 
to make the new engine at the Soho Iron Works, near Birmingham. 
Watt perfected numerous inventions in the following years, the steam 
governor being the most important. Bolton, his partner, whose portrait 
we also reproduce, was born in 1728, his father being a steel manu- 
facturer. 

Under the title of " A Forgotten Steam Engine," The Engineer, of 
London, in a recent issue, tells interestingly of Watt's work on the 
steam engine in the following words : 

" Those who have studied James Watt's life and works know that 
he left very little to be learned as to the principles on which a steam 
engine should be made. In his day the science of thermo-dynamics did 
not exist as w r e understand it. But for all practical purposes it may, for 
the steam engine, be summed up in a sentence — ' Keep the cylinder 
hot.' All the science in the world cannot tell us more than that. 
Watt perfectly understood, moreover, what was to be had from expan- 
sion. It is difficult, indeed, to mention any factor likely to promote the 
economy of the steam engine, whose existence Watt did not recognize, 
and whose value he did not appraise. He invented and patented the 
steam jacket, and he did more than this. A defect of the jacket is that 
while the surface to be kept hot is of almost infinitesimal thickness, the 
heat derived from the steam in the jacket has to pass through the metal 
of the cylinder liner, and the result is that the incoming and expanding 
steam, as a rule, comes in contact with metal colder than itself, and so 
condensation takes place. To prevent this, it is necessary that the 
steam in the jacket should be at a temperature considerably higher than 
that of the steam in the cylinder, a condition which can only be secured 
by superheating the jacket steam, or using steam of a much greater 
pressure than that in the cylinder. 



Watt and Bolton 



275 




Matthew Bolton 



" Now, James Watt cut the Gordian knot and disposed of the whole 
difficulty by inventing an engine in which the cylinder is jacketed inside 
instead of out. Very soon after he had invented his first, or atmos- 
pheric, engine he saw that the cold air following up the piston must 
cool the cylinder. He shut up the cylinder in a little house of its own, 
which he kept filled with steam of high pressure, and he patented this 
steam engine in 1769, that is to say, 130 years ago, and he then gave 
the world the most perfect steam engine which, from the thermal effi- 
ciency point of view, it is possible to construct. 

" A single-acting, open-topped vertical cylinder stands inside another. 
If we stand a small tumbler on a table, and turn a large tumbler upside 
down over it we have the whole arrangement. The inner cylinder is 
fitted with a piston, the rod of which passes through a stuffing-box in 
the top of the outer cylinder. A couple of valves put the inner cylinder 
alternately in communication with the space between the two cylinders 
and with a jet condenser. In working, the outer cylinder is always 
filled with boiler steam. It is, indeed, an extension of the boiler, in the 



270 Railway Master Mechanic 

same sense that the condenser is an extension of the inner cylinder. 
The piston rod is coupled by a chain and arc head to the working beam; 
at the other end of the beam are the spear rods and pumps. When at 
work, let us suppose the piston to be indoors, that is to say, at the bottom 
of the cylinder ; the steam valve opens, steam passes under the piston, 
balancing the pressure above, and the engine goes out of doors by the 
weight of the spears, and the forcing stroke takes place. Then the 
steam valve is shut and the exhaust valve opened, and a vacuum is made 
under the piston, which comes indoors, and so on. The steam under the 
piston could be cut off at any point which would give suitable expansion. 
The range was fixed by the usual limits obtaining in the case of a Cor- 
nish engine. Because the piston is followed up on its descent by steam 
of full boiler pressure, the inside as well as the outside of the cylinder 
must be of the temperature proper to the pressure. The steam enter- 
ing the cylinder under the piston will undergo no initial condensation 
after the steam valve is shut ; and the expanding steam will continually 
meet with cylinder walls hotter and hotter than itself. The general 
result will be that condensation of the working steam — as we shall call 
it, although this distinction is not quite accurate — is out of the question. 
A certain amount of liquefaction due to the performance of work will 
take place, but no deposit of moisture on the sides of the cylinder can 
result. When the piston is descending, the boiler steam will probably 
find the temperature of the cylinder walls reduced, though even this is 
doubtful. It may be admitted that a certain quantity of water will be 
produced — although certain experiments which we have carried out go to 
show that no condensation which can be measured takes place — as the top 
of the piston always passes above the top edge of the inner cylinder, any 
water which would otherwise collect on the piston will be pushed over, 
and will fall down in the space between the two cylinders, from which 
it can be drained. It must not be forgotten that when expansion is used 
a certain volume of steam will always be pushed back again into the 
boiler during the up-stroke of the piston, but this is of no practical 
importance if the steam pipe is made large. 

" We have here, then, an engine in which there is no initial conden- 
sation. The expanding steam starts dry in a dry, hot vessel, instead of 
beginning to expand with some 20 or 30 per cent of water mixed with 
it. No conditions more favorable can be found for expanding steam 
than those provided by Watt. We must seek for sources of waste in 
the boiler steam. We have repeatedly pointed out that no matter what 
the quality of an engine — good, bad, or indifferent — all the steam re- 



Passenger Car Lighting 277 

ceived from the boiler by the cylinder must leave the cylinder as steam, 
with the exception of that percentage which is liquefied by the perform- 
ance of work, and that other portion which is condensed by radiation 
and conduction from the outside of the engine. This means, of course, 
that steam condensed initially or otherwise, during the steam stroke 
must be re-evaporated during the exhaust. To use the words of the 
veteran Isherwood, whose preface to the second volume of ' Experi- 
mental Researches in Steam Engineering ' is the most masterly treatise 
on the thermo-dynamics of the real steam engine — not the ideal affair — 
ever written, we may say that it is the re-evaporation which is the cause 
of all the waste, because all the water of condensation, which may 
amount to 30 per cent or so, has to be evaporated twice — once in the 
boiler and once in the cylinder — and no mechanical return is obtained for 
the second evaporation, which is done by the coal on the grate just as 
much as though it were done in the boiler. Now in the Watt engine 
no re-evaporation can possibly take place. We have seen that conden- 
sation of the working steam is impossible ; and any water resulting from 
the entrance of the boiler steam into the cylinder cannot re-evaporate, 
because the pressure at which it was condensed remains always the same 
throughout the whole cycle. The evaporation takes place in an ordin- 
ary cylinder only because of the fall of pressure during the exhaust. 

" It is not quite clear why Watt did not build engines under his 
1769 patent, or, rather, under the particular portion of it dealing with 
the engine we have described. Our readers will not, we think, be slow 
to see that this principle of construction admits of a wider range of 
application than Watt ever dreamed of ; but with this we have nothing 
to do. Our work begins and ends with directing attention to an old and 
forgotten invention, whose beauty and excellence should suffice to rescue 
it from oblivion." 

PASSENGER CAR LIGHTING. 

At the last meeting of the Southern and Southwestern Railway 
Club, Mr. W. E. Symons, for a committee consisting of himself, R. H. 
Johnson and T. S. Lloyd, presented an extended report on the com- 
parative value, efficiency, cost and practicability of the various types of 
artificial lights for passenger cars. The report is taken up with descrip- 
tions of storage battery, axle light, direct dynamo, combination dynamo 
and storage, and Pintsch gas systems. In summing up, the committee 
finds that the oil lamp, with its offensive odor, annoying heat in hot 



278 Railwat Master Mechanic 

weather, damage from fire or explosion, either in train accident or other- 
wise, is fast becoming obsolete, except on some branch or local runs 
where it would be impossible to use the electric light, the cost prohib- 
itive, or where, from the lack of storage stations, gas cannot be procured. 
While on all first-class trains in main line service, it would appear that 
either gas or electric lighting of some system was the standard. 

Electricity has passed the experimental stage, says the committee, 
both as a power and as an artificial light, "and even if stopped in its 
development where it now is, it must be considered as one of, if not the, 
greatest invention of the age, and certainly one of positive and endur- 
ing utility. That the unknown capacity of the American inventive 
genius will doubtless cheapen the production to a degree that will prac- 
tically make its adoption universal we all hope for, and feel assured will 
be realized at a not far distant day. Owing to the development of elec- 
tric and other means of artificial lights, none of these figures as to the 
cost should be considered as permanent or fixed, for from the strides 
that have been made, particularly in the reducing of the cost of pro- 
duction, no doubt the cost of electric and other up-to-date improved 
methods of artificial light for trains will be still further materially re- 
duced, until they will be equally as cheap, or cheaper than the oil lamp 
or tallow candle." 

The committee gives the following memorandum as to cost of appli- 
cation and maintenance of mineral seal oil lighting on the Plant system : 
Cost of lamps, two chandeliers of two lamps each to a car, $172.50; oil 
consumed for lighting period of twelve hours, one gallon per car ; aver- 
age cost per light per hour (twelve hour period) .025. 

It also gives the proportion of the various systems of lighting pas- 
senger cars in the United States {Railroad Gazette statistics): 

Oil lamps 55 per cent 

Gas 53 " 

Electric light 02 " 

The following average costs per light per hour are also given by the 
committee : 

System. Cost per light per hour. 

Storage straight 007 

Axle light ( Moskowitz) 

Dynamo straight 083 

Dynamo and storage 043 

Gas (Acetylene) 

Gas (Pintsch) 02 

Figures as to the axle light and the acetylene gas were not available. 



Refrigerator Car Tanks 



379 



REFRIGERATOR CAR TANKS. 

The refrigerator car, the demand for which has grown to such vast 
proportions, has been but little discussed in railway papers ; and it would 
seem fitting, at this time, when so many are being built at the different 
shops throughout the country, to discuss a few details of construction 
which are required to make a perfect refrigerator car. 

In the first place, in 
beef cars, a temperature 
ranging from 34 to 40 
degrees must be main- 
tained in the hottest 
weather of the season, 




Fig. 1. Refrigerator Car Tanks. 

for about 12 hours between icings; and one of the important items of 
their construction is therefore ice boxes and tank. 

One of the best forms of ice tanks now in use is that shown in Fig. 
1. This construction employs end tanks, four of which are placed in 
each end of the car, and filled through hatchways in the roof in the 
usual manner. Each tank holds about 500 pounds of ice, thus provid- 
ing 4000 pounds per car, to which is added, in the hottest weather 
about 600 pounds of salt, to facilitate the melting of the ice, and thus 



280 Railway Mastkr Mechanic 



increase the refrigeration. An overflow pipe is placed 30 inches from 
the bottom of the tank, which allows space for brine to be carried, this 
being one of the chief elements in car refrigeration. 

By referring to Fig. 1, it wfll|be seen that the tanks are so arranged 
as to allow a free circulation of air all around them ; the air enters 
through an opening near the ceiling, and as it becomes cold it drops to the 
floor, and in this manner a circulation and the desired degree of tem- 
perature is obtained. 

The tanks are made of No. 18 galvanized iron, riveted, soldered and 
tested, before being placed in position in the car, where they are raised 
about 1 2 inches from the floor, and are supported on an oak frame, which 
is fastened to cripple posts with lag screws. 

A well pan, or bottom, which is made of No. 26 galvanized iron, is 
placed under the tanks, and nailed to the side and end of car, and the bevel 
well front, which latter is lag screwed to the floor. This well pan takes 
care of the drip from the sweating of the tanks ; and also of the over- 
flow of brine, after the desired height in the tanks has been obtained. 
In one corner of the well bottom, a pipe leads down through the bottom 
of the car, to a drip cup, which, in some cases is fastened to the bottom 
of the car, and, in others is made a part of the well pan. The arrange- 
ment is such that the overflow fills the cup, and as the drain-pipe leads 
to the bottom of it, it prevents any hot air from getting into the car 
through the pipe. 

One advantage of this form of tank is, that it is possible to get a 
much lower temperature than with other forms, is always easy to re- 
pair, and is therefore economical in maintenance, — an item in car repairs 
which is always worthy of consideration. 

In cars used for the transportation of fruit, the form of ice-boxes in 
use varies greatly ; but the one which is most generally used is built on 
to the end of the car, with sub-framing, and extends from the roof to about 
one foot from the floor. It is about two feet wide, and is equipped with ice 
grates and hatch plugs, and also ventilators, which latter are attached to 
the hatchways. When in use the hatch plug and cover are removed and 
the ventilator placed over the hatchway. A space is left on the inside 
of the ice box near the ceiling, from 8 to 10 inches wide, and a wire screen 
placed over it, which allows free circulation of air in the car. 

Another form of tank, or ice-box, one which is most used in provis- 
ion cars, is one which does not extend down to the floor, so that the 
whole length of the car can be utilized for the loading of barrels, boxes, 



Refrigerator Car Tanks 



281 




Section on Line C-D 

Fig. 2. Refrigerator Car Tanks. 




Sect/on on Line A-B 



etc. About the best ice-box of this form which has come to our notice, 
and which is the easiest and cheapest to repair, is the one shown in 
Fig. 2. This was invented by Mr. J. C. Kircher, foreman tinsmith for 
Swift & Co., Chicago. While the form does not vary materially from 
the old wooden ice-boxes of this style, now in use, the construction, and 
results obtained, are far superior. The tank being made of galvanized 
iron, does not produce a bad odor, as do the wooden boxes, by long usage. 
It will be noticed by referring to Fig. 2 that the front of the box slopes 
back at an angle of about 65 degrees, which slope is designed to force the 
ice to the bottom of the tanks, to the grates, and also allows better drain- 
age of the tank ; at the same time allowing more space in the car. 

The novel feature about this tank is the manner in which it is 
supported. It will be noted that an eye bolt is fastened to the end 
plate, and that to this is forged a long eye rod, which passes along each 
end of the tank diagonally to the bottom front edge or corner, where it 
passes through an oak face piece, being fastened with nuts. An angle 
iron is riveted to the front and back of the tank. A cleat is lag-screwed 
to the end of the car, and on this the back angle iron rests; and the 
front angle rests on the oak face piece which is supported by the rods. 
It will thus be seen that in case of needed repairs, it is only necessary 
to remove the nuts and the tank is easily taken down. By again refer- 
ring to Fig. 2, a row of teeth will be noticed extending across the tank. 
This feature is for utilizing the drip from the tank for further refriger- 
ation ; the air passes over the top of the tank, down through the ice and 
out between the teeth, and thus affords a better refrigeration by the cir- 
culation of the air passing through drip from melting ice. In this class 
of car no brine is used, and the temperature desired is seldom below 
42 degrees. 



882 Railway Master Mechanic 

LATE ARBITRATION CASES. 

The work of the last (September) meeting of the Arbitration Com- 
mittee of the Master Car Builders' Association is at hand. Sixteen 
cases were decided, and of these we give four as follows : 

SCRAP CREDIT FOR BROKEN DRAWBAR REMOVED. 

Case No. ?$6. — Canadian Pacific Railway Company versus New York 

& Ottawa Railroad. 

New York & Ottawa Railroad car No. 3108, equipped with cast draw- 
bar, 190 pounds, and wrought spindle, 36 pounds, while in possession of 
Canadian Pacific Railway, February 12, 1899, had bar and spindle 
broken. 

The C. P. R'y applied cast drawbar, 200 pounds, and wrought spin- 
dle, 36 pounds, and rendered bill against owner for 

200 lbs. cast, at 1 y 2 cents S3 . 00 

Cr. scrap (10 lbs.) 05 

S2.95 

36 lbs. wrought, at 3 cents 1 . 08 

Cr. scrap ( 1 8 lbs. at y± cents) 13 

-95 

2 hours' labor 40 

$4.30 
and claim this charge is in accordance with Rule 5, Section 10. 
The X. Y. & O. R. R. claims bill should be rendered : 

200 lbs. scrap, at 1 . 5 c $3 . 00 

Cr. 190 lbs. cast removed, at x / 2 cent 95 

$2.05 

36 lbs. wrought, at 3 cents 1 . 08 

Cr. 36 lbs. wrought at ^c . . . 27 

.81 

2 hours' labor 40 

S3. 26 
The X. Y. & O. R. R. claims that Rule 5, Section 10, calls for full 
credit of kind of scrap removed from car, no matter at how many places 
it is removed. The C. P. R'y claims that credit should be allowed only 
for scrap removed at places where repairs are made. 

DECISION. 

The interpretation of the Arbitration Committee as to Section 10, 
of Rule 5, in the case of M. C. B. couplers and link-and-pin drawbars, 



Arbitration Committee Decisions 283 

where reference is made to " the weight and kind of metal removed 
should be credited," is that this means the original weight of the coupler 
or drawbar removed, and not the weight of the part remaining when a 
portion is broken off or missing. 

In the opinion of the Committee, the bill of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway Company should be corrected accordingly. 

WAGNER DOOR, SECONDHAND USED; PRICE CHARGED FOR. 

Case No. 564. — Southern Pacific Company (Pacific System) versus 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company. 

In November, 1898, the Southern Pacific Company (Pacific System) 
made repairs to Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company's car 
No. 17950, as follows: 1 Wagner door (secondhand) and 1 eccentric 
rod, missing. Bill was rendered for 1 Wagner side door, S3. 50. The 
bill was returned by the A. T. & S. F. R'y Co., making objection to the 
price for a secondhand door, the claim being made that price should be 
at 25 per cent less than the price quoted in rules. The S. P. 
Co. replied that there is no authority under the rules for this claim, as 
the rules do not provide a different price for new and secondhand side 
doors. The A. T. & S. F. R'y returned the bill and declined to approve 
the charge for this door, stating that there is nothing in the rules which 
authorizes the application of a secondhand side door ; that they mention 
certain circumstances under which secondhand material may be used, 
and that in those cases 75 per cent of the value of new T material 
may be charged, and that the prices shown on pages 26 and 27 of 
the M. C. B. Rules are for new material. The S. P. Co. answers that 
the door applied w r as in perfect condition ; that there is no reason why 
it was not as serviceable as a new door and why it should not last as 
long ; that there is nothing prohibiting the use of secondhand material 
as far as it knows, and also that there is no special price for secondhand 
material of this description, and that it considers its charge a proper one. 

DECISION. 

There is no mention in the rules in regard to the use of secondhand 
material except in the case of M. C. B. coupler parts and metal brake 
beams. It is the practice to use in the repairs of cars secondhand ma- 
terial to a greater or less extent. The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Railway Company does not dispute the Southern Pacific Company's 
statement that the door applied was in perfect condition, and that there 
is no reason why it was not as serviceable as a new door. Therefore, it 



284 Railway Master Mechanic 

is the opinion of the committee that the bill of the Southern Pacific 
Company is correct and should be paid. 

COUPLER, COMPLETE, HILLED FOR, WHEN ONLY BODY USED. 

Case No. 565. — Southern Pacific Company (Pacific System) versus 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company. 

In November, 1898, the Southern Pacific Company (Pacific System) 
made repairs to Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company's car 
No. 1 21 39, as follows: 1 new Janney coupler, account of broken; 1 
brake shoe, worn out ; 1 guide pin, missing. 

Bill was rendered for : 

1 new Janney coupler complete S7 . 50 

1 brake shoe 33 

1 guide pin, 3 lbs. wrought 09 

Labor, 2 y 2 hours 50 

Credit. S8 ' 42 

3 lbs. wrought iron S .02 

1 Janney coupler body broken 67 

Good parts of coupler 1.55 

S2.24 

S6.18 
The bill was returned by the A. T. & S. F. R'y, objected to for the 
reason that a Janney coupler complete was used and billed for, when 
repair card stub shows the body only was used, and claim is made that 
only body should be charged. 

The S. P. Co. claims the bill is correct as rendered ; that it applied 
a new coupler complete, rather than hold the car until the old coupler 
could be taken apart and the good parts of the old coupler applied to the 
new bodv ; that under the rules it is authorized to use new couplers in 
place of old, providing the proper credits are given for the good parts 
removed. 

The A. T. & S. F. R'y replied that all that can be billed for under 
the present rules is the shank ; that if it were allowable to charge for a 
coupler complete to every car in every case, the price for a coupler shank 
would never have been included in the rules, and the only reason the S. 
P. Co. charged for a coupler complete is because it can get from $1.00 to 
S3. 00 more for a coupler shank in this way than it could if the bill were 
marked for shank only applied ; that it has received two other S. P. Co.'s 
bills for couplers complete where the stub shows shank only broken, and 



Arbitration Committee Dk< lsions 285 

says that charges are made for the sole purpose of getting an increased 
price for a coupler shank ; that if it were allowable to make a charge in 
this manner for shank broken, it would be allowable also in case of a 
knuckle being broken, thereby obtaining an increased price for a knuckle; 
that the only case where the rules allow a charge for a coupler complete 
with a credit for the secondhand parti removed is in case a different 
kind of coupler is used. 

The S. P. Co. says it makes no reply to the insinuation that bill was 
rendered as it was, for the purpose of obtaining a little more for the 
coupler applied, but claims that it applied a new coupler complete as it 
would have required some extra delay in making repairs to the car ; that 
when it can be done as well as not, parts of couplers only are renewed, 
as is shown in other cases in the same bill with this car, and that there 
is nothing in the rules which prohibits the use of a coupler complete, 
whether the same kind is used or not ; that there are times when the 
extra time it would take to remove the good parts from the broken 
coupler, and the corresponding parts from the new coupler, and then 
substituting the secondhand parts, would cause a delay in the movement 
of the car ; that it is to the interest of the owner to have repairs made 
with as little delay as possible. 

The A. T. & S. F. R'y states that, in the first place, the S. P. Co. 
shows the word " broken " instead of "applied" on line 13, of sheet No. 
2, in giving its side of the controversy in the abstract. 

The S. P. Co. answers that when the repair card stub shows that 
only a body was applied, there is no question but that the proper charge 
would be for a body only, but that in the case in dispute the card shows 
that there was a new Janney coupler applied on account of the body 
broken, and that if any of its bills have been rendered for a coupler com- 
plete when the card shows that only a body was applied, it was through 
an error, and that they are willing to make the necessary correction. 

The A. T. & S. F. R'y, in addition to the argument shown, wishes to 
go on record as stating that it considers it unjust to a car owner to 
remove good material from its cars, and replace it with material of the 
same kind at an additional expense to it, when the company making the 
repairs has material which can be used with those parts ; that the argu- 
ment stating couplers complete are applied to save delays to cars, and 
that owners are thereby benefited, should have no weight, because a car 
owner would not be aware of, nor would he care for, his car being delayed 
on another road fifteen or twenty minutes longer, in order that knuckle 



286 Railway .Master Mkchank 

and pins might be removed from one shank and applied to another ; that 
the fact that it takes but little time to exchange these parts is made evi- 
dent by the M. C. B. Rules allowing no labor for exchanging them. The 
A. T. & S. F. R'y also wishes to state that if it is correct to make a 
charge of this kind, where a new coupler was applied, it would also be 
correct in case a secondhand coupler complete were used, thereby allow- 
ing the company making bill to collect from S4.00 to $5.00 for a second- 
hand shank instead of $3.38. 

The S. P. Co. agrees that, when possible to do so, only the parts 
failing should be renewed, but that it is not always possible to do so ; 
that in case it is not, and a new coupler complete is applied, as in the 
case in dispute, the company making the repairs should not be the loser, 
even though the same kind of coupler is applied as the one removed, as 
the rules do not prohibit such application. The owner receives what 
benefit there is in a new coupler. As most of the secondhand couplers 
are made up of different parts which have been removed from cars, the 
question might be raised as to whether the price of a secondhand coupler 
should be the price of the several parts as quoted, or 75 per cent of the 
price of a new coupler. If the rules allow 75 per cent of the price new 
in case a secondhand coupler of another make is applied, the same price 
should be used if the same kind is applied. 

DECISION. 

In Section 1 1 of Rule 5 is given a specific price for the coupler 
shank, namely, S4.50, and when a broken shank is replaced by one of 
the same make it is proper that the charge should be as mentioned 
above. In the opinion of the committee, the bill of the Southern Pa- 
cific Company should be corrected. 

LINK-AND-PIN DRAWBAR OX CAR STENCILED FOR M. C B. COUPLERS. 

Case No. 566. — Southern Pacific Company (Pacific System) versus Nor- 
folk & Western Railway Company. 
Central Pacific car No. 18554 was received on the Norfolk & West- 
ern Railway with one automatic coupler and one common drawbar ; the 
common drawbar was damaged and replaced by the N. & W. R'y, and 
bill rendered. Bill is disputed by the Southern Pacific Company on the 
ground that the car was equipped with automatic couplers and was so 
stenciled, which would make the Norfolk & Western Railway responsi- 
ble for receiving the car with common drawbar in place of coupler with- 
out protecting itself, and makes the bill for the common drawbar against 
the owners improper. 



Arbitration Committee Decision- 281 

The N. & W. R'y inspector claims positively that the car was not 
stenciled "Automatic Couplers"; that the unlocking arrangement was 
not on the end sill, and that under the rules he was, therefore, justified 
in receiving the car with common drawbar in one end, and in replacing 
common drawbar with another of the same kind when broken. 

The S. P. Co. claims that the car was stenciled to show that it was 
intended to be equipped with couplers, and after looking the car up pro 
duces evidence that the car was marked " California Drawbar Stem," as 
shown by diagram attached, and contends that this fulfills the require- 
ments of Section 31, Rule 3. 

The N. & W. R'y contends that even granting such stenciling to 
have been on the car (which it does not, however, here admit), that such 
stenciling does not cover the requirements of Section 31, Rule 3, which 
requires that the car should be stenciled as being equipped with M. C. 
B. couplers. There is a distinction clearly made between couplers and 
drawbars. It further contends that, as the S. P. Co. marked its car as 
having been equipped with drawbar, it is not to be expected that the car 
inspectors can always know that this is intended to refer to M. C. B. 
couplers, and as the S. P. Co. failed to properly comply with the instruc- 
tions contained in the rules and terms thereof, it cannot claim protection 
under Section 31 of Rule 3. 

The S. P. Co. claims that the rules have been fully complied with as 
regards the stenciling, and if notation was made by the N. & W. fore- 
man, as claimed in his letter dated April 17, 1899, "that the uncoupling 
rod was gone," it would seem conclusive evidence that the car was in- 
tended to be equipped with M. C. B. couplers, otherwise this notation 
would not have been considered necessary ; furthermore, that this sten- 
ciling has never before been questioned by any company, and fully com- 
plies with the M. C. B. Rules. 

DECISION. 

In this case the question in dispute is as to whether the car was 
properly stenciled so as to give the information as to the fact that the 
car was equipped with M. C. B. couplers. The stenciling used by the 
Southern Pacific Railway reads, "California Drawbar Stem." 

It is the opinion of the Arbitration Committee that this stenciling is 
sufficient to indicate that an M. C. B. coupler is required, as the Cali- 
fornia coupler is one of the well-known M. C. B. couplers. The Norfolk 
& Western Company is responsible for improper repairs and should make 
a settlement accordingly. 



288 



Railway .Master Mechanic 



* # 







\ r "• 



"4 







q a 

£ « 

o z 

> 

< I 

J u 

W H 

W z 
t_, w 

Q S 
2h 



A MODEL STEEL AND IRON FOUNDRY. 

THE SARGENT COMPANY'S NEW WORKS. 

The Sargent Company was established in 1876 as George M. Sar- 
gent & Co.; later, the name was changed to The Congdon Brake Shoe 
Co., and in 1892 to the present title. This company now owns the 
property bounded by 58th, Sherman, 59th and Wallace streets, in the 
city of Chicago, and is constructing at Chicago Heights another plant, 
a perspective view and block plan of which are shown in the accompany- 
ing engravings. The present plant includes open-hearth steel, crucible 
steel and iron foundries. On or about the first of January, with the 
completion of the new plant, the iron foundry department will be 
removed to Chicago Heights, the crucible steel plant dismantled, and 
the 59th street works devoted entirely to the manufacture of open- 
hearth steel castings. 

An interesting feature of the new plant is the steel foundry depart- 
ment, in which all kinds of small castings (formerly made in crucible 
steel) and castings for electrical and other special purposes will be made 
by the Tropenas process. This process is now in use in several plants 
in each of the steel manufacturing countries of Europe. It is the in. 
vention of Alexandre Tropenas, of Paris, (a graduate of the celebrated 
school of Ars et Metier) and consists in the use of a special converter pro- 
cess. The process was carefully investigated, both by the general mana- 
ger and the superintendent of the Sargent Company, in several of the 
foreign plants before it was decided by the Sargent Company to adopt it, 
and it was finally settled upon as by far the most satisfactory process yet 
developed, for the manufacture of small castings and special grades of 
steel. 

The iron foundry of the new plant has a capacity two to three times 
as great as that of the 59th street plant, and will be devoted exclusively 
to the manufacture of railway brake shoes. For the accommodation of 
this foundry and of the Tropenas steel foundry, two separate buildings 
have been erected parallel to each other, separated by a court 40 feet 
wide. These buildings are connected at one end by a cleaning room, 
and facing the court on either side are storerooms for all foundry sup- 
plies ; and at the end of the court adjacent to the cleaning room, is the 
core room. 

All foundry supplies, such as molding sand, limestone, coke, clay, 
etc., are delivered in cars on the stub tracks entering the court between 

the buildings. Pig iron and scrap are stocked beside the tracks in 

289 



290 Railway Masteb Mechanic 

the yard and carried but a short distance from the cupola elevators. There 
is ample space on either side of each foundry for the storage of flasks. 

By this general arrangement for the storage of raw material and 
equipment, it is designed to diminish greatly the cost of handling, and 
by the convenient location of the cleaning room and core room, with 
reference to each foundry, a direct course for the semi-finished and fin- 
ished product is assured. 

A separate switch track serves for the transfer of all fuel supplies 
for the power house. 

The iron foundry is a brick building 200 feet long with a clear space 
of 80 feet in width, accomplished by the use of a truss, which is the spe- 
cial design of the architects. The cupolas, one 60-inch and one 72-inch, 
are situated in the melting room on the court side at the south end of 
the foundry. The pneumatic molding machines, eight in number, 
made by the Tabor Mfg. Co., are placed in line lengthwise of the 
foundry and on the opposite side from the melting room. The melted 
metal is carried lengthwise of the foundry in a large reservoir ladle, 
traveling on a narrow gauge track ; from this ladle it is delivered to 
buggy ladles, each operated by a single man, which are wheeled back 
and forth to the molds over the iron plate floor. This system of pour- 
ing has been used for a number of years in the 59th street works with 
considerable success ; the pouring gang is continuously employed at 
this work during the entire day. This department is supplied with a 
5-ton pneumatic-hydraulic jib crane and a number of air hoists. The 
blast for the cupolas is obtained from fans driven by electric motors. 

The steel foundry building is 200 feet long, with one clear span of 
50 feet, and a 30-foot annex, making a total space of 80 feet by 200 
feet. The 50-foot floor is served by two 15-ton Shaw electric traveling 
cranes, with 3-ton auxiliaries, and a number of air hoists. Inside the 
melting room, which is located on the court side of the foundry at the 
south end, are placed two 60-inch cupolas, the blast for which is ob- 
tained from a large fan driven by an electric motor ; and just opposite 
these cupolas, in the foundry building proper, are thre£ Tropenas con- 
verters, each with a capacity of two tons, turned by special pneumatic- 
hydraulic gear. The blast for the converter, at pressure up to four 
pounds, is furnished by special No. 4 Root's blower, geared to a 50- 
horsepower electric motor. 

The core room and cleaning room are located so as to be equally 
convenient to each foundry, and are fully equipped with friction driven 



A Model Steel and Iron Foundry 



201 




Ground Plan — Sargent Co.'s Works 



A — Iron Foundry, 80x200 feet 
B — Steel Foundry, 50x200 feet 
C — Finishing Shop, 50x200 feet. 



D — Core Room, ioox 

E — Sand Room, 112 x 

F — Sand Room, 100 x 

G — Iron Cupola, 53 x 

H — Steel Cupola, 48 x 



35 
30 
30 
30 
30 



feet, 
feet, 
feet, 
feet, 
feet. 



I — Molding Room, 30x200 feet. 
K — Court, 40x165 feet. 

L — Core Oven, 30X 15 feet. 

M — Railway Tracks. 
N — Engine Room, 52 x 45 feet. 
O — Boiler Room, 52 x 47 feet. 
P — Coal Room, 52 x 16 feet. 
Q — Elevator. 



rattlers and self-oiling emery grinders, all driven by electric motors. 
Castings after being finished in the cleaning room are loaded directly 
into cars standing on a depressed track, which runs the length of the 
room, 200 feet. 

The power house, like the other buildings, is entirely of brick and 
stone, 52x108 feet 7 inches. In this building are installed two 72-inch- 



292 



Railway Master Mechanic 



xi 8-foot horizontal tubular boilers, equipped with special rocking grates 
and blowers, together with two large feed pumps, and a 300-horsepower 
feed water heater. In the engine room are located an i8x42-inch 
girder frame Reynolds-Corliss engine, built by the E. P. Allis Company ; 
a 150 kilowatt generator, built by the Western Electric Company, and 
a duplex compound air compressor, utilizing over 100-horsepower of 
steam. The whole power plant is so designed as to permit of its capac- 
ity being doubled, as it is the expectation that the open-hearth depart- 
ment of the company will eventually be removed from 59th street to 
the ten acre plot of land adjoining the present Chicago Heights plant 
on the north. 

It will be noted that both the iron foundry and Tropenas steel 
foundry are so planned as to permit of doubling the capacity of each 
department, by a simple extension of the buildings southward, without 
in any way interfering with the general system of handling materials 
and product. 

THE CAR FOREMEN'S ASSOCIATION OF 

CHICAGO. 



SEPTEMBER MEETING. 



The regular meeting of the Car Foremen's Association of Chicago, 
was held in the rooms of the Western Society of Engineers, 1741 
Monadnock Building, Chicago, September 14, 1899. 



MISCELLANEOUS BUSINESS. 



President Morris called the meeting to order at 8:15 p. m. Among 
those present were : 



Ashcroft, Norman 
Bates, Geo. M. 
Baikie, J. P. 
Bossert, Chas. 
Bundy, C. L. 
Blohm, Theodore 
Bond, L. E. 
Caldwell, D. B. 
Downing, D. 
Depue, Jas. 



Egan, M. F. 
Fitzgerald, M. 
Grieb, J. C. 
Gardner, L. S. 
Harkenrider, J. 
Johannes, A. 
Keebler. C. F. 
Kroff, F. C. 
Kehm, H. C. 
Kershaw, J. A. 



Krump, M. 
Kramer, Wm. 
Mercatoris, M. 
Morris, T. R. 
Miner, W. H. 
Olsen, L. 
Prickett, J. 
Rieckhoff, C. 
Saum, G. X. 
Schultz, A. 



Stagg, C. A. 
Snyder, R. H. 
Stuckie, E. J. 
Showers, G. W. 
Sharp, W. E. 
Smith, E. B. 
Thiverge, J. C. 
Van Vleit, J. 
Vieth, H. A. 
Wensley, W. H. 



Etten, L. 

Secretary Cook : We have applications for membership from the 
following gentlemen : R. T. Brydon, of the YVadsworth-Howland Paint 
Co. ; M. F. Egan, of the Galena Oil Co. ; Oscar Rundquist, of the C. & 



M. C. B. Couplers 293 



G. T. Ry. ; C. H. Carey, of the C. L. S. & E. Ry. ; E. Fieldmier, of the 
C. L. S. & E. Ry. These gentlemen have been considered by the 
Executive Committee and their names accepted as members. 

President Morris : Reports of committees are next in order ; we 
would like to hear from the Committee on Revision of Constitution and 
By-Laws, Mr. Grieb, chairman. 

Mr. Grieb: The committee is just getting started, and it may be 
that we will be able to submit something at the next meeting, possibly 
not until the meeting after that. We find we have quite a large task on 
our hands and little material at our disposal. 

President Morris: If there are no objections the committee will be 
continued. We would like to hear from the chairman of the Entertain- 
ment Committee, Mr. YVensley. 

Mr. YVensley : The Committee on Entertainment met on August 19, 
and decided on recommending a trip to Milwaukee, taking in the C, M. 
& St. Paul shops. 

After brief discussion of this report it was voted that this club next 
month take a trip to Milwaukee and return, visiting the C, M. & St. P. 
shops, and the president was directed to appoint a committee on arrange- 
ments to take the matter up with the St. Paul Ry., and set a date and 
attend to other details. The president will appoint this committee later on. 

President Morris announced that a communication had been received 
from Mr. YVaughop, chief joint inspector at St. Louis, stating that the 
Joint Car Inspectors Association would hold their annual meeting in 
Cleveland on September 28, and cordially inviting any and all the mem- 
bers of the association to be present. 

COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF M. C. B. COUPLERS. 

President Morris: Our first topic for discussion today, on the com- 
parative efficiency of M. C. B. couplers on freight cars, is a very inter- 
esting one, and if the members will tell what they know about these 
couplers it would make very interesting reading in the report of our 
proceedings. 

A rambling discussion followed, participated in by Messrs. Prickett, 
Kramer, Bond, Stagg, Kroff, Smith, Bundy, Grieb, Bates, Ford, Oleson, 
Stuckie and Kehm. There was not the general free statement of the 
comparative merits of different couplers that had been expected. In 
fact, there was no information of especial value brought out. The more 
suggestive statements made may be summarized as follows : Some recent 
knuckles turned out by a prominent coupler maker had proved too soft 



204 Railway Master Mechanic 

and were bending. — The opening of knuckles on the road is a mystery, 
for severe yard tests with couplers that have parted on the road have on 
occasion failed to cause a repetition of the road failure, or to reveal any 
reason for such failure. — It is very desirable to materially reduce the 
number of makes of couplers on the market. — The great trouble with 
couplers uncoupling is the knuckles wearing. — The majority of cases of 
trains parting, on account of couplers opening, are caused by " foreign 
cars." 

The association followed with a discussion as to "which gives the 
better service in securing pockets to couplers, rivets or bolts," as follows : 

RIVETS VS. BOLTS IN SECURING POCKETS TO COUPLERS. 

Mr. Showers : I think you will all agree with me in saying that the 
most important part of a car is the draft rigging. The most trouble 
there is today, the greatest wrecks, are caused by couplers pulling out — 
break-in-two's, or wrecks of that nature. The amount of money involved 
in covering the damage is enough to change the draft rigging per- 
haps on the whole equipment. I brought up with me a few samples 
of the rivets, and some bolts that have been applied. I first show 
here a i^-inch rivet that is now used by this company. We take 
a i i/6 -inch iron rivet; the distance between sleeve is 8*4 inches. We 
drive it down until we fill the i^-inch hole perfectly firm and solid; 
then use a swedging tool and put a very heavy head on. We know that 
iron when it is hot will expand, and the minute it cools then the con- 
traction of the iron will make a tight job. I have here some bolts that were 
put on. There is a bolt here, %-inch, applied January, 1 899, and removed 
May, 1899. I would like to have some of you look at the bolts that are 
applied in couplers. We remove, on an average, about 50 such bolts per 
week. On cars that we have sent out with our rivets, the couplers are 
broken on the line and, in many cases, ^-inch bolts are put in by the 
railways. We have a number of cases where 1 1 /% -inch bolts were applied. 
Companies apply these bolts to our cars and I have been in the habit of 
getting joint evidence. We have had quite a number of letters written 
to our management, complaining as to the objections I made to the bolts. 
I have had a number of cases sent home after they have claimed that 
they applied rivets. Here is a sample of the rivets applied by some of 
the roads. You will see that this rivet, from all appearance, was applied 
cold ; if hot at all, it was very slightly so, and it was battered over very 
lightly, thus leaving the sleeve nearly the same as it would be by taking 
a long bolt and bending it over on end. I am of opinion that if all par- 



Riveted vs. Bolted Coupler Pockets 295 

ties, in riveting sleeves to the drawbar, would put the proper head on 
the rivet they would not have any difficulty at all. Then, to make the 
matter more conclusive, when bolts are put in, you may draw them up as 
tight as you possibly can with a wrench, yet they will be nowhere near 
tight, I do not care what size wrench you may use; while with the rivet the 
iron is expanded, and when you draw it together and put on a solid head it 
is bound to contract, and when the iron contracts it draws it up so tight 
that there is no room for it to give way. I am aware that there is a 
little more labor involved in applying rivets than in applying bolts, and 
perhaps on light repair tracks it would be more convenient to use the 
latter. Yet as to the original question before the association for discus- 
sion, that is, which gives the best service, I think you will all agree with 
me in saying that the rivet is by far the best. 

Mr. Wensley : I can't agree with Mr. Showers. One of our couplers 
is equipped with I ^-inch sleeve bolts. The Erie has as few wrecks as 
anybody, and I have the first one to hear of with bolts broken out. 

Mr. Stagg : I do not agree with Mr. Showers as to rivets in couplers. 
Now you put a bolt in a coupler, jam the thread a little, and in my opin- 
ion you have just as strong an arrangement as rivets. I find rivets break. 
A great many cars that come to us are equipped with pockets and rivets 
and a great many rivets are broken. As to the economical side of the 
question, I consider a bolt a good deal more economical than the rivet. 
We used to take all our drawbars to the blacksmith shop to have three 
rivets put on ; it cost 27^0. It only costs about 14c. to put in a bolt, 
and you get about as good service from the bolts as from the rivets. I 
can't see why a bolt is not as good as a rivet. Another thing, I have 
seen men spend three hours to get a pocket off a coupler ; they would 
first cut the rivet all around, then stand and jam and jam and jam, try- 
ing to get the rivet out. With a bolt, you can break it, knock the nuts 
off, and in a short time have the bolts out. 

Mr. Prickett : I think that a 1 ^-inch bolt which we are using, with 
two nuts on, and jammed up a little bit, is just as good as any of your 
rivets. It is put on quicker, and saves time. When the head of the 
coupler is broken, and you want to use the pocket again, it takes an hour 
and a half to two hours to cut rivets. But if you have got a coupler 
bolted in, you can cut the bolts out in half the time. 

Mr. Kramer : I would be in favor of having a bolt in place of a rivet, 
because I will say that about 90 per cent of the rivets are broken, to 10 
per cent of the bolts. 



296 Railway Master Mechanic 

Mr. Sharp : I would not like to see this association go on record as 
favoring bolts instead of rivets. Mr. Showers, in opening the discussion, 
said a great man)' train wrecks were caused by drawbar pockets pulled 
off on account of improper rivets or bolts. I agree with him that 
drawbar rigging or draft rigging is the important part of the car, but 
fortunately the company I have the pleasure to be with at the present 
time doesn't have any difficulty with its draft rigging. You all know 
the rigging we use and the double spring. We have very little difficulty 
with the draft rigging at all. I think the great deficiency in draft 
rigging is more in the spring than in the rivets, bolts and pocket. 
Some have been speaking about the expense of taking out rivets ; I was 
rather startled to know that it was costing so much to remove the pock- 
ets that are riveted on, and would suggest that you do it piece-work as a 
remedy. We have it done for 5 c. a coupler. Perhaps you would get 
relief if you would establish the piece-work system. Our men rated at 
19c. per hour make more than their rate. For my part, I favor the riv- 
eted pocket, and the reason for that has already been stated by Mr. 
Showers. You can get the pocket on tighter. The drawbar pocket 
that is not put on tight is not fit for service ; with the rivet they can be 
put on tight. 

Mr. Stuckie: Our friend just spoke about getting pockets out for 5c. 
apiece. I had an experience the other day with two men and I am 
afraid if they would follow that up they would eat very few meals a day. 
They couldn't make much at 5c. a pocket. There are a good many ways 
of looking at this. Railroad companies look for economy on all sides, 
and I, for one, can say from my experience that bolts give fully as good 
satisfaction, if not better, than rivets. We find a good many rivets 
broken and find it hard work getting them out, in many cases splitting 
the pocket in getting them out, and having to throw it in the scrap pile. 
I favor bolts. 

Mr. Showers: I have heard considerable this evening in regard to 
" the expense." Now, what do they call " the expense?" A coupler 
pulls out on the road, wrecking a train, resulting in damage to the extent 
of hundreds, often thousands of dollars. A car repairer puts in three to 
five hours at 20 or 30 cents per hour ! That pays for the wrecks, does 
it ? The real efficiency is what we are after ; not what costs the most 
at car repair shops. If we had no work to do on cars we wouldn't have 
any car repair shops. As to comparing bolts to rivets, I have here a 
1 ^-inch bolt that was applied May 17 and removed August 15 — a little 
less than three months. I would like to have some gentleman examine 



Riveted vs. Bolted Couples Pockets 297 



this bolt here. I will say that when we rivet our couplers on, we stamp 
a letter " C " to keep a record of how long the rivets stay ; this is done 
by the letter being set in the head tool. One rivet was applied to our 
car No. 1 1 1 8 in June, 1894, at 47th street. The car is in the yard today 
and I had coupler removed ; the rivet was just as sound today, when I 
took it down, as when we put it in. Over five years in service, and per- 
fectly sound. I took it out for the purpose of bringing it here tonight. 
I defy anyone to take a bolt and a wrench and make it as tight as 
this is. 

Mr. Stagg : Mr. Showers is speaking from a private-line standpoint. 
I have not heard any railroad men here speak of wrecks. Mr. Showers 
speaks of wrecks caused by rivets and bolts giving out ; I have been 
with the Grand Trunk for five years and never heard of a wreck caused 
by bolts or rivets breaking. I would like to know how many wrecks 
are caused from bolts breaking in pocket. The most wrecks are caused 
by rails or wheels, from defects in the track ; very few from coupler 
getting under car. 

Mr. Showers : I am not speaking from a car company's standpoint. 
I have obtained my information from actual service with railways as well 
as private corporations, and I have been at least five years with a railroad 
to one with a private line ; have been in road service as well as shop serv- 
ice and have, perhaps, seen a wreck or two. 

Mr. Kramer: I have been in the wrecking business for the last 25 
years, and I have never seen a drawbar pulled out on account of rivets 
being broken. Drawbars when they do pull out will pull out altogether, 
spring and followers combined, and they cause a wreck in a case of that 
kind. However, most wrecks are caused by defective rails or cross-ties 
decayed, or defective frogs, flanges breaking, or break-in-twos. 

A Member : It is now six years ago since we put a new draft rig- 
ging in our cars. We put it in about 800 cars. We have them all 
bolted with two bolts, and I do not know that I ever saw a bolt broken. 
The only thing is that you might lose the nuts ; that is the only thing 
that I find wrong with the bolts. Of course, rivets are a very good thing 
too ; but bolts are all right. 

Mr. Kroff : I favor the rivets, because I think they can be put in 
more solid and firm than a bolt. I do not know as the bolts are break- 
ing so much, but I do know they get loose and wear out, and in renew- 
ing a pocket or drawbar you have to renew the bolts, for they are 
worn out and cannot draw to pocket. I think if a rivet is put in prop- 
erly it will give twice the service a bolt will. 



298 Railway Master Mechanic 

Mr. Bond: I had a case recently at South Chicago. A drawbar 
was broken and it was riveted on. I had to set the car on sidetrack and 
keep it there for 36 hours before I could get a drawbar with strap 
riveted on, where if it had had bolts I could have had the car out on the 
road on its time. It is all right in your own yard where you have a 
blacksmith shop, but when you take it out on the road and a drawbar 
pulls out, or anything breaks, and it is a long road to where there is an 
inspector with a drawbar, it is different. He has to put a chain on 
the car, and consequently it does more damage than anything else. I 
think a %-inch bolt, with a good head and nut and key, the thread just 
allowing the nuts to draw up tight, so that a key will go under the nut 
through the bolt, will stand as long as any rivets, give better service and 
quicker results. 

Mr. Morris : I believe what Mr. Bond says, about it being an easy 
way to repair a car ; but as to its giving better service I think the rivet 
will give the best results of the two. Mr. Grieb, can you give us any 
information relative to drawbars pulling out on account of broken rivets, 
and causing wrecks? 

Mr. Grieb : The C., M. & St. P. uses nothing but rivets, as I pre- 
sume everyone knows. Some found out to their sorrow that bolts came 
out and rivets held. We have about 68,000 couplers in service under 
our cars, and aim to maintain nothing but rivets in them, I presume tor 
good and sufficient reasons. 

Mr. Wensley : I prefer bolts. We get cars about 6 o'clock of 
an evening for rush freight ; one train leaves about 7:30, and another 
about 8:30. If I called a blacksmith and held those cars out a long 
time, I would hear from it next day. The bolts are much easier applied. 

Mr. Morris: That doesn't seem to me to bear very much on the 
question we are discussing, as to which gives the best results. 

Mr. Wensley: Bolts are the best. 

Mr. Morris : There is no question at all but what it is easier to put 
in bolts than rivets, but the fact that a coupler breaks, and it is neces- 
sary to remove it, isn't anything against the use of rivets. 

Mr. Bundy: I think, for my part, that the rivet is decidedly the 
best. Less drawbar pockets pull out with rivets than with bolts. 

Mr. Smith : If it is a question of convenience in repairs, the bolts 
are the best ; if a question of durability and safety, the rivet is the best. 

Mr. Grieb : We have no trouble with pockets pulling out on couplers 
that are attached with a 1 ^-inch rivet properly applied. 



Cut Journals and Damaged Bbasses 299 

Mr. Depue : We find very few pockets pulling off when they are 
riveted with a good i^-inch rivet, and I think that where service — 
actual service — is in view, rivets are far preferable. When it comes to 
convenience of repairs it is something else. 

Mr. Sharp : I move that it is the sense of this association that rivets 
give the best service. 

The motion was carried. 

CUT JOURNALS AND DAMAGED BRASSES. 

Mr. Morris : Mr. Grieb, I believe you had a question that you 
wanted brought up before the association, in regard to brasses. 

Mr. Grieb : There is a question in regard to the proper construction 
of Section 21 of Rule 3, M. C. B. Rules. It reads: "Journal bearings 
which require renewal by reason of change of wheels and axles, for 
which delivering company is responsible," and says that delivering com- 
pany is responsible for these journal bearings. The question has been 
raised as to whether a company that has cut a journal on a foreign car 
on its line has the right to charge the brass that has been burned or 
destroyed. Or, is it responsible for the brass itself? If it was a ques- 
tion of interchange, there would not be any doubt as to how it should 
be handled; if the C. & N.-W. gives the C., M. & St. P. a car with cut 
journal, we would ask for defect card for cut journal and brass, or two 
brasses, if we found it necessary to apply them on a new pair of wheels, 
but if we are standing the journal on a C. & N.-W. car in our possession, 
how would it be ? 

Mr. Showers : The rule is very plain on this point. Doesn't it say 
that for journal bearings, removed from any cause other than that for 
which owners are responsible, they cannot bill owners ? 

Mr. Morris : The rules of '98 allow charging owners for brasses 
damaged in this way ; does this new section alter that in any way ? 

Mr. Showers : I think it does. 

Mr. Morris: The question is, whether delivering company and pos- 
sessing company are the same in this case. 

Mr. Kroff : I should think they were the same; the company that 
cuts the journal should be responsible for the brasses which may require 
removal. 

Mr. Bates : I should think that if the C., M. & St. P. had a C. & 
N.-W. car in their possession with a cut journal, and made repairs them- 
selves, that it would be proper to charge the bearing to the owner. 
Now, there are other sections in the rules where you can charge for 



300 Railway Master Mechanic 

missing material if you make the repairs yourself, whereas the deliver- 
ing company is responsible if they do not make the repairs, and it seems 
to me this would be about the same. Take a car with a missing brake 
shoe; you deliver it to another line and you will have to card ; make the 
repairs yourself and you can charge the owners, and I think this is about 
the same. 

Mr. Showers : I do not quite look at that in that light. It seems 
to me that the way the rule reads, that removal of wheels or axles from 
any cause that owner is not responsible for, that they are not respon- 
sible for journal bearings ; it doesn't say " owners," but says " delivering 
company " is responsible. In the part of the rules referred to by Mr. 
Bates, it says that with cars offered in interchange they will be respon- 
sible for missing parts, but if they make repairs themselves they can 
charge owners. There is no comparison to make. I am of the opinion 
they mean possessing company as well as delivering company. 

Mr. Prickett : If the North-Western delivers a car to the St. Paul, 
for instance, with a wornout wheel for which they are responsible, the 
St. Paul removes the wheel. The North-Western is liable for the brass 
the same as they are for the wheel ; but, on the other hand, if the St. 
Paul takes that car and runs it over its road and neglects to oil it, cuts the 
journal, cuts out the brass, it should be responsible for it, not the owner 
On the other hand, if the C. & N.-W. delivers them a car with hot jour- 
nals and they cut journal, they should be responsible for it in that way. 

A Member : I removed a repair card from one of our cars, where 
they applied a pair of wheels on account of wornout. The repair card 
was marked, " Bill for the wheels, no bill for the journal and bearing 
on account of cut." I think that was proper. 

A Member: I would like to ask Mr. Prickett whether he makes 
any distinction between a journal that is cut for want of oil, and one cut 
by reason of brass being worn out. 

Mr. Prickett : A journal cut for want of oil or for brass wornout. 
We very seldom find cases of journals cut on account of brass wornout. 

Mr. Showers : I would take it in the light Mr. Prickett does, from 
the fact that railroad companies have authority to remove wornout 
brasses ; if they do not avail themselves of that opportunity they should 
be in for it. 

Mr. Morris: I would like to have something definite in regard to 
this, because it is something we are going to handle every day, and there 
should be a sort of unanimous feeling on the subject. 

Mr. Showers : I move that if a railway company offers a car in 



A New Cab Seat 



301 



interchange, and it is necessary to remove brasses for any cause for 
which owner is not responsible, cut journal or chipped rim, the delivering 
company is responsible. The same to bear out with possessing company. 

The motion was carried by a vote of 22 to 5. 

The meeting here adjourned. 

The next regular meeting of the Association will be held in the 
rooms of the Western Society of Engineers, 1741 Monadnock Block, 
evening of October 1 2, 1 899. This will be the annual meeting, at which 
the election of officers for the ensuing year will take place. Other 
important matters will come up, and the committee on arrangements for 
annual celebration will report. 





IN POSITION. 



DROPPED. 



A NEW CAB SEAT. 



A new drop cab seat has been turned out by the Stannard & White Company, the 
well-known cab seat makers of Appleton. Wis. The seat is very practical and convenient. 
It is a perfect working spring seat; and all friction is relieved by ball bearings. The seat 
can be gotten into and out of position very quickly, and with but little effort. It occupies 
only three inches of space when dropped. 



The M. C. B. letter ballot has been counted, showing that all of the 
twenty-nine propositions to alter and add to the association standards and 
recommended practices, have been adopted, mostly by good majority votes. 

The Traveling Engineers' Association met in annual convention at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, commencing September 12, and some account of its 
work will appear in our next issue. Officers for the ensuing year were 
elected as follows: President, P. H. Stark, Council Bluffs, Iowa; first 
vice president, C. H. Hogan, Buffalo, N. Y. ; second vice president, 
W. J. Wallace, Baraboo, Wis. ; third vice president, H. B. Brown, New- 
ark, Ohio ; treasurer, C. A. Crane, Fort Madison, Iowa ; seeretarv, YV. O. 
Thompson, Elkhart, Ind. 




bfl 







a 










V 


. ,. 








XI 


o 








• *• 


rt 








r. 


<-^- 








y 


S-H 


■ 






u 


P 

u 


U 

CJ 






* ~^ 


Q 


2 






o 


■4— > 


" *"* 






CO 




M 






X 


■4—' 


CO 




^— 


CO 


u 






< 


C) 


<-»-l 


J_ 










JJ 


H 


5 


5 


2 


Xi 


HH 


v 


F ^J 


■f. 


. * 


*- -« 




fH 


t\ 


Cfl 




<j 


T^ 








2£ 


U 


co 


Z3 


* 


£ 




^ 


p 


w 


w 


X 


g 


o 


> 


u 


P 


X 


N 








Q 




w 


2 


~~ 


u 


6 


> 


~ 


o 




P 


M 


o 


<£ 


Cfl 


^ —l 


-J 


M 




S. 


*-H 


^^ 




X 


<D 


/"> 




ro 


• ^~ 


u 


w 


— 


On 


4-J 


r^ 




H 




o 


B 


u 


c 


X 


0) 


q 


3£ 




C/3 


X 

be 

P 


H 

CO 

W 


- 





CO 


'J2 

j- 
o 


l-H 


■—. 


-(— > 




< 


i 


'v 


o 

'x\ 






> 


£ 







w 




IT) 




2 


I 


H 


£ 


<D 


cr 




^ 


«-i-i 


-x 


H 


s. 


O 

Q 


1) 


UO 




■** 


' 


2 


I< 




z 


o 


— i 


co 




X 


o 


~ 






HQ 




Cfl 








CO 


8 


C3 
<L» 
U 






n 


IT) 








CO 








+-> 




rt 






.bfl 




5Jd 






"53 


p 










cfl 








rt 










^-> 










o 







302 



TWELVE-WHEELED FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVE- 
ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILWAY. 

The heaviest locomotive ever built is that which has recently been 
delivered by the Brooks Locomotive Works to the Illinois Central Rail- 
way. This engine was, we understand, designed entirely by the Brooks 
Locomotive Works, the Illinois Central simply specifying, as far as ele- 
ments of its design go, the controlling clearances imposed on its line. 

This engine has 23x30-inch cylinders; 57-inch drivers; a Player- 
Belpaire wagon top boiler, which is 82 inches in diameter, and which is 
designed to carry 210 pounds of steam ; a long fire box over the frame, 
132x42 inches; a grate area of 37.5 square feet, and a total heating sur- 
face of 3,500 square feet, of which 263 square feet is fire box and 3,237 
square feet tube surface. The engine weighs 232,200 pounds, of which 
193,200 pounds are on the drivers. The nearest approach to this in 
weight was the Union Railway consolidation engine, built last year by 
the Pittsburg Works, and illustrated in our issue of November, 1898, 
which weighed 230,000 pounds, of which 208,000 pounds were on the 
drivers. The full particulars as to dimensions and equipment of this 
engine are appended : 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

Type 1 2-\\ heel freight 

Name of builder Brooks Locomotive Works 

Name of operating road Illinois Central Railroad 

How many and dates of delivery One — September, 1899 

Gauge 4 feet 8*4 inches 

Kind of fuel to be used Bituminous coal 

Weight on drivers 193,200 pounds 

Weight on trucks 39,ooo pounds 

Weight, total 232,200 pounds 

Weight of tender, loaded 132,700 pounds 

GENERAL DIMENSIONS. 

Wheel base, total, of engine 26 feet 6 inches 

Wheel base, driving 15 feet 9 inches 

Wheel base, total, engine and tender .55 feet 2-^ inches 

Length over all, engine 42 feet ofs inches 

Length over all, total, engine and tender 65 feet 7^5 inches 

Height, center of boiler above rails 9 feet 8 inches 

Height of stack above rails 15 feet 5 inches 

Heating surface, fire box 263 square feet 

Heating surface, tubes 3,237 square feet 

Heating surface, total 3o°° square feet 

Grate area 37.5 square feet 

WHEELS AND JOURNALS. 

Drivers, number Eight 

Drivers, diameter 57 inches 

303 



o<>4 Railway Master Mechanic 

Drivers, material of centers Cast steel 

Truck wheels, diameter 30 inches 

Journals, driving axle, main 9^ XI2 inches 

Journals, driving axle, other 9x1 2 inches 

Journals, truck SH xl2 inches 

Wheel fit, main 10^x8^ inches 

Main crank pin, size lYz^l inches 

Main coupling pin, size 8 1^x5 inches 

Main pin, diameter wheel fit Sj4 inches 

CYLINDERS. 

Cylinder, diameter 23 inches 

Cylinder, stroke 30 inches 

Piston rod, diameter 4', inches 

Kind of piston rod packing . . Jerome 

Main rod, length center to center 98 inches 

Steam ports, length 28 inches 

Steam ports, width 2 V z inches 

Exhaust ports, least area no square inches 

Bridge, width 3 ]/ 2 inches 

VALVES. 

Valves, kind of Improved piston 

Valves, greatest travel 7 inches 

Valves, steam lap (inside) 1 l s inches 

Valves, exhaust lap or clearance (outside) Line and line 

Lead in full gear 1 -1 6-inch negative 

Lead constant or variable .Variable 

BOILER. 

Boiler, type of Player-Belpaire wagon top 

Boiler, working steam pressure 210 pounds 

Boiler, material in barrel Steel 

Boiler, thickness of material in barrel 15-16-inch and i-inch 

Boiler, thickness of tube sheet % -inch 

Boiler, diameter of barrel, front 82 inches 

Boiler, diameter of barrel at throat 9 1 X inches 

Seams, kind of, horizontal Septuple, lap 

Seams, .kind of, circumferential Triple, lap 

Crown sheet, stayed with Direct stays 

Dome, diameter 30 inches 

FIRE BOX. 

Fire box, type Long, over frames 

Fire box, length 132 inches 

Fire box, width 42 inches 

Fire box, depth, front 90 inches 

Fire box, depth, back 81^ inches 

Fire box, material Steel 

Fire box, thickness of sheets Crown, 7-16 ; tube, ^5-inch ; side and back, ^g-inch 

Fire box, brick arch On studs 

Fire box, mud ring, width Back, 4 inches ; sides, 3% inches ; front, 4 inches 

Fire box, water-space-at top Back, 5 inches; sides, 7^ inches ; front, 4 inches 

Grates, kind of Cast iron rocking 



Twelve- Wheeled Fkeight Locomotive, III. Cent. Rv. 305 

Tubes, number of 4 2 4 

Tubes, material Charcoal iron 

Tubes, outside diameter 2 inches 

Tubes, thickness N0.12 B. W. G. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 14 feet 8^ inches 

SMOKE BOX. 

Smoke box, diameter outside .85 inches 

Smoke box, length from flue sheet 75 inches 

OTHER PARTS. 

Exhaust nozzle, single or double Single 

Exhaust nozzle, variable or .permanent Permanent 

Exhaust nozzle, diameter 5^ inches ; 6y& inches 

Exhaust nozzle, distance of tip below center of boiler 7 inches 

Netting, wire or plate .Wire 

Netting, size of mesh or perforation 2^x2^ inches and 2^xij^ inches 

Stack, straight or taper Steel, taper 

Stack, least diameter l S% inches 

Stack, greatest diameter 17% inches 

Stack, height above smoke box 26^ inches 

TENDER. 

Type 8-wheeled 

Tank, type ' ' U " shape 

Tank, capacity for water 7,000 gallons 

Tank, capacity for coal 12 tons 

Tank, material Steel 

Tank, thickness of sheets % -inch 

Type of under frame _. Oak 

Type of springs Double elliptic 



Diameter of wheels 23 

Diameter and length of journals 5 inches and 9 

Distance between centers of journals 5 feet 3 

Diameter of wheel fit on axle 6}i 

Diameter of center of axle 5;Hs 

Length of tender over bumper beams 24 feet o 

Length of tank 22 feet o 

Width of tank 10 feet o 

Height of tank, not including collar 72 



nches 
nches 
nches 
nches 
nches 
nches 
nches 
nches 
nches 



Type of drawbar M. C. B. Thurmond 

SPECIAL EQUIPMENT. 

Brakes Westinghouse automatic for drivers, tender and train service 

Pump , 9 y 2 inches 

Brakes, driver American outside equalized, with shoes on back of wheels 

Sight feed lubricators Nathan 

Safety valves Ashton 

Injectors Hancock Composite 

Springs French 

Metallic packing, piston rods Jerome 

Metallic packing, valve rods B. L. W. Special 

Spark arrester Improved Bell 



3uti Uailway Master Mechanic 



The National Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Association held its 
annual convention at Milwaukee, Wis., September 5 to 8. The work of 
the convention was excellent. There was a good attendance, and on the 
opening day, Mr. Robert Ouayle, superintendent of motive power of the 
Chicago & Xorth-Western; Mr. Angus Brown, superintendent of motive 
power of the Wisconsin Central; Mr. J. N. Barr, superintendent of mo- 
tive power, and Mr. A. E. Manchester, assistant superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, were present and 
addressed the convention. On the last day, officers for the ensuing year 
were elected as follows: President, G. F. Hinkens, St. Paul, Minn.; 
first vice president, G. H. Judy, Dayton, Ohio ; second vice president, 
D. B. Swinton, Montreal, Canada ; secretary, A. L. Woodworth, Lima, 
Ohio. There was a suggestive line of topics up for consideration, in- 
cluding " Making and repairing locomotive and car springs," "Tools for 
car forgings," " Fuel for furnace use," " Shop methods," " Forging 
wrought iron axles," " Proper method of case hardening," " Locomotive 
blacksmithing," "The tool smith," "Tool steel manipulation," "Mild 
steel vs. wrought iron," etc. In our next issue we will give some ac- 
count of the proceedings. 



PERSONAL MENTION. 

Mr. R. L. Stewart has been appointed master mechanic of the El Paso & North- 
eastern, with headquarters at Alamogordo, N. M. 

Mr. H. T. Ellison has resigned as master mechanic of the Chattanooga Southern. 

Mr. T. Dickinson, formerly locomotive engineer on the West Shore, has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Rutland-Canadian, a part of the Rutland now under 
construction. 

Mr. Frank Cain, master mechanic of the Texarkana & Fort Smith, with headquar- 
ters at Texarkana, Texas, has resigned. 

Mr. James H. Kirk, master mechanic of the Salt Lake & Ogden, has been appointed 
general superintendent of that road in addition to his former duties, with headquarters 
at Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Mr. Thomas Burns, heretofore foreman at East St. Paul, Minn., of the Chicago, St. 
Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, has been appointed assistant master mechanic, with head- 
quarters at Sioux City, Iowa, succeeding Mr. J. K. Brassill, resigned. Mr. E. E. Mac- 
hovec has been appointed foreman at East St. Paul, Minn., succeeding Mr. Burns, and 
Frederick Naylor has been appointed foreman at St. James, Minn., succeeding Mr. 
Machovec. 

Mr. G. Middleton, locomotive foreman of the Canadian Pacific, at Kamloops, B. C, 
has been promoted to be general foreman of the shops of the Canadian Pacific company 
at Vancouver. He will also have charge of the engines of the company's steamships. 
Mr. S. Fraser, of North Bend, succeeds Mr. Middleton at Kamloops. 



Personal Mention 307 



Mr. J. O'Hara, roundhouse foreman at the Glenwood shops of the Baltimore & 
Ohio, has resigned. 

Mr. C. E. Walker, who has been master mechanic on the Baltimore & Ohio South- 
western Railway, at Washington, Ind., since July, 1895, nas now made connections with 
the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, and will open an office for that company in Cin- 
cinnati, to look after the interests of its trade in that and contiguous territory. Mr. 
Walker is a thorough mechanic and well posted in all branches of railroad work. He 
learned the trade of machinist at the National Locomotive Works, Connellsville, Pa. In 
1879 Mr. Walker went with the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and since that time his ad- 
vancement has been rapid, he having passed through all grades of mechanical work on 
several different railroads ; his last connection, as stated above, having been with the 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railway. His intimate knowledge of the practical ap- 
plication of pneumatic tools, will serve him well with his new connection, and his wide 
circle of acquaintances wish him the best of success. 

Mr. H. D. Galbraith has resigned as general foreman of the shops of the St. Louis 
Southwestern at Texarkana, Tex. 

Mr. Lewis Greaven has been appointed locomotive and car superintendent of the In- 
teroceanic Railway of Mexico, with headquarters at Puebla, Mexico, vice Mr. H. E. 
Walker, resigned. 

Mr. W. J. Miller has resigned as division master mechanic of the Kansas City, Pitts- 
burg & Gulf, at Shreveport, La., to accept the position of foreman of the shops of the 
St. Louis Southwestern at Pine Bluff, Ark., to succeed Mr. Oliver Galbraith, resigned. 

Mr. John Hair, division master mechanic of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern at 
Chillicothe, Ohio, has been appointed division master mechanic of the same road at 
Washington, Ind., vice Mr. C. E. Walker, resigned. 

Mr. Henry E. Walker has resigned as locomotive and car superintendent of the In- 
teroceanic Railway of Mexico. 

Mr. Frank J. Smith, hitherto foreman of the shops of the Baltimore & Ohio South- 
western at Seymour, Ind., has been appointed division master mechanic of that road, 
with headquarters at Chillicothe, Ohio, vice Mr. John Hair, transferred to Washing- 
ton, Indiana. 

Mr. John H. Kiesling has been appointed master mechanic of the Gulf, Beaumont 
& Kansas City, with headquarters at Beaumont, Tex., vice Mr. F. G. Papineau. 

Mr. Charles Brittengham, who has been an engineer on the Peoria & Eastern for 
many years, has been appointed road foreman of engines on the Chicago & Alton. 

Mr. A. L. Kline has been appointed storekeeper of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy at Western avenue, Chicago, vice Mr. H. H. Harvey, promoted. 

Mr. Joseph K. Long, of the Ft. Wayne shops at Allegheny, has been appointed fore- 
man of the smith shop at Wellsville, on the C. & P. Railroad. 

Mr. W. H. Reilly has resigned as master mechanic of the Fort Worth & Rio Grande, 
and Mr. C. H. Burk has been appointed master mechanic pro tern. All business relating 
to the mechanical department will be addressed to Mr. Burk at Fort Worth, Tex., until 
further notice. 

Mr. Geo. Brown has been appointed foreman in charge of the motive power and car 
department for the western division of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, with head- 
quarters at Goodland, Kan. 

Mr. C. C. Farmer has resigned as air brake inspector on the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas, and the position has been abolished. 



30s Railway Mastkk Mkcii.vxic 

Mr. George Whelan, clerk in the office of Mr. W. W. Atterbury, superintendent of 
motive power of the Pennsylvania Railroad, has been appointed chief clerk of motive 
power on the Philadelphia and Erie division of the Pennsylvania Railroad. His head- 
quarters will be in Williamsport. Mr. Harry A. Anderson, who for some years has been 
chief clerk to Master Mechanic Brown, of the Juniata shops, will succeed Mr. Whelan 
in Mr. Atterbury's office. 

Mr. Frank Roesch has been appointed traveling engineer on the Colorado & South- 
ern lines. He has- hitherto been a locomotive engineer on the same road. 

Mr. H. W. Garratt is locomotive superintendent of the new Cuban Central Ry.; his 
headquarters are at Sagua la Grande, Cuba. The purchasing agents of this road are B. 

D. Hasell & Co., 66 Pine street, New York. 

Mr. J. W. Doty, a traveling engineer on the St. Louis Southwestern, has been ap- 
pointed foreman of that company's shops at Texarkana, Tex., vice Mr. Harry Galbraith, 
resigned. 

Mr. John Medway has resigned as master car builder of the Swift Refrigerator 
Transportation Co. at Chicago. Mr. Medway was formerly superintendent of motive 
power of the Fitch burg, and was at one time president of the New England Railroad 
Club. 

Mr. J. D. Murphy, foreman of the Strong City shops of the Santa Fe, has been ap- 
pointed general foreman of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, at Dodge City, vice Mr. L. 

E. Foote, transferred to Raton, N. M. Mr. J. B. Hasty succeeds Mr. Murphy at Strong 
City. Mr. Henry Goegold has been appointed general foreman of the Pueblo shops of 
the same road. 

Mr. J. B. Laurie has been appointed general purchasing agent of the Central Ver- 
mont, with headquarters at St. Albans, Vt., vice Mr. W. B. Hatch. 

Mr. W. P. Dittoe has been appointed purchasing agent of the New York, Chicago & 
St. Louis, vice Mr. M. M. Rodgers, resigned. Mr. Dittoe has been with the Nickel Plate 
ever since it was built. He is a civil engineer by profession, and when Brown & How- 
ard were building the road in 1881 he came west from New York with them. When the 
line was completed he remained in Cleveland, taking charge of the engineering force 
until the appointment of Mr. G. W. Vaughan as the chief engineer, when he assumed 
charge of the inspection department, where he has remained until now. 

Mr. Robert K. Cassatt, son of A. J. Cassatt, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company, has been appointed assistant to the president of the New York, Philadelphia & 
Norfolk Railroad Company. Mr. Cassatt, while a civil engineer by profession, was at 
one time in the Altoona shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad studying the work of the 
mechanical department. 

Mr. M. M. Rodgers has resigned as purchasing agent of the New York, Chicago & 
St. Louis, after a continued service of 17 years with that company. While only 38 years 
old, he has been in the railroad service 25 years, having started in at Altoona as messen- 
ger boy in the shops of the Pennsylvania railroad in 1875. He was l ater clerk in the mo- 
tive power department of that road at Altoona. From 1880 to 1882 he was private 
secretary to the superintendent of the P., C. & St. L., and for the next three years pri- 
vate secretary to the general manager of the same road. Since March, 1885, he has been 
purchasing agent of the Nickel Plate. Mr. Rodgers resigns to enter private business, as 
a partner in a prominent railroad and steamship supply house in New York. 

Mr. C. M. St. Clair has been appointed master mechanic of the Chattanooga South- 
ern, vice Mr. H. T. Ellison, resigned. 

Mr. John T. Carroll has been appointed mechanical engineer of the New York, 



Supply Tkade Notes 309 



Chicago & St. Louis, with office at Cleveland, vice Mr. Theo. H. Curtis, who, as pre- 
viously noted, resigned to become mechanical engineer of the Erie. Mr. Carroll was 
with the Brooks Locomotive Works seven years as errand boy, office boy and draftsman 
successively. From there he went to the Erie as draftsman. He was later, for two 
years, with the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, and for the succeeding two years with 
the Chicago & North-Western, as draftsman, which latter road ke left to accept his pres- 
ent post on the New York, Chicago & St. Louis. 

The Wheeling & Lake Erie having absorbed the Cleveland, Canton & Southern, 
the mechanical department of the former is now organized as follows : J. B. Braden, 
superintendent motive power and cars, Cleveland, Ohio ; J. E. O'Hearne, master me- 
chanic, Toledo division, Norwalk, Ohio ; John Bean, master mechanic Cleveland divi- 
sion, Canton, Ohio. 

Mr. Alfred Lovell, hitherto assistant superintendent of motive power of the North- 
ern Pacific, has been appointed superintendent of motive power of that road. 

Mr. C. H. Hutchins, president of C. B. Hutchins & Sons, of Detroit, and a widely 
known and popular railway supply man, died suddenly in Detroit, August 26th. 

Mr. Will W. Dodge, treasurer of the Dodge Manufacturing Co., of Mishawaka, Ind., 
died at his residence in that city on September 1st, aged 39 years. Mr. Dodge had been 
identified with the Dodge Manufacturing Co. ever since its organization and was a large 
contributor to its success and prosperity. 

Mr. Joseph W. Taylor, secretary of the Master Car Builders and of the Master Me- 
chanics' Associations, has been elected, also, secretary of the Western Railway Club, suc- 
ceeding Mr. F. M. Whyte, who resigned because of his removal to the east to become 
mechanical engineer of the New York Central. 

Mr. W. H. Harrison, who until a few months ago was for many years superintend- 
ent of motive power of the Baltimore & Ohio lines west of the Ohio river, died suddenly 
at his home in Newark, Ohio, September 9th, of heart failure, aged 68 years. Mr. Har- 
rison was not only an able man in his profession, but he possessed a distinctively lovable 
personality, and his passing away has saddened many hearts. We gave a full account of 
his career, together with a portrait of his kindly face, in our issue of March, 1899. 

Mr. O. H. Jackson has resigned as master mechanic of the Santa Fe, Prescott & 
Phoenix, and Prescott & Eastern Railways, to engage in other business. Mr. Frank 
Davisson has been appointed acting master mechanic of the roads to succeed Mr. Jack- 
son. Mr. Jackson has been in active railway service for upwards of 40 years and pro- 
poses now to take a rest until the first of the coming year when he will enter the railway 
supply business, devoting the large part of his time to pushing the Canady cam throttle 
lever, which he owns. Mr. Jackson's railway service prior to going west, five years ago, 
was mainly with the Big Four, O. & M., and the Erie. 



SUPPLY TRADE NOTES. 

The Boston Artificial Leather Co. is opening a large store at No. 12 East Eighteenth 
street, New York City. The company is moving its factory and business from Boston to 
New York'City. 

Harrison dust guards, made by the Harrison Dust Guard Co., Toledo, Ohio, have 
been specified for use on the following equipment : Two thousand cars now being built 
for the Southern Railway; 100 cars for the Flint & Pere Marquette, and 200 cars for the 
Detroit, Grand Rapids & Western. 



310 Railway Master Mechanic 

Mr. Geo. F. Evans has severed his connection with the Westinghouse interests 
having resigned as manager of the Westinghouse Mfg. Co., Ltd., of Canada. 

The Ajax Metal Co. extends a cordial invitation to all railroad managers, motive 
power and mechanical officials, to pay a visit at " Section M-13, Main Building, " of the 
National Export Exposition, which is now being held in Philadelphia. The company 
will have representatives there at all times and will take pleasure in offering its services 
to all visitors whenever and wherever it can be useful. The company provides ample 
facilities for correspondence and will gladly give visitors every attention, if the oppor- 
tunity is afforded. 

The Standard Coupler Company has received orders for the equipment of 200 pas- 
senger cars with its Standard steel platform during the month of August. This com- 
pany's caboose platform is rapidly growing in favor. 

The new works of the Pressed Steel Car Company, under construction at McKee's 
Rocks, Pa., will probably be in operating order within 60 days. Besides the main plant, 
the company are building a large number of houses for employes, and a company store. 
The estimated production of the new works is 40 steel cars per day, and combined with 
the Allegheny plant, which has a capacity of 35 cars per day, the complete daily output 
will amount to 75 or 80 cars. 

The Lloyd-Talmage Company, of New York City, has sold its railway supply business 
to W. J. Schaeffer & Co., 33 Barclay street, New York. The latter concern will handle 
a general line of machinists', mill, steamship and railroad supplies. 

Somers, Fitler & Clarke, of Pittsburg, agents for the sale of the Otto gas engines, 
have lately made sales of a 20 horse-power engine to Kress Bros., Allegheny ; 56 horse- 
power engine to the Canonsburg Iron and Steel Company, Canonsburg, Pa. ; two 20 
horse-power engines to the Auto-Car Company, Pittsburg ; one 27 horse-power engine to 
Zug & Co., Pittsburg, and one 20 horse-power engine to Heyl & Patterson, Pittsburg. 

President McKinney, of the Niles-Bement-Pond Company, announces that Jas. K. 
Cullen has been assigned as manager of the Niles works at Hamilton, Frederick W. 
Gordon as manager of the Bement plant at Philadelphia, and A. C. Stebbins as manager 
of the Pond works at Plainfield. 

The Curtis & Co. Manufacturing Company, of St. Louis, reports that its air com- 
pressor department is crowded to its full capacity with orders. This company's air hoists 
are becoming extremely popular, there being 150 orders for them on its books at the pres- 
ent time. Several shipments of air compressors were recently made to Europe, one 
going to Paris. 

The New York office of Valentine & Co., the well-known varnish and color manu- 
facturers, recently reported the purchase of additional property adjoining their Brooklyn 
works, and the filing of plans with the building department for a large. two-story building 
thereon. We now learn that even this extension will not suffice for the needs of their 
business, and that they have just filed plans for the erection at their Chicago (Illinois) 
works of a large three-story building ; the ground floor to be devoted to tanks and the 
storage of varnish, the other two floors to contain machinery and other facilities for the 
grinding and packing of colors and paints. 

The Q. & C. Company, of Chicago, 111., has received a contract from the chief 
mechanical engineer of the Chinese Eastern Railroad for a steam cold metal sawing 
machine, which will be utilized for cutting steel rails on the Port Arthur section of 
the road. 

The Philadelphia Engineering Works, which now form part of the Niles-Pond- 
Bement consolidation plant, are to be increased very shortly by the addition of a shop 



Supply Trade Notes 311 



380x50 ft., to be used for the erection of cranes. The new shop will be equipped with 
modern tools, air riveters, portable punching machines and electric traveling cranes 
capable of handling large girders. 

The Standard Pneumatic Tool Company, of Chicago, sold 50 per cent more machines 
in August than during the corresponding month last year. 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore, of Chicago, have taken the Chicago agency for the new 
bolt cutter brought out by the Ajax Manufacturing Company. 

The National Tube Company have established their general offices in the Conestoga 
building, Pittsburg, Pa., with organization as follows : President, Edmund C. Converse ; 
chairman of the board, Joshua Rhodes ; first vice-president, F.J. Hearne ; second vice- 
president, Horace Crosby ; third vice-president, Francis L. Potts ; general manager, 
A. S. Matheson ; treasurer, A. F. Luke ; assistant treasurer, William H. Latshaw ; gen- 
eral counsel, Sullivan & Cromwell. The president, third vice-president, treasurer and 
general counsel have their offices in the Havemeyer building, New York. The directors 
are: Joshua Rhodes, J. J. Vandergrift, Charles H. Coster, Wm. B. Rhodes, F. J. 
Hearne, J. N. Vance, John Eaton, Francis Potts, F. R. Tobey, Jonathan Rowland, 
Daniel O'Day, O. C. Barber, Henry Aird, John Don, Edmund C. Converse, Wm. Nelson 
Cromwell, Wm. S. Eaton, A. F. Luke, Wm. J. Curtis, Horace Crosby, A. S. Matheson, 
Wm. P. Hamilton, and A. H. Gillard. Horace Crosby, second vice-president, has 
charge of the mercantile affairs of the company ; Edward Worcester is general sales 
agent, and Geo. S. Garritt is assistant general sales agent, both with office in Pittsburg, 
Pa. Clifton Wharton, Jr., is sales agent in charge of New York territory, with office in 
the Havemeyer building, New York. A Boston office will be maintained at 70 Federal 
street, in charge of P. W. French and C. F. Velasco, sales agents. H. Cheston Vansant 
is sales agent in charge of Philadelphia territory. A. M. Lally is sales agent in charge 
of Pittsburg territory. H. S. Raymond is sales agent in charge of Chicago territory. 

New shops and additions thereto are reported by our exchanges during the past 
month as follows : — The Houston & Texas Central is just finishing a new roundhouse at 
Ennis, Texas. — It is reported that the proposed large addition to the Baltimore & Ohio 
Southwestern shops at Chillicothe has been abandoned. — The Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe has built at its Corwith (111.) shops a new boiler house and a sand house equipped 
with modern appliances. — The Valley Road has purchased 43 acres of land adjoining its 
roundhouse at Fresno, Cal. The company will construct repair shops on a portion of 
this land. — The Carrabelle, Tallahassee & Georgia Railroad is preparing plans for shops 
to be built at Tallahassee, Fla. — The Chicago & North-Western will build a 50-stall round- 
house at Clinton, Iowa, at an estimated cost of $60,000. — The Canadian Pacific proposes 
to build a new roundhouse at Fort William, Ont. — The Wisconsin Central announces 
that the question of removal of its shops from Stevens Point to Fond du Lac has been 
fully decided and that work will be pushed on the new shop buildings with all speed, but 
it will probably be a year before the shops at Stevens Point are wholly abandoned. — 
The Rio Grande Western is reported to have completed its brass foundry at Salt Lake 
City, which is located just west of the general [blacksmith .shops and was erected for the 
purpose of making engine and car brasses. A building is also being erected connecting 
the machine and blacksmith shops. — The Boston & Maine has built a new engine house 
at Rockland, Me. The new engine house is a 5-stall house and has all the modern 
conveniences of such a building. It is a frame building and has a brick-paved floor. 
Directly in front of the house will be located a new 60-foot turntable. — The Pennsylva- 
nia lines west of Pittsburg will erect in Allegheny City, Pa., a brass foundry, comprising 
a main building 60x80 feet, containing six furnaces, and two other buildings about 40x70 
feet. The foundry will be used to manufacture brass bearings and other brass castings 
which have formerly been made at Ft. Wayne, Ind. 



312 Railway Master Mechanic 

The Baltimore & Ohio has just ordered 20 more Vauclain compound consolidated 
freight locomotives from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. An order for 30 was placed 
with the same concern earlier in the month. The 50 are to be delivered about the first 
of the year. 

The Q & C Company makes the following announcement concerning the transfer of its 
car door business to the National Railway Specialty Co.: " In view of the very friendly 
relations existing between our two companies, and for the convenience of our 
patrons, arrangements have been made by which the National Railway Specialty 
Co., J. M. Hopkins, secretary, will hereafter conduct the sales of our door busi- 
ness and all the details pertaining to same. The manufacture of the same will 
be continued by us and under our careful supervision." The two companies also 
jointly issue the following notice: "By virtue of agreements and licenses be- 
tween the two companies whose names are attached hereto, on and after Aug- 
ust 1, 1S99, all Dunham and Q & C door fixtures, as well as all Security door 
fixtures, will be sold by the National Railway Specialty Co., 1475 Old Colony 
Building, Chicago. Material on all orders received by the Q & C Company since Aug- 
ust 1st, will be billed by the National Railway Specialty Co. The Q & C Company 
will continue to manufacture the above mentioned door fixtures at their shops at Chicago 
Heights. A large stock of material, both of complete sets and parts thereof, will be 
kept constantly on hand to insure prompt delivery. Hereafter kindly send orders for 
Dunham and Q & C door fixtures to the National Railway Specialty Co., by whom they 
will receive prompt and careful attention. Q & C Company, by C. F. Quincy, Pres. ; 
National Railway Specialty Co., by J. M. Hopkins, Gen. Manager." 

The secretary of the Pressed Steel Car Company, of Pittsburg, is thus quoted : 
" I wish to contradict the report that any concern is about to compete with us in the 
manufacture of pressed steel cars in this country. It is impossible, as we control every 
conceivable patent for such manufacture. There is also no truth in the assertion that 
we contemplate erecting a plant in England, or anywhere else outside of the United 
States. We have contracts now for $10,000,000 worth of foreign and domestic trade. 
The present capacity of our works is 60 cars a day, and we expect to be rushed to our 
fullest capacity. Our new plant at McKees Rocks will be thrown open next week. It 
cost $1,250,000 and is the most complete affair of its kind in the world. It will employ 
about 4,000 men, and our combined capacity will be 175 cars daily." 

At a meeting of its board of directors, on the 16th inst., the Ajax Metal Co., of 
Philadelphia, appointed Mr. B. F. Pilson, of Richmond, who has been connected with 
that company as southern representative for a number of years, as general contracting 
agent, to take effect October 1st. Mr. Pilson has been very successful in handling the 
company's business, and this appointment is a pleasant evidence of its appreciation of 
his services. 

The Ajax Metal Co., of Philadelphia, informs us that the reports published in the 
daily and commercial papers, to the effect that it had joined the brass trust, are entirely 
incorrect, and that it is not its intention to go into any such combination. This company 
further states that it is not in any manner, shape or form, connected with any brass 
trust, and would not countenance a proposition of that kind. 

A FOREMAN BLACKSMITH desires a position in charge of railway blacksmith shop. 
Is thoroughly up to date in shop methods and well accustomed to handling men. 
Best of references can be furnished. Address A. J., care of Railway Master 
Mechanic. 

SITUATION WANTED — By a capable general foreman of locomotive repairs. Per- 
fectly satisfactory reasons for leaving present position. Address G. F., care of 
Railway Master Mechanic. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 

WALTER D. CROSMAN, Editor. EDWIN N. LEWIS, Manager. 

_ ~i 

Vol. XXIII. CHICAGO, NOVEMBER, 1899. No. 6 



RAILWAY CLUB FUNDS should not be allowed to grow too 
large. There is no good reason, it is thought by careful observ- 
ers of club work, why any club should have a surplus beyond 
that needed for a good working capital. Among our leading clubs the 
income is heavily eaten into by salaries and commissions, and the large 
cost of publishing the proceedings; but despite this there has been, in 
some cases, an abnormal surplus created. The practice of expending this 
upon spreads, excursions, and the like, which has been followed at times, 
is not good. The income is provided by dues, and by revenues derived 
from the sale of advertising space in the proceedings. To fritter away 
this income in the way of pleasures for a comparative few, is unjust to 
those dues-paying members who have neither time nor inclination to par- 
ticipate in a spread or to go on an excursion; and it is unjust to those 
advertisers who patronize club proceedings not so much for the sake of 
the advertising as for the sake of "helping the club along." It cannot 
be pleasant for such advertisers to see their contributions expended for 
an entertainment at which a large percentage — perhaps the larger per- 
centage — of the attendants are supply men. As a matter of fact, a rail- 
way club should be a business club, pure and simple, and not a pleasure- 
seeking body; and it is a notable fact that those clubs which have the 
least to do with excursions and "smokers" are the clubs which produce, 
year in and year out, the highest class of work, and whose influence upon 
the railway technical world is most strongly felt. 



Recurring to the matter of funds: It is not a proper function of a 
railway club to be an accumulator of moneys. Hut with a normally 
healthy club, possessing a good membership, and with a fair amount oi 
advertising revenue coming to its treasury, some unnecessary surplus 
seems bound to be created ; and then comes the question of disposing of 
this surplus to the best advantage. The wrongfulness of using it for 
spreads, junkets, etc., is quite obvious. Hut two clubs have found more 
commendable ways for spending their excess revenues. The Western 



314 Railway Master Mechanic 

Railway Club maintains a valuable and growing technical library at con- 
siderable annual expense, and this season found still another very useful 
channel for its spare funds, in undertaking to give bound volumes of its 
past year's proceedings to all its members in good standing. This is 
something appreciated and valued by all members, whereas a spread at 
each meeting would be enjoyed by, perhaps, not more than 10 per cent 
of the members. The St. Louis Club has also taken a thoroughly com- 
mendable step in the way of directing its surplus funds into useful chan- 
nels, having undertaken to give a scholarship in Blees Military Academy, 
open to competition among the sons of its members. At the last meet- 
ing of this club the successful candidate was presented to the members 
present in the person of Chas. E. Koons, a son of Charles Koons, master 
painter of the St. Louis Car Co. The boy is given the scholarship, a full 
student's outfit of clothing, uniform, text books, etc., — in fact, he goes to 
the academy with his entire expenses borne by the club. This is better 
than forty spreads — or forty times forty spreads. 



Locomotive Draft Appliances. 

Mr. Bell's paper, read at the September meeting of the Western 
Railway Club, gives an admirable historical review of the development of 
spark arresting devices from the time of Pambour, in 1836, to the Mas- 
ter Mechanics report on Exhaust Nozzles, in 1896, a period of sixty 
years. The subject had been discussed by this club on two previous 
occasions, once in its early days, before the proceedings were published 
in pamphlet form. This was in December, 1 866, and the discussion was 
published in the Railway Master Mechanic for January, 1887. Again 
the Draft Appliances on the Locomotives at the World's Fair were 
described in a paper by Mr. W. C. Squires, read at a Western Railway 
Club meeting in November, 1893. 

Mr. Bell's paper is especially valuable as a historical document, as he 
is careful to give the dates, and reference to the book or paper where a 
description of each device may be found, or wherein authoritative com- 
ment is made upon the subject. The whole history of this struggle to 
find a satisfactory spark arrester, and the reasons why it has not yet been 
found, is well summed up by the author when he says : " It is neces- 
sarily an attempt to compromise two directly conflicting conditions — one 
being perfect freedom of draft, and discharge of smoke and gases, and 
the other the prevention of the escape of solid matter, in a state of igni- 



Locomotive Draft Appliances 315 



tion, from the stack. It naturally results from the impossibility of 
reconciling these conditions, that none of the long array of spark arrester 
designs has been entirely successful or satisfactory." 

We are not now much nearer a solution of this problem than when 
Espy patented his cone and netting in 1833, an d it would therefore seem 
best to give up the attempt to attain the impossible, and start out on new 
lines, and give attention to a modification of some kind which will elimi- 
nate, or reduce to a large extent, one of the conflicting elements. The 
smoke and gas must be ejected from the stack, and that is the purpose 
of the stack, the same as of any other chimney. The solid matter, in 
the shape of ignited sparks, should remain, as far as possible, in the fire 
box, and not be drawn through the tubes. The whole boiler, and its 
appendages, whether it be stack, smoke box, or fire box, should be so 
modified as to obtain this desirable result. 

Certain experiences with Wootten fire boxes, eight feet wide and 
nine feet long, and having seventy-two square feet of grate surface, when 
used on western roads with bituminous coal, revealed the fact that under 
such conditions coal could be burned in heavy freight service, without 
drawing the fire into the smoke box, and no spark arrester was neces- 
sary. The engines were operated with a straight stack, and a smoke 
box entirely free from baffle plate or netting. We have here an extreme 
in the other direction, where the troublesome spark arrester was entirely 
eliminated. The large grate was found advantageous for bituminous 
slack, but for the regular run of bituminous lump coal, too much air 
passed through the grate to secure good economy, and for this reason 
the very wide fire boxes have not continued in favor. 

The experiments referred to were made in 1885, aR d the practice in 
grate proportions since that time shows that no advantage has been taken 
of the facts which they brought to light. The width of fire boxes on 
modern bituminous coal burning engines is invariably made forty-two 
inches, so that the outside of the fire box is flush with the outside of 
the frames, and a convenient expansion fastening is thus secured. The 
size of fire boxes bears no apparent relation to the amount of coal to be 
burned per hour, and the proper proportions for such an active and im- 
portant function seem to be sacrificed for simplicity in constructive 
details. With continued increase in the size of cylinders, the demand on 
the fire box, when made the regular width, will soon be so great that 
even the best spark arresters will be found unsatisfactory, and it will 
then be necessary to break away from present practice and extend the 
fire box beyond the frames. The width should not be the extreme eight 



.'Mi; Railway Master Mechanic 

feet, as formerly used, nor the very narrow box, between or flush with 
the frame, but any width necessary to secure such a moderate rate of 
combustion as will allow the coal to be burned under mild draft ; and 
large quantities of solid fire will not then be drawn through the tubes. 

In burning coal with a mild draft, numerous advantages will be found. 
The exhaust nozzle can be enlarged, a larger mesh in the netting can be 
used, and in fact all objectionable obstructions to the free exit of steam 
and smoke can be made more open, if not entirely removed; and above 
all, the rate of evaporation should be materially improved, 

It is well known that Mr. Bell is a strong advocate of wider fire 
boxes, having read a paper on the subject before the Western Rail wax- 
Club, in October, 1895, and we should have expected him to refer to their 
advantage in modifying the severe demand made on spark arresters by 
large locomotives. The author does recognize this in a brief sentence, 
in his present paper, where he refers to the performance of the fast 
passenger engines with wide fire boxes on the Camden and Atlantic rail- 
road, as follows : " It will be recognized that in these engines the front 
end is less heavily taxed, as to spark arresting duty, by reason of the large 
increase of grate area attained by the employment of the wide fire box." 

The principal object to which Mr. Bell's paper apparently leads is 
a description of his improvement in front ends, which dispenses with the 
spark valve, and which is self cleaning. While this arrangement is used 
on quite a number of large modern locomotives, on several different roads, 
we cannot regard it as a very important improvement. 

It is certainly not conducive to economy to throw away solid fuel in 
an indefinite way, and it may be a wholesome reminder, whenever a 
smoke box is cleaned out, that one-half or three-fourths of a cubic yard of 
unburned fuel is wasted. Nothing is said about the saving in fuel re- 
sulting from the use of the self cleaning front end, and we are inclined 
to believe that it is accompanied with a sacrifice of some extra fuel. In 
the discussion of the paper none of the speakers advocated Mr. Bell's 
system of dealing with sparks, and, in fact, those who touched on that 
part of the subject, objected to it. 

The author expects that a still higher development of locomotive 
draft appliances will be speedily obtained, but we are doubtful if it is ac- 
complished by working on the line indicated by this improvement. We 
feel quite sure that a more permanent and effectual improvement will be 
made by increasing the grate area so as to enable the locomotive to work 
under milder draft. The spark arresting problem then becomes easy, 
and its lines simple. 



M. ('. 15. Stan da u us 317 



M. C. B. STANDARDS. 

As a result of the letter ballot, certain of the Standards and Recom- 
mended Practice of the association were modified as follows : 

Standards. 

Sheet i. — Size of bolt holes changed to I 1-16 in. 

Sheet 2. — Size of bolt holes changed to 1 1-16 in. 

Sheet 7. — Addition of axle with journal 5^x10 in., and the designa- 
tion of the different standard axles by a letter. 

Sheet 11. — Extension of contour lines; modification of standard 
limit gauge ; change in radius of yoke ; additions to the illustration of 
the automatic coupler. 

Sheet 15. — General dimensions only for journal bearing given. 

Recommended Practice. 

Sheet B. — Play of shank of coupler in carry-arm changed to not less 
than y 2 inch on each side. 

Sheet C. — Diameter of bearing boring gauge, 3^x7 in.; journal 
changed from 3 15-16 to 3 13-16 in. (This is not the result of letter 
ballot, but the correction of a clerical error.) 

Sheet H. — Radius at top of pedestal changed from 50 in. to 5 ft. 
o in. (This is not the result of letter ballot, but the correction of a 
clerical error.) 

Sheet I. — Fletcher journal box lid eliminated, and sheet used to 
illustrate the twist gauge for M. C. B. couplers, gauge for worn M. C. B. 
couplers, location of air brake parts on cars, and label for air brake hose. 

Sheet K (New Sheet). — Illustration of drop test machine and 
details for M. C. B. couplers. 

These changes and additions have been made, and lithographs illus- 
trative of same are ready for delivery. A complete set of lithographs 
consists of 1 5 sheets of Standards and 1 1 sheets of Recommended Prac- 
tice, 26 in all, and are sold at 25 cents per sheet, or $6.50 per set. 

The pamphlet containing the Texts of Standards and Recommended 
Practice has been revised to date, and is ready for delivery. These 
pamphlets are sold at 25 cents per copy. 

The Air Brake and Signal Instructions, and also the Rules for Load- 
ing Long Materials, were not revised at the last convention ; but the 
Secretary has a supply of these on hand and can fill orders promptly. 
These are sold at the same rates as the Rules of Interchange. 

A reprint of Arbitration Cases 453 to 570 is also now ready for 
delivery. These will be sold at 25 cents per copy. 

The above may be had from Jos. W. Taylor, secretary, 66y Rookery 
Bldg., Chicago. 



318 



Railway Master Mechanic 




I— H 

w 
> 

w 

on 

w 

o 
3 



10 

w 
o 

< 
w 

H 

O 

w 

o 



rv! 



c 

1 



<8 



H 



O 
O 



H 

Q 

O 
C 

U 



u 

w 

w 
u 



I 

S-i 

<D 

> 
• i—i 

^ B 

a: 

<U X 

X ° 

.S <u 

00 ^ 
N (A 
X "* 

M 1) 
<d 



x 



<D 



^ S3 



<D 



S c 



a cr 

i — i c/: 

On 
w ^ 

B '" ' 
O ^ 

8 * 

O 

cf 

I <D 



> o 



t— I ^~> 



u 
a 
B 
cr 



B "^ 

o ^ 

>- 00 

'5c ^ 



P .A 

rt <D 

cr o 

cfl _B 

"3 

CD 

u B 

J-. o 
bJO Oh 

• ~ O 
o O 

TO 



B 

CD 
U 



<D 



o 



^ 



B B 



B 

rt 
cu 



O 

a 

o 
o 

On -B 

7 » 

CD 
bJC .5 

"53 

O 



B B 

cr k> 
o 

of 



DOUBLE END CONSOLIDATION LOCOMOTIVE 
—SYDNEY & LOUISBURG RAILWAY. 

The Schenectady Locomotive Works have recently turned out two 
double end locomotives for the Dominion Coal Co., Ltd., of Cape Breton 
Island, Nova Scotia, for use upon the latter's road — the Sydney & Lou- 
isburg Railway. One of .these double end engines is a mogul and the 
other is a consolidation, and they are believed to be among the largest 
double end locomotives ever built. They were both designed to meet 
the specifications of the Dominion Coal Co., which specifications were 
drawn to conform to the peculiar conditions of service met with on that 
company's road. 

The consolidation engine, which we illustrate, weighs 239,000 lbs., of 
which 170,000 pounds are on the drivers. It has 2 2x2 8-inch cylinder; 
55-inch drivers; a straight 72-inch boiler, designed to carry 200 pounds 
pressure ; a fire box 1 14x41 % inches ; a grate area of 33.21 square feet ; 
and heating surface of — tubes, 2,5 12 square feet ; fire box, 176.92 square 
feet, total, 2,689.47 square feet. 

Both this and the mogul have gone into service and are reported to 
be very satisfactorily meeting all requirements. The principal data con- 
cerning the consolidation engine are as follows : 

GENERAL DIMENSIONS. 

Gauge 4 feet, 8 )/ z inches 

Fuel Bituminous coal 

Weight in working order 239, 000 lbs . 

Weight on drivers 170,000 lbs. 

Wheel base, driving 15 feet, inches 

Wheel base, rigid 15 feet, inches 

Wheel base, total 36 feet, 3 inches 

CYLINDERS. 

Diameter of cylinders 22 inches 

Stroke of piston 28 inches 

Horizontal thickness of piston 5 ]/ 2 inches 

Diameter of piston rod ^H inches 

Kind of piston packing Cast iron 

Kind of piston rod packing U.S. 

Size of steam ports 18x1^ inches 

Size of exhaust ports 18x2^4 inches 

Size of bridges 1 ' s inches 

VALVES. 

Kind of slide valves American balanced 

Greatest -travel of slide valves 5^ inches 

Outside lap of slide valves 3^ -inch 

Inside lap of slide valves 1 -32-inch 

Lead of valves in full gear 1-16-inch 

Kind of valve stem packing U. S. 

319 



320 Railway Master Mechanic 



WHEELS, ETC. 

Diameter of driving wheels outside of tire 55 inches 

Material of driving wheels, centers . . Main, cast steel; Inter. F. & B. steeled cast iron 

Tire held by Shrinkage 

Driving box material Main, cast steel ; Inter. F. & B. steeled cast iron 

Diameter and length of driving journals, main only 9 inches diameter, 8^ in. dia.xio in. 
Diameter and length of main crank pin journals, (main side 7}4 X 5 in.) 7 in. dia.x6j4 in. 
Dia. and length of side rod crank pin journals, (F. & B. 5x3^ in.) Inter. 6 in. dia..x4}4 in. 

Engine truck, kind 2-wheel swing bolster 

Engine truck, journals 6 in. dia.xio in 

Diameter of engine truck wheels 30 inches 

Kind of engine truck wheels .Plate 

BOILER. 

Style Straight 

Outside diameter of first ring 72 inches 

Working pressure 200 lbs. 

Material of barrel and outside of fire box Carbon steel 

Thickness of plates in barrel and outside of fire box 2 3\3 2 > 9-16, x / 2 , and n -16 in. 

Horizontal seams. Butt joint sextuple riveted, with welt strip inside and outside 

Circumferential seams Double riveted 

Fire box, length 114 inches 

Fire box, width 41^6 inches 

Fire box, depth F. 70^ , B. 67^ inches 

Fire box, material Carbon steel 

Fire box, plates, thickness. . .Sides 5-16-in., back 5-16-in., crown ^g-in., tube sheet j^-in. 

Fire box, water space Front, 4 inches ; sides, 3^2 inches ; back, 3^2 and 4 inches 

Fire box, crown staying .... Radial stays 1 Y%-'\n. dia. 

Fire box, stay bolts 1 in. dia. 

Tubes, material Charcoal iron, No. 1 2 

Tubes, number of 348 

Tubes, diameter 2 inches 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 13 feet 10 inches 

Fire brick, supported on Studs 

Heating surface, tubes 2512.55 square feet 

Heating surface, fire box 176.92 square feet 

Heating surface, total 2689.47 square feet 

Grate surface 33 - 21 square feet 

Grate style Rocking 

Ash pan, style Sectional, dampers front and back 

Exhaust pipes Single, high 

Exhaust nozzles S/4 inches, 5^ inches, 5^ inches 

Smoke stack, inside diameter 16 inches 

Smoke stack, top above rail 14 feet, 9 9-16 inches 

Boiler supplied by Two Hancock inspirators, type A, size No. 9 R & L. 

TENDER. 

Wheels, number of 4 

Wheels, diameter 28 inches 

Journals, diameter and length 5 in. dia.x9 inches 

Tender trucks, 4-wheel center bearing swing spring bolster carrying back end of engine 

Water capacity 4,200 U. S. gallons 

Coal capacity 4 tons 



Gauges for Worn Couplers 321 

SPECIAL EQUIPMENT. 

American steam brake on all drivers and on 4-wheel truck. 

Two headlights. 

Two Crosby 3-inch muffled safety valves. 

Magnesia lagging on boiler and cylinders. 

Leach sand feeding apparatus. 

One No. 3 Star 6-inch chime whistle. 

GAUGES FOR WORN COUPLERS. 

In accordance with the instructions of the Master Car Builders' 
Association, the question of the manufacture and price of the gauges for 
worn couplers was taken up, in connection with the Committee on M. 
C. B. Couplers, with the Pratt & Whitney Co., Hartford, Conn., and the 
latter advise that the cost of each gauge will depend considerably upon 
the number they make in the first lot ; that they would not undertake to 
manufacture the gauges without knowing in advance that a sufficient 
number of orders would be received to warrant them in going to the ex- 
pense involved in fitting up tools for this purpose. The Pratt & Whit- 
ney Co. quote $20.00 per gauge, but it is thought when made in 
quantities they would probably cost $15.00 each. In order that some 
idea may be had as to the number of gauges that will be required, Sec- 
retary Taylor asks association members to advise him how many gauges 
they will need. As soon as it is learned about how many gauges will be 
ordered, and a definite price determined upon, he will issue notice of the 
price and from whom the gauges can be obtained. 

THE USEFULNESS OF THE MASTER MECHANICS' 

ASSOCIATION. 

The Master Mechanics' committee appointed to report on the ques- 
tion, " What can the American Railway Master Mechanics' Association 
do to increase its usefulness ?" has issued its circular of inquiry asking 
for an expression of view, and for suggestions on this subject, for the 
assistance of the committee in preparing and presenting a report which 
shall embody, as far as possible, the ideas and opinions of the members 
of this association. The committee asks especially for views and opin- 
ions on the following divisions of this question : The discussions at the 
convention, the official records of proceedings and their practical value to 
members and railroads generally. Suggestions should be sent to T. R. 
Browne, master mechanic, Juniata shops, Pennsylvania Railroad Co., 
Altoona, Pa. Mr. Browne is chairman of this committee, and the other 
members are G. M. Basford and L. R. Pomeroy. 



322 



R \ n. way Master Mechanic 



A CAM THROTTLE LEVER. 




The cam throttle lever shown 
in our engraving is called the 
Canady lever, and is owned by 
Mr. O. H. Jackson, who, until 
very recently, was master me- 
chanic of the Santa Fe, Prescott 
& Phoenix and Prescott & East- 
ern railway companies. Its chief 
feature is the fine adjustment 
which it affords by reason of 
replacing the usual throttle latch 
with a cam. The capability of 
the fine adjustment of the lever, 
and the positive lock in any posi- 
tion with this cam, is plainly seen 
by reference to our engraving. 
There is no chance of the lever 
moving when the handle is re- 
leased, no chance for a careless 
man to leave the throttle un- 
locked, and no notches to wear. 
The levers are made of malle- 
able iron, with the exception of 
the cam and quadrant, which are 
made of steel. The springs are 
made of the best steel wire and 
carefully tempered. 
There have been in- 
quiries as to what 
would occur if the 
spring should break ; 
and Mr. Jackson in- 
forms us that he has had eight 
levers in service on his road since 
last October, and has not as yet 
had a broken spring. But in 
event of a spring breaking, press- 



The Master Blacksmiths' Association 323 



ing the handle away from the lever locks the cam on the quadrant^ 
so that it will not move. 

The wear is very slight, as the cam is lifted free of the quadrant 
and held there before the lever can be moved, so that really leaves only 
a wear on the pins. These levers can be used in connection with the 
fulcrum on the bottom of the lever and the jaw on the throttle stem, of 
any engine now in service, making the expense of applying them only 
the cost of a jaw to hold the quadrant on the boiler head, and one stud 
to secure the jaw to the back head of the boiler. 

This lever has been in use on the Santa Fe, Prescott & Phoenix 
since last October, as above noted, and is also in service on the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe, Texas & Pacific, and P. & E. division of the Cleve- 
land, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis. 

NATIONAL RAILROAD MASTER BLACKSMITHS' 

ASSOCIATION. 

In our last issue we gave a brief note concerning the annual conven- 
tion of the National Railway Master Blacksmiths' Association. The 
meeting was well attended and vigorously conducted. We cannot give 
the full story of the convention, but we print in the following paragraphs 
abstracts of a part of what was said : 

MAKING AND REPAIRING LOCOMOTIVE AND CAR SPRINGS. 

Mr. G. L. Lindsey presented a paper in which he urged oil as a fuel in 
this work. In quenching, he preferred fish oil above linseed, whale or 
lard oil. In drawing temper, he considered that a full heat quenched in 
oil does not provoke internal strains and that since oil does not harden 
the steel any too hard, there was no necessity in annealing. The 
changing of the bands in time, was a point wherein many cases of spring 
troubles could be avoided. The designing of springs should be studied 
in spring making, as well as the quality of the steel. 

Mr. G. F. Hinkens presented a paper on this same topic, devoted 
largely to accounts of experiments in determining permanent set. One 
conclusion was that a temper obtained in oil is too soft for driver springs. 

No conclusion was reached, in the discussion of these papers, as to the 
proper degree of heat to which steel should be brought before quench- 
ing, or as to the relative values of quenching liquids and compounds. So 
many views were expressed, that the feeling developed that a committee 
should be appointed to make complete tests of the various quenching 



•324 Railway Master Mechanic 

liquids applied to steel, whose varying percentage of carbon should be 
kept in mind during these tests, although we believe the appointment of 
such a committee was not formally ordered. During the discussion 
Mr. Ouayle stated that if master blacksmiths would demand a steel of 
certain specified quality that the heads of departments would not, he 
thought, make any serious objections to the higher cost thereof, if the 
results obtainable therefrom by a corresponding increase in length of 
service could be shown in figures ; and he offered the use of his laboratory 
to the association. 

TOOLS FOR CAR FORGINGS. 

Mr. J. P. Fredrickson presented a paper on this topic, urging the 
centralizing of such work at the general shop, and pointing out the 
need for the best devices for the work to be given the master black- 
smith, as well as the need for active aid from the higher officers — such 
aid as is given to the machine shop foreman. 

FUEL FOR FURNACE USE. 

Mr. E. Carlson read a paper on this topic, in which he stated that 
u it is wasting time to discuss the difference between coal and oil, even 
at the high prices we are now paying for the latter. It is cheaper, to 
say nothing of the cleanliness and, most important of all, we are getting 
by far a greater amount of work." He used oil for bolt forging and 
bending work and expected later to use it in axle and heavy shop work. 

In discussion of this paper, Mr. Folk considered that oil was no more 
expensive than coal, and that it gave a more even distribution of heat 
throughout the mass of metal. He considered an egg-shaped interior 
the best for oil furnaces, for it permitted keeping the flame away from 
the metal. Mr. Judy pointed out that the flame, in striking the metal, 
deposited a form of carbon thereon, also impurities in the oil, with a 
resultant bad effect on welding. 

SHOP METHODS. 

Mr. Hinkens read a paper upon " Importance of the blacksmith 
shop relative to cost of construction and maintenance of railway rolling 
stock." He argued that a railroad shop could not be managed upon 
exactly the same lines as a manufacturing establishment. Much 
assistance, he pointed out, could be given to blacksmith shop manage- 
ment by other foremen presenting their work to the blacksmith shop 
in a methodical manner, and not unnecessarily sending in important 
work to be done in a rush. 



The Master Blacksmiths' Association 325 

FORGING WROUGHT IRON AXLES. 

Mr. S. Uren read a report on " The best method of making wrought 
iron axles," some extracts from which follow : 

The best quality of scrap only should be permitted to be placed in the slab piles. 
Scrap material from old boilers that have been coated with scale, or foreign substances, 
should be thoroughly cleaned in the rattler. Low carbon steel should be avoided in all 
cases. Slightly oxidized or rusty iron is not injurious, as the rust is pure oxide of iron, 
and a flux. After the iron has been carefully selected, it is put up in piles of 160 or 200 
pounds on boards about 10x14 inches. The long pieces of scrap should be placed length- 
wise on the board on the bottom and sides ; the center should be filled in with short 
pieces, the short pieces lapping each other, and binders placed across the ends of the pile. 
The placing of the piles in the reverberatory furnace is one of the most important opera- 
tions ; fuel impregnated with sulphur or other injurious elements will be absorbed by the 
semi-molten piles, causing what is known as red short and cold short iron ; its injurious 
effects can never be eradicated. Gas is superior for heating purposes on this account. 
Silicon from the furnace bottom or any of the furnace lining, should be guarded against. 
Each pile should be turned over for the purpose of heating it through thoroughly, and 
the piles should be swept off on the way to the hammer. The forger should square up 
the pile by light blows of the hammer, then draw the slab to the required dimensions. 
The forger often plates the pile thin with the first two or three blows, then doubles it 
over. This is a bad practice, as the impurities that may have adhered to the surface of 
the pile while being manipulated in the furnace, will be worked into the center of the 
doubled-over slab and prevent a perfect union. The slab should be drawn to about 
i}4 inches thick and 6% wide, for the standard M. C. B. axle. The quality of the axle 
depends in a great measure on the proper working of the slabs. After the slabs are cut 
to the proper length and a sufficient number laid together to produce the axle required, 
as many of these piles are placed in the furnace as the capacity of the same will permit. 
The same conditions exist as in heating piles for slabs, as regards fuel, etc. The axle 
pile being brought to the proper heat is shaped roughly in round dies the entire length, 
requiring considerable dexterity and quickness. The reheating of this rough shape to a 
proper welding heat, about two-thirds of its length, is the most important part of the 
whole operation ; if care is not taken, or the bridge wall of the furnace is not in proper 
shape, the end of the ingot will become overheated before the center of the axle is suf- 
ficiently hot to form a perfect union in the center of axle. The end, if finished after 
being brought to too high heat, will produce a bad crystalline journal, and will also be 
defective at the wheel fit. In our opinion this is the cause of many axles breaking at the 
wheel fit. If the center of the billet is not sufficiently hot a perfect union of the different 
layers is not produced, although the outside can be worked over so that the defects in 
the center of the cross section are not visible. The portion of the axle to be finished 
being brought to the proper heat the full length of the portion to be worked, the forger 
shouid place the center of the pile in the roughing recess of the die, manipulating the 
same until the end is reached, as quickly as possible ; should the pile have a slightly 
higher heat at the center than at the end, the operation should be reversed, commencing 
at the end and working back to the center. The axle being worked down sufficiently in 
the first large swedges, is placed in the next smaller die or swedge, for finishing the half of 
the axle to the proper dimensions, this swedge being a littleihigh in the center to give th e 
axle the proper taper to its center. The third swedge or recess is provided with a pro- 
jection at the bottom of the swedge, tapering to nothing at the upper sides of the die, for 
the purpose of cutting in the journal. The end of the axle should be placed in this die 
at as high a heat as practical for the purpose of producing good journals. As the forger 



326 Railway Master Mechanic 

has become so expert in making axles, that the portion operated on is almost down to its 
proper dimensions while at a white heat, while the metal does not attain its strength or 
ductility until it is worked at a low red heat, a trough of water should be convenient to 
the hammer and the heated portion of the axle partially cooled. After cooling, the iron 
is again placed in the finishing dies and lightly hammered over until the axle attains a 
blood red heat, or until it will cease oxidizing in cooling. Axles finished at too high heat 
scale in cooling, and being broken will show a crystalline structure. The proper weight 
of hammer is an important factor in the production of good- axles ; a light hammer will 
affect the iron on the outside only ; a hammer of the proper weight will affect the iron to 
the center of the ingot. The writer prefers a heavy hammer not less than 4,000 pounds. 

Papers on this same subject were presented by R. Toomey and by 
S. Harris. Mr. Toomey preferred that the piles of scrap should be built 
to 225 pounds. These he would have hammered out, cut in two, re- 
heated and three slabs of these sections would work out a car axle. In 
discussion of these papers, Mr. Judy held that it was important to work 
the pile lengthwise of the anvil at first and then crosswise, after a good 
coherence had been obtained. He also urged that the merit of an axle 
depends most particularly in the care taken in heating and working the 
pile, for the pile, being made of short pieces of scrap, was in much dan- 
ger of having hollow spots through the space existing between the ends 
of the small pieces. Mr. Riley held that four thin slabs were better 
than three thicker slabs, and that the first blow upon the pile 
should be struck with the pile up-ending, thus giving coherence to the 
mass, and forcing out the impurities due to fuel and slag. Mr. Uren 
preferred large slabs and a less number, because a 200-pound slab, be- 
ing as large as could be conveniently handled, could be readily drawn 
down to 2^ inches thick, and there would be a less liability to imper- 
fect cross sections, due to the imperfect welding together, throughout 
the length of the adjoining faces of the slabs. He stated that while care 
should be taken in selecting scrap free from steel, still a small percent- 
age of steel, if it could be kept in the center of the axle, was not dele- 
terious, for it added to the tensile strength by enriching the iron's car- 
bon percentage, while of itself losing in carbon. 

CASE HARDENING. 

A paper by Mr. Buckley, on " The Proper Method of Case Harden- 
ing," set forth that there w r as such a variety of opinion as to the best 
compounds used for that purpose that a positive opinion was hard to 
form. The compounds which are named as favorites are, "raw bone with 
sal soda," "hydro-carbonated bone-black," "manganese of iron," and 
various carbon compounds — all giving carbonization of about the same 
depth. For heavy depth of carbonization, from 15 to 20 hours in the 



The Master Blacksmiths' Association 327 

furnaces were necessary; and for light depth, from 8 to 10 hours. In 
the discussion Mr. Hinkens said he coated the pieces of iron in liquid 
glue, and used as a compound, charcoal, potash and salt. Mr. Jenkins 
coated his pieces in glue and rolled them in potash, using any compound. 
He used pure charcoal, and several others favored that, also, as a com- 
pound. 

LOCOMOTIVE BLACKSMITHING. 

Mr. T. C. Lace presented a paper on this topic, from which we make 
the following extracts : 

The slot in driving springs is not long enough ; this is one of the causes of breakage 
on the end of the spring, or chafing of the hanger till it breaks. The top plates of driv- 
ing springs should be steel at the gib seat instead of iron, which is too soft, the gib often 
wearing into the iron, thus forming a fulcrum which breaks off the end of the spring or 
the hanger. The equalizers on heavy engines are sometimes worn at the slot by the 
spring hanger till a burr of about ^g-inch is thrown out on each side — showing that there 
is more friction than is actually necessary for easy working. At times, these bearings 
will stick and throw a strain on another part, which breaks accordingly, while the 
floating weight on the end of the equalizers soon wears them out of shape, the remedy for 
which is to make the equalizers of steel, but these must not be overheated in forging or 
in dressing up. Chrome steel can also be welded on the centers and ends of iron equal- 
izers, thus making them keep their shape. The equalizer swords should be made of mild 
steel finished on the anvil at a dull red heat, while the sword or D head hangers, which 
are in three -pieces, should have hardened bushings, the pin also being hardened ; com- 
mon pipe ground inside would answer for these bushings, and could be pressed or shrunk 
in. The valve yoke stem would be better case hardened. I know it is the custom to 
weld steel stems on in some places, but the steel you weld so readily is no harder than 
iron, which is easier to weld. The driver brake apparatus should have every pin hard- 
ened, the levers bushed, and the cam screws hardened, except the thread end. I will 
remark that wrought iron in its soft state makes one of the most inferior wearing surfaces 
known. It has the failing of mixing the fiber and tearing apart, instead of wearing 
uniformly. You have, no doubt, noticed this in chains and bolts about brake work on 
tenders and tracks. 

THE TOOL SMITH. 

Mr. T. C: Lace also presented a paper on "The Tool Smith," in 
which he argued that while tool steel had been widely discussed, nothing 
is said about the tool smith, who, if not the most important workman in 
a large establishment, is next to him. He is, as a rule, not easy to re- 
place, and is conspicuous by his absence, if that is even temporary. 
This branch, continued Mr. Lace, above all others in the trade, makes 
the strongest call upon the intelligence and reasoning powers of the 
workman ; this trade is not learned from books, but is the outcome of 
reason and experience, therefore it calls for men above the average to 
comprehend the intricacies, such as the degree of heat suitable for the 
various metals, angle and twist in cutting tools, hardening and temper- 
ing, making special forgings of tool steel, etc. The tool smith knows by 



328 Railway Master Mechanic 

intuition what kind of steel he is working on, and his memory is taxed 
often, to accord a certain mode of treatment to a certain brand of steel. 
He attends to this without any apparent effort, although the material he 
works costs from 6 to 30 cents per pound. Is this material cheap 
enough, asked Mr. Lace, to place in the hands of a novice, or, worse still, 
a man who is careless and ignorant of the properties of steel ? The 
wrong lies, as far as Mr. Lace is able to judge, in the selection of men 
who are placed at the principal fire doing the steel work ; and instead of 
the experience of one being handed down to the next, it becomes like an 
unwritten language, lost in the absence of the speaker. In closing, Mr. 
Lace said: "We wish to educate the tool smith so that he will be above 
believing in liquids or solutions to restore burned steel. All of these stand 
in line with charms and incantations." 

TOOL STEEL MANIPULATION. 

Mr. Stephen Uren presented a paper on this topic, an abstract of 
which follows : 

There are five points in the manipulation of a good quality of crucible steel for tools, 
that should be strictly adhered to : the proper heat for forging to shape required ; the 
proper manipulation on the anvil ; the proper heat for hardening, after being forged or 
machine finished ; tempering the tool to the proper degree of hardness to suit the differ- 
ent conditions the tool is intended for, and the proper heat for annealing. 

No man in a railroad shop receives more unjust criticism than the tool smith ; when 
the tools do not give satisfaction, the fault is almost invariably placed on the tool smith. 
He is either condemned for heating the steel too hot, or working it too cold, or not 
forging the tool to the proper shape, whether the fault is bad judgment in the man using 
the tool, or inferior quality of steel, whereas, in many cases, the fault is neither in the 
smith nor the steel, but in the abused use of the tool. 

In all cases where the section has to be materially reduced, bring the steel to a good, 
bright red heat ; continue working it until you would consider it the proper heat for 
hardening. If the piece is not to the dimensions required, reheat it. If little working is 
required to bring it to the required dimensions, an ordinary red heat is all that is re- 
quired. In no case should the heated steel receive severe working below the heat that is 
required for hardening. 

Proper manipulation on the anvil is as important as proper heating. Tools used to 
bring the metal to shape required, should have smooth surfaces, as the least nick or over- 
lap or indentations, will cause any tool to break that is subjected to vibrating strains by 
impact force. The force of the hammer should be governed by the degree of heat in the 
steel and the breadth or thickness of the surface. Hammering below the proper heat 
will affect the surface only, while reheating for hardening will remove the surface-hard- 
ening the steel has received by hammering too cold. 

The proper heat for hardening varies in proportion to the per cent of carbon — the 
only rule governing this is to heat the steel at as low heat as will produce the hardness 
required. Tempering the tool after being hardened, requires good judgment. The 
smith should know for what purpose the tool is to be used. The same heat required for 
hardening will answer for annealing. No steel should be brought to a higher heat than 



The Master Blacksmiths' Association 329 

is required for hardening, if no work is done while in the heated state, as a high heat 
without being worked on the anvil will leave the molecular structure of the steel in an 
impaired condition. 

Many differing grades of steel in a shop, where all kinds of tools are produced, is 
confusing. A first-class quality of steel, produced from 99 per cent of the quality of 
iron best adapted for converting into steel, will answer any purpose in the range of tools 
required in a railroad shop. No tool requires a better quality of steel than the ordinary 
machinist's chipping chisel, or the blacksmith's cold chisel, for they come in contact 
with the most obdurate of metals, as well as soft material. They receive more punish- 
ment than any other tool. The hardest metals have to be removed by force transmitted 
from the head to the point of the chisel, consequently the quality of steel is as important 
a factor at the head as at the point of the chisel ; if the head of the chisel will wear to a 
smooth surface and will resist the heavy hammering it receives without much compres- 
sion or curling over, or slivering off at each foul blow, it is of a good quality of steel, 
and if the tool has been shaped properly on the anvil, after being brought to the proper 
heat for forging and hardening, and tempered to the proper degree, and accomplishes its 
work by heavy blows with sledge or hammer, without the point splitting, bending or 
breaking, it is of a steel that will answer for almost any railroad shop tool. 

From my standpoint, two classes of steel are all that is required, viz : steel that will 
harden sufficiently to meet all conditions by the. -sudden extracting of heat, and self- 
hardening, or what is known as alloy steel, the heat extracted by air. 

For ordinary purposes, pure water is the most practical hardening liquid, as it is the 
best extractor of heat. For small tools, or tools having delicate projections, the water 
should be tempered to meet the requirements, or oil substituted. For exceedingly small 
tools, oil will extract the heat in sufficient time to produce the hardness required. 

MILD STEEL VS. WROUGHT IRON. 

Mr. Mould read the report of his committee upon the " Relative 
Values of Mild Steel and Wrought Iron," in which the opinion was given 
that, for most purposes, mild steel was better than wrought iron, owing 
to the greater tensile strength and finer structure thereof. It could 
be worked much nicer, and flaws in the material were much less frequent. 
On his road, steel was used to a very great extent, and in almost every 
particular, especially in driving axles, which they had been using for 20 
years, steel was giving excellent satisfaction. In the discussion, Mr. 
Uren stated that, in his opinion, wherever the metal was subject to 
purely tensile or compressive stresses, or if simple stiffness or ability to 
resist abrasion was desired, steel undoubtedly was the proper metal ; but 
wherever there were vibratory stresses or a combination of stresses, he 
thought wrought iron far superior, because steel had no fiber but was 
granular in structure, and therefore less able to resist shattering, and 
was more subject to weather conditions, whereas iron, having a fiber, 
was more able to resist a combination of stresses, particularly those of a 
vibratory nature. Mr. Lindsey held that high carbon steel was better 
for vibratory stresses. 



330 



Railway Master Mechanic 




o 



2 £ 



u 






P5 C 



EARLY AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVES FOR 

ENGLAND. 

England has so long supplied her own entire requirements for loco- 
motives, that shipment of American engines to that country has, to 
most persons, the force of entire novelty. Nevertheless, it is not with- 
out precedent, as locomotives were built for English railways as long ago 
as 1840, in shops now comprising part of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
but then owned by Messrs. William Norris & Company. The accompa- 
nying illustration shows one of the locomotives, and the view on the 
opposite page is a reduced copy of an old print showing the same locomo- 
tive at work on the Lickey Incline of the Birmingham & Gloucester 
Railway, which is now part of the Midland Railway. The Lickey In- 
cline extends from Bromsgrove to Blackwell, a distance of nearly three 
miles, and the rise is 1 in 37, or 2.7 per cent. Four locomotives were 
furnished with which to operate it, all of a design which was then 
peculiar to the Norris Works, comprising a single pair of driving wheels 
placed forward of the fire box, and a four-wheeled leading truck. The 
cylinders were 10^ inches in diameter by 18-inch stroke, outside con- 
nected and placed on an incline above the truck wheels. The driving 
wheels were 48 inches diameter, and the engine weighed, in work- 
ing order, about 21,500 pounds. The locomotive "Philadelphia," here 
shown, which was one of the four above mentioned, is said to have, 
hauled a train of loaded wagons, weighing in all 74 tons, up the grade 
of 2.7 per cent, at a speed of 9^ miles per 
hour. For this information, and the accom- 
panying illustrations, we are indebted to the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works. 




Baldwin Engine for England — 1840. 
331 



332 



Railway Master Mechanic 



THE CAR FOREMEN'S ASSOCIATION OF 

CHICAGO. 

OCTOBER MEETING. 

The regular meeting of the Car Foremen's Association of Chicago was held in the 

rooms of the Western Society of Engineers, 1741 Monadnock Building, Chicago, Oct. 12, 

1899. 

President Morris called the meeting to order at 8:20 p. m. Among those present were : 



Baikie, T. P. 
Blackburn, D. W. 
Bates, G. M. 
Blohm, T. 
Carey, C. H. 
Callahan, J. P. 
Coleman, J. 
Cather, C. C. 
Callahan, Jno. 
Constant, E. J. 
Cook, W. C. 
Deen, C. 



Davies, W. O., Jr. 
Dana, E. W. 
Earle, Ralph 
Goehrs, W. H. 
Gruhlke, E. 
Grieb, J. C. 
Guthenberg, B. 
Groobey, Geo. 
Aultman, Chas. 
Hunt, T. B. 
Johnson, A. H. 
Jones, R. R. 



Johannes, A. 
Kroff, F. C. 
Kuhlman, H. V. 
Miner, W. H. 
Morris, T. R. 
Nightengale, H. 
Nordquist, Chas. 
Opie, Jas. 
Olsen, Louis 
Pern, A. R. 
Reinhard, F. B. 
Stagg, C. S. 



Saum, C. 
Stripp, R. G. 
Saum, G. N. 
Schultz, Aug. 
Smith, E. B. 
Thomson, Geo. 
Wolfe, Charles 
Weschler, H. 
Williams, T. 
Wensley, W. H. 
Wentsell, Geo. 



MISCELLANEOUS BUSINESS. 
B. Smith submitted his report for the year ending Oct. 12, 1899, as 



Treasurer 

follows : 

Received from R. Wharton, treasurer, balance on hand from last year. . .$ 11 .78 
Received from the Secretary 252.92 



5271.70 
Total amount paid out on vouchers 261 . 65 



Balance on hand S 10.05 

The report was accepted and ordered placed on file. 

Secretary W. C. Cook submitted his report for the year ending Oct. 12, 1899, as 
follows ; 

RECEIPTS. 

Balance on hand from previous year $ 11.78 

Amount received from entertainment fund, Oct. 17, 1898 36.92 

Amount received from memberships 125.00 

Amount received from renewals of old memberships 53°° 

Amount received from contributions 45-QO 



5271.70 



DISBURSEMENTS. 

For postage $ 45.50 

For stationery, printing, etc 2 5-3° 

For stenographers' reports at meetings 66.35 

Secretary's salary 72.00 

For rental of rooms . . 5 2 -5° 

5261.65 

Balance on hand at close of year 5 10.05 

The report shows only receipt of 5125.00 from memberships, while there were 129 new 
members received during the year. The discrepancy is accounted for in this way : Three 
members who joined last meeting night did not pay their dues. That will be shown up in 
this year's business. And one member who joined a year ago overlooked the fact that he 
should pay his dues. We will have to charge that up to profit and loss. 



The Car Foremen's Association '•'>:):> 

We started our second year's business with 74 members. During the year we received 
129 new members. Out of the 74 members from the first year, whose terms expired during 
the second year's business, we secured renewals from 53, and out of the balance I think that 
there will probably be about eight or nine that we will yet secure. Some of them only ex- 
pired during the month of September, and probably have not arranged for payment on 
account of not being at the meetings. But I think we will only lose during the year about 
twelve whose terms expired during the second year's business. 

The report was accepted and ordered placed on file. 

Secretary Cook : We have applications for membership from the following gentlemen : 
W. E. Symons, superintendent motive power, Plant System of Railways; C. D. Pettis, gen- 
eral foreman I. C. Railway; C. R. Green, chief joint car inspector, South St. Joseph, Mo.; 
A. W. Tilly, general foreman, I. C. Railway at Clinton, 111.; S. C. Kelly, general foreman, I. 
C. Railway at Centralia, 111.; A. R. Perry, Atlantic Brass Co. 

Mr. Grieb, of the Committee on Revision of Constitution and By-laws/reported that that 
committee was not as yet in position to present its report, and was given more time. 

Mr. Groobey reported that the committee on the annual celebration had made arrange- 
ments with Mr. W. G. Collins, general manager of the C, M. & St. P. Railway, who had 
kindly consented to take as many members of this association as could find time to go to 
Milwaukee on October 21. 

The next order of business was the nomination and election of officers. The names of 
Messrs. Sharp, Hunt, Morris, Kuhlman, Grieb, Groobey, Wharton and Callahan were pre- 
sented as candidates. After the motion " that the nominations be closed " had carried, it 
was found that the only available candidate was the present incumbent, Mr. T. R. Morris, 
each of the other nominees having withdrawn. A vote resulted in unanimously re-electing 
Mr. Morris for the office of president. 

For the office of vice president the name of Mr. W. E. Sharp was presented and the 
nominations closed. Mr. Sharp received the unanimous vote of the association and was de- 
clared elected. 

Mr. W. C. Cook was presented as candidate for the office of secretary. The nomina- 
tions then closed and he was unanimously elected. 

For the office of treasurer, the names of Messrs. Deen and Groobey were presented. Mr. 
Groobey withdrew, and Mr. Deen was unanimously elected. 

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

President Morris then made the following address : 

Gentlemen: In looking backward over the past year, the members of the Car Fore- 
men's Association can find much to congratulate themselves upon. I do not think that any 
one of the nine charter members who organized the association on Oct. 6, 1897, ever 
imagined that it would grow to its present proportions, with a membership of nearly 190. 
This growth has been a steady and healthful one, there not having been a single meeting 
during the past year when new members have not been added to our list. The interest 
shown in the meetings has made this possible. The attendance has averaged about 70 for 
each meeting, and this for an association as young in years as yours speaks very highly for 
the members. 

Another source of congratulation is the interest taken in the proceedings by the car 
inspector, as shown by his attendance at the meetings. One object we aim at is the educa- 
tion of this man, upon whom devolves the responsibility for the safety of trains and the safe 
transportation of passengers and freight. The more intelligence he brings to his chosen 
calling, the better satisfaction you will get in results. If he can, by precept or example, or 
by the exchange of ideas, be taught to improve his mind, his work will show it. The com- 
pany for whom he works will be benefited, and he, personally, will be made a more valuable 
man, with higher ideals, resulting in financial and social benefits. 

Another object of the association is to make the inspectors, who handle the immense 
interchange business of Chicago, acquainted with one another. A great deal of the bad 
feeling among inspectors is caused by misunderstandings. When inspector A meets in- 
spector B — or, foreman, as the case may be — upon the neutral floor of the association rooms, 
he finds that Mr. B. is not such a bad fellow after all. He meets him a few times and hears 



334 Railway Master Mechanic 

him explain away some of the dark spots, which really exist only in the imaginations of the 
parties, and the consequence is — fewer cars delayed and a better feeling all around between 
man and man. I claim that during the two years existence of our association our work has 
benefited the railroad companies as well as ourselves to an immense degree. The railroad 
companies acknowledge it, but I do not think that we, as members, realize it to its full 
extent. 

Another thing I claim is that we have been the means of giving the car foremen and 
inspectors a standing that they have never had before. The importance of our part of the 
work of running a railroad is being recognized. 

Our first annual celebration of Oct. 17, 1S98, drew the attention of local railroaders to 
our association, and the printing of our minutes in the RAILWAY Master MECHANIC has 
demonstrated that we are keeping up with the times, by discussing questions which are of 
interest to all car men. 

Any one who comes to our meetings expecting to hear high-flown dissertations on the 
scientific manner in which cars should be inspected will be disappointed. We are plain 
people. ( )ur strong point is not oratory. We tell what we know in our own way, and, while 
we sometimes make mistakes, we are always willing to correct them, and we are learning all 
the time. There is a future before us, both as an association and as individuals, and there 
is no reason why. if we continue as we have begun, we should not secure a standing among 
the railway clubs of this country that will be a source of pride to us all. To accomplish this, 
each member should constitute himself a committee of one, to forward the interests of the 
association in every way possible. This can be done by attending the meetings regularly, 
taking part in the discussions, and suggesting good live subjects, based on actual practice 
and experience, to talk about. 

I want to thank you all for the very generous support you have given me as chairman 
during the past year, and hope that the cordial relations now existing among the members 
will continue. 

I appreciate highly the honor conferred on me by a re-election to the office of president, 
although I feel that it should have goue to another. I thank you again. We will now pro- 
ceed with the regular business. 

CHARGING FOR "TEMPORARY REPAIRS." 

There being no special subject on the program for discussion, Mr. Grieb suggested that 
the association might discuss with profit the question as to whether it was the practice of 
any of the roads interested in interchange at Chicago to charge when they made " temporary " 
repairs to such defects as would, if proper repairs had been made, be chargeable 
to owners. 

Mr. Wensley: We don't make any charge. If I have to make temporary repairs to a 
car going east, I have it marked for the repair yard on its return, and then make proper 
repairs. 

Mr. Stagg: I don't exactly understand what you mean by "temporary" repairs. Do 
you call strapping up a draft timber temporary repairs? If that is temporary repairs, I do 
not see why a man should not be paid for them. The probabilities are we may never get 
the car again. I do not approve of temporary repairs, if I can get out of it. But if I put 
a bolt through the sill, I am going to charge for it. When you know you are going to get a 
car back in 12 hours, it is different ; but when a car is going 1,000 miles, we always charge. 

Mr. Smith : I have a case in mind, now, where delivering road put a bolt in upside 
down on a draft timber, and put a repair card on. The chief inspector asked the delivering 
road for a joint evidence card, and he took it up with the general foreman, and the general 
foreman took it up with me. Some think that was not the proper thing to do. I would 
like to know what is customary with other roads in a case of this kind. I have not answered 
that letter yet, and it would help me out. It is a new case to me — for a man to get a bolt 
in upside down — I don't see why he could not have put it in right. 

Mr. Wensley: We have cars of coal coming in the yard daily. We can't get inside 
the car, so we put a jack under the floor, raise it up, put a i^-inch bolt in upside down, 
screw it up, and charge the owner for that bolt. 

Mr. Smith: Do you consider that wrong repairs? 



Charging for "Temporary Repairs" 335 

. Mr. Wensley : No, sir ; I don't. 

Mr. Bates: We don't get many cases of this kind, but whenever we do, we fix them 
up the best we can, and if it is not proper repairs we will not make any charge ; that is, if 
it is a bolt, as the gentleman has just mentioned. If a man can't make proper repairs, 
that is, put in a bolt properly, I don't think we should charge for it. 

President Morris: How about other kinds of temporary repairs, aside from bolts — 
what would you do with those ? 

Mr. Bates : Well, I don't know of any other except wrong repairs. We make wrong 
repairs sometimes. We charge for those, and we card for them. That is the way we 
handle that. 

Mr. Wharton : We make some temporary repairs. In the last two weeks we have had 
two tank cars with two broken sills. We had no tanks to transfer the oil into, and we had 
to make temporary repairs by strapping a piece on the timbers, letting it extend to the end 
sill, boring in holes, jacking it up, and putting it into position. We spent about five hours 
on each car for three men, getting out the timbers, boring them, and fixing them up. We 
put a notation on, and called it temporary repairs. 

President Morris : Did you make a bill ? 

Mr. Wharton : Yes. A great many cars have bolts in them upside down ; it is a com- 
mon practice. We have to put them in that way nearly every day, to some car or another. 
It is impossible to always get bolts in properly, and when we put in two or three bolts we 
make a charge. 

Mr. Jones : If we have a car that we cannot fix properly — if we make temporary re - 
pairs — we do not make any bill, and we put no card on. 

A Member : It seems to me that it is impossible to make temporary repairs without 
making practically wrong repairs. As the rules read, I believe there is hardly any outlet for 
a man making temporary repairs. He practically admits that he is making wrong repairs. 
What he puts up another man has to take down. I do not think any one is justified in bill- 
ing in that case. 

President Morris': I would like to ask Mr. Wharton if his bills are paid. 

Mr. Wharton : They are. 

Mr. Stagg: We have quite a number of cars coming on the repair track from the east, 
with timbers strapped up, and they always have repair cards on with the notation, " tempo- 
rary repairs." But they don't say "no bill," and I have always taken it for granted that we 
were charged for those repairs. 

Mr. Callahan: I am inclined to believe that temporary repairs are simply wrong re- 
pairs, and they should be carded for. 

President Morris : You make no bill for temporary repairs ; is that it ? 

Mr. Callahan: Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kroff : We generally, when we turn draft bolts upside down, put on a defect card 
and bill the owner. 

President Morris : You consider them wrong repairs ? 

Mr. Kroff: Yes, sir. 

Mr. Goshrs : I don't know that we have had a case of this kind, but I consider that 
we are not responsible. If bolts are upside down they certainly are not right ; they cer- 
tainly are wrong repairs, and I should say that they should be carded for, for when you have 
properly changed your bolts and charged for labor you would not be out any bolts, because 
the bolts are all right. Now, about strapping up timbers — you can break a couple of sills, 
for example ; strap them up so as to make car safe to go, and the owner has got to pay for 
the temporary repairs, and then when proper repairs are made he has got to pay a second 
time. I don't think one ought to pay for temporary repairs. 

Mr. Cather: I am deeply interested in this question, and I think the matter ought to be 
settled among ourselves, one way or another, and we (that is, the Illinois Central) look upon 



336 Railway Master Mechanic 

the matter as does the gentleman who just sat down. It seems to me that there is a dis- 
tinction between what may be termed " temporary " repairs and " wrong " repairs. We look 
upon it that a man may, in an endeavor to make repairs to a car. make them wrong, but still 
they are repairs. If we should put in a wrong drawbar, or if one of our men should put in 
a column bolt upside down, that man has made repairs, but he has made them wrong, it is true. 
If he obeys the rules he says so, and if he don't say so, the road that receives car in 
their joint evidence does say so. On the other hand, simply strapping up a draft timber is 
not in itself any repairs at all, and we have returned bills innumerable to southern roads for 
that kind of work. Oftentimes a charge of that kind is made without the party making it 
knowing that it is wrong repairs. The question seems to be the distinction between what is 
" temporary " and what is " wrong " repairs ; but so far as the Illinois Central is concerned in 
regard to making and paying bills, we do not consider it billable. We look upon it as this 
gentleman says — they are simply paying twice. It would not be justice to bill the road that 
makes temporary repairs for the job of making the entire repairs. If the car owner gets that 
car, then he can't bill for making the repairs. 

Mr. Hunt: I think there are temporary repairs made that are not charged for (some 
gentlemen have said they make such repairs), and others, I believe, do charge. The point 
we want to get at is, ought we to charge for temporary repairs, or ought we not ? According 
to the rules, repairs must be complete in order to make a charge. Take rule 5, section 
3 : "When improper repairs of owner's defects have been made, and bill rendered, the 
owner may counter-bill against the company making the wrong repairs for the cost of chang- 
ing the car to its original standard, or to the requirements of rule 4, if the work is done." 
Well, if they do the work and then we are to bill back again, that would leave the company 
damaging the car, even. Then, under that head, why should you not charge for improper 
repairs and let the party bill back? That leaves you square. Is it the proper thing to do? 
What should be done? And rule 4, section 14 : "When repairs of any kind are made to 
foreign cars" (that means just what it says) "a repair card shall be securely attached to out- 
side face of intermediate sill between cross-tie timbers. This card shall specify fully the re- 
pairs made, and reason for same, the date and place where made, and name of road making 
repairs. This card shall be provided with a stub, etc." Now, let us come to the point. 
What should we do in the way of charging for temporary repairs to owner's defects ? Should 
we charge them and put on a repair card, or should we make repairs at our own expense ; 
that is, at the expense of the road damaging the car, or what ? 

A Member : It occurs to me that Mr. Hunt is practically substantiated by just what has 
been the practice all the time. I believe in following the rules as they read. It seems to 
me that "temporary " repairs are confused with "partial" repairs. But if anybody, as Mr. 
Hunt has stated, in making repairs has attached a defect card, he practically admits he has 
made wrong repairs. That is all that is asked for. To render a bill on temporary repairs, 
and attach a defect card, admits that you have made wrong repairs. Turn a bolt upside 
down, or put a bolt in just to get car home, and another man has to take it down — it is not 
proper repairs. I believe the rules are very clear on that, and if they are followed out as 
read, I don't believe you can make temporary repairs without making wrong repairs. You 
can make partial repairs without making wrong repairs, but not temporary repairs. 

Mi. Gather: There is a point right there that I would like to have brought out. If a 
road makes wrong repairs, the rules say that the owner of that car in making these repairs 
right may re-bill the party making the wrong repairs for the cost of making them right. 
Now, if the party making wrong repairs is responsible to the owner for the cost of making 
them right, does any one mean to tell me it is right for a road that has strapped up a draft 
timber, or strapped up a sill, or slipped in some bolt, for the owner to bill you for putting in 
a sill? That is not right, but that is what will happen if you get joint evidence for tempo- 
rary repairs — you classify them as wrong repairs, and according to the rules you bill the man 
who made the the temporary repairs for the cost of making the repairs right. Now, I claim, 



Charging for " Temporary Repaies" :;:;; 

personally, that any road making wrong repairs should be responsible to the owner for the 
amount that they bill ; but what I think personally, and what is being done, are differ- 
ent things. 

Mr. Grieb ; It seems to me that some remarks made by Mr. Gather are probably due 
to a misunderstanding, or confusion of terms, that has arisen in this discussion. I would 
not like to see the term "temporary" repairs applied to "wrong" repairs. It seems to me 
they are two different articles. What I understand by "temporary" repairs is " partial" re- 
pairs — repairs made for your own convenience to get cars forward; not a complete job with 
wrong material used to do it ; it is something you do for your own interest to further the 
movement of that car. The rules cover clearly the course to be pursued when making 
wrong repairs ; but this one of making temporary repairs is still open, and some people do 
insist on sending in bills for temporary repairs, and it is a good deal of pleasure for the 
motive power clerk to sit down and fight it out. We like that. It has been the practice on 
the C, M. & St. P. Road not to make bills for temporary repairs. We consider that we make 
them for our own convenience — for our use and benefit. We may have good reasons for 
not making proper repairs. We would not be willing to ask the owners to pay us for mak- 
ing partial repairs and then compel him to undo the work we have done to make the repairs 
as they ought to have been done. I think we should confine ourselves to "partial " or "tem- 
porary " repairs — "partial," I think, perhaps, is better. Then, I think, there is but one log- 
ical conclusion. If you make these repairs for your own benefit, entirely removed from that 
of the owner's benefit, you ought to pay for your own convenience, and not to ask the 
owner to share it. 

Mr. Hunt : In that case you would put on a repair card ? 

Mr. Grieb : Yes ; I believe a repair card must go on any time repairs are made, no mat- 
ter what kind or description. 

Mr. Hunt : I believe, as you say, that temporary repairs are for the convenience of the 
company handling the car; and I believe there are a good many repairs made under that head 
and nothing said about it ; but now the point is, do you put on repair cards ? The rules say 
you must put them on for any repairs. If you put them on for temporary repairs, you 
might have it thrown onto you by a party getting joint evidence at the other end. The man 
down there says it is wrong repairs, gets joint evidence, and comes back at you with a bill. 
It is a question whether any card should be put on. If you made the repairs for your tem- 
porary use it has nothing to do with the repairs to the car, because it is not repairs to the 
car; it is in order to get the car over the road. But if you put on a repair card, the fellow 
down below don't know that. He goes to the inspector and says : " I want joint evidence," 
and you are stuck for the repairs the owner should pay for. 

Mr. Grieb : I cannot see as Mr. Hunt does in respect to making bills. I do not see 
how this question could be the subject of counter bill. We say we make no bills for the 
repairs — for the partial repairs. Now then, what could you do with a joint evidence card 
until you got a bill ? 

Mr. Hunt : You do that by making it read " no bill ? " 

Mr. Grieb: We specify on the cards "temporary repairs; no bill." We understand 
that temporary repairs are not subject to bill. I move that it is the sense of the Car Fore- 
men's Association that temporary or partial repairs, (it being understood that this does in 
no way refer to wrong repairs) be at all times considered not subject to bill, and in each in- 
stance a repair card be attached, with notation to the effect that temporary repairs have been 
made and no bill will be rendered. 

Mr. Callahan: Before putting the question, I would like to ask Mr. Grieb if this ques- 
tion supposes that the parts used in making these temporary or partial repairs are standard 
material to the car. Say a man put in two draft timber bolts, there being four broken — is it 
understood that he used standard bolts for what he did put in ? 



338 Railway Masteb Mechanic 

Mr. Grieb: As I understand Mr. Callahan's inquiry, it is whether in repairs to two of 
four broken bolts, we should consider that temporary repairs had been made. 

Mr. Callahan: No; four draft timber bolts broken; in making temporary or partial 
repairs you put in two; is it the supposition that you used Js-inch bolts in putting in the two 
bolts in renewing ; 4 -inch bolts ? 

Mr. Grieb: I would like to have it understood that it makes no difference what kind 
of material you use in making temporary repairs ; your liability for the temporary repairs 
that you have made rests with yourself. 

Mr. Kroff : I would like to ask Mr. Grieb whether the connecting line would have a 
chance to make these repairs, or is he solely responsible to the owner? 

President Morris: That would be governed by the rules; the rules specify that. 

Mr. Grieb: The supposition of this whole discussion is that it is repairs to such por- 
tions of the car as would be chargeable to the owner if proper repairs had been made. 

Mr. Cather: I would like to have one question discussed — the question of applying 
draft timber bolts, when four, we will say, are broken. As I understand it, when an inspec- 
tor applies two bolts, four being broken, his intention is to make repairs to that car. He 
has repaired that car to the extent of two bolts, and <hat in my opinion is classified as tem- 
porary repairs. If he put in wrong bolts it is a case of wrong repairs ; it is not temporary. 
Now then, as I understand it, the whole thing hinges on the distinction between M temporary " 
and "wrong" repairs. If a road bills for 3 4 -inch bolts, should bs %-inch, we do not con- 
sider them temporary repaiis. Temporary repairs are in fact no repairs at all, and any road 
that repairs that car has a right to bill the company for making them right. The fact that 
the party made temporary repairs does not enter into it at all. 

Mr. Hates : Temporary repairs, as I understand it, would be, for instance, if a draft 
timber was broken in two and could not be taken out, on account of the car being loaded, 
and you took a piece of iron and bolted it on. I call that temporary repairs ; but putting in 
wrong bolts I would call wrong repairs. 

President Morris: I think that is the proper distinction. 

Mr. Wensley: That is the way I look at it. Mr. Bates will find one of his cars coming 
home that I made temporary repairs to. I strapped up the draft timber. The car is going 
to New York city and will be given to him in a few days. If a car comes on the line in a 
defective condition I fix it up so it will go to destination and issue orders to the inspectors 
to have it come on the repair track on its return. I will then remove the temporary repairs 
and make proper ones; if not, I will card. That is what we call temporary repairs. But 
putting bolts on a car I do not call temporary repairs ; I call it partial repairs. 

Mr. Hunt : I think it is pretty hard to define what are temporary repairs. It seems to 
me that most any kind of make-shift repairs that you want to make are temporary repairs. 
When we make temporary repairs we mean that we are not going to charge for the work 
that the owner is responsible for ; it is owner's defect, but we are not making proper repairs ; 
we are making temporary repairs, and we say "no bill." But where wrong repairs are made, 
he should not bill because there is a card put on and you get your certificate at the other 
end and that permits you to bill. But it seems to me that when owner's defects exist and a 
party makes repairs, however he makes it, if he is willing to stand it and says " no bill," I 
think that ought to settle it. 

Mr. Grieb's motion was here put to a vote and carried. 

Adjourned. 



The annual celebration of the Car Foremen's Association of Chicago occurred on Octo- 
ber 21 . taking the shape of an excursion to Milwaukee. Through the courtesy of the officials 
of the C, M. & St. P. Railway, transportation was provided for about ioo of the members, 
who, after a pleasant ride to Milwaukee, were received at the depot by the reception com- 



Track Tanks fob Freight Engines 339 



mittee, consisting of Mr. A. E. Manchester, assistant superintendent motive power; Mr. J. J. 
Hennessey, master car builder; Mr. T. Higby, general storekeeper, and Mr. J. ( . ( irieb, chief 
clerk to T. N. barr, superintendent motive power, all of the C, M. (S: St. P. Railway. After 
receiving a cordial greeting from these gentlemen, the party adjourned to the commodious 
dining rooms in the C, M. & St. P. depot, where dinner was served. After full justice had 
been done to the excellently served dinner, the party were informed that their coaches, 
manned by a local crew, were entirely at their disposal, through the courtesy of Mr. B. H. 
McXanev, superintendent of terminals at Milwaukee. After a short run of about three 
miles, to west Milwaukee, Mr. Manchester. Mr. Hennessey, Mr. Higby and Mr. Grieb pro- 
ceeded to take the party through the shops, explaining the different processes and the sys- 
tematic manner in which the work was conducted. The party was somewhat surprised to 
learn that the company were turning out 15 new box cars a day. With the immense amount 
of other work being done, it was evident that the building of this number of completed cars 
each day, could only be accomplished by the most systematic and economical handling of 
material. The visit to the blacksmith and erecting shops particularly showed to the practi- 
cal men of the party how these results were made possible. The visitors, being principally 
made up of car men,, were more interested in this department than any other. The many 
features of interest in these shops cannot be mentioned in detail in this brief description, but 
suffice it to say that the visit will prove to be of great educational value to the members of 
the association. Mr. Manchester then led the party over to the locomotive department, 
where the different processes and different stages of repair work, and also the building of 
new locomotives, were fully explained. Before closing this note we would revert to the cor- 
dial speeches of welcome extended to the association by Mr. Manchester, Mr. Hennessey 
and Mr. Grieb. Each of these gentlemen spoke of the value of the association, and what it 
could do to facilitate a prompt interchange of cars. At 3:30 the party again adjourned to 
their coaches, and proceeded to return to the depot at Milwaukee, where the coaches were 
attached to the Chicago train. The return run to Chicago was scarcely noticed, owing to 
the animated discussions as to what had been seen during the day, and the expressions of 
satisfaction at the way the excursion had been conducted, by all concerned; and, on arrival 
in Chicago - at 6:10 p. m., the party dispersed with pleasant recollections of an agreeable and 
well spent day. 



TRACK TANKS FOR FREIGHT ENGINES. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has a number of track tanks between 
Washington and Philadelphia, and intends to equip the entire main 
line in the future. This decision was recently arrived at through the use 
of passenger locomotives, equipped with water scoops, on fast freight 
trains. It was found that much time was saved, danger from stopping 
being reduced to a minimum, and cost of running lessened. The trans- 
portation officials made some calculations, and the figures showed a sav- 
ing of no small sum where track tanks are used for slow freights on the 
divisions where business is very heavy. The extra stops for water take 
much time, and the wear and tear on equipment is no small matter, and 
if five stops on each train can be eliminated between Cumberland and 
Baltimore, where trains are the thickest, the saving will be quite large. 

If the experiment on this part of the road proves successful, track 



340 Railway Master Mechanic 

tanks will be installed on every division between Baltimore and Chicago. 
As a starter, the 50 new Vauclain compound engines recently ordered 
will be fitted with water scoops. 



COKE FOR LOCOMOTIVE FUEL. 

In our issue of September, 1899, we gave some account of the very 
successful experiments made on the Boston & Maine, with coke for loco- 
motive fuel. The use of this fuel has quite passed the experimental 
stage on this road, and is there now considered to be an unqualified suc- 
cess, and its engines are being rapidly changed over to suit the require- 
ments of coke burning. But the expensive water grates which President 
Tut tie referred to in our September issue have been found unnecessary, 
and the ordinary cast iron grate has been found to be all right, when 
aided by introducing steam jets in the ash pan. President Tuttle is 
unreserved in stating that he considers the use of coke as the best solu- 
tion of the smoke, cinder, dirt and spark problems, and in fire claims 
alone, as we previously stated, he expects to save Si 00,000 a year. 

The use of coke on the Boston & Maine has been made possible, as 
we have before stated, because a local gas firm produces it as a by 
product ; its cost to the railway is said to be about the same as coal. 

In Chicago there is good promise that coke made from western coals 
can be produced by a new process at a figure making its cost about the 
same as coal. The Universal Fuel Co. has been making experiments in 
this direction with marked success. Since the patents have not been 
finally issued we are not at liberty to describe fully the methods used, 
but the ovens of the Universal Fuel Co. are open to inspection by those 
who are directly interested in this matter. 

The ovens are designed in accordance with ideas and inventions of 
Prof. Joseph Hemmingway, a gentleman who has made a life study of 
coal and coke. Mr. L. Z. Leiter and Mr. Joseph Leiter became inter- 
ested in his plans, and since the first oven was built it was evident that 
quite remarkable results could be obtained from the cheaper grades of 
western coals. 

While in the past such coals have been coked in a small way, yet the 
product could not be successfully used, either as a fuel for locomotives 
or in foundry practice, both because of the amount of sulphur in the 
coke, and the lack of sufficient strength to sustain the load in a furnace. 
These objections seem to have been overcome by the Hemmingway 



Coke for Locomotive Fuel :>41 

process and, by utilizing the by products, the cost of the coke will be 
reduced to a point where it can compete successfully with coal as a fuel 
for locomotives. 

In all coke the proportion of ash must necessarily be high, after the 
volatile matter has been removed, and means must be supplied to pre- 
vent slag or clinker forming on the grates. This may be accomplished 
by using exhaust steam under the grates. This is done on the Boston 
& Maine, as we will show presently ; and it is a means commonly em- 
ployed in smokeless furnaces, where the slack from western coals is suc- 
cessfully burned. 

The analysis of an Illinois coal recently coked was as follows : 

COAL. COKE. 

Moisture 1.36 per cent 2.31 per cent 

Volatile matter 29.29 " " 

Fixed carbon 59.8 1 " " 83.69 " " 

Ash 9.54 " " 14.00 " " 

Sulphur 1.88 " " 0.55 " " 

From this analysis it will be seen that the coal was an average Illi- 
nois coal, while the resulting coke is very good, being low in sulphur 
and reasonably high in fixed carbon — in fact, very. much superior to the 
analysis given for the coke used on the Boston & Maine, which shows 
only 69.82 per cent of fixed carbon and sulphur. 

Mr. Jno. C. McMynn, the well known expert on steam plants, and 
who has acted as consulting engineer during the experiments conducted 
for the Leiters, expresses himself as being confident that the smoke from 
locomotives can be successfully abated by the use of coke as fuel, and 
this without any material increase in the cost of fuel. It will, of course, 
require a series of experiments, in order to determine the exact cost of 
coke for each railway and the most advantageous location for the coking 
plant, but by disposing of the by products the cost can be reduced very 
materially. The plan of the Leiters is not to produce coke for the market 
but to dispose of rights to use their process to railways who will erect 
their own coking plants. 

If suitable coke can be produced at suitable cost in the west, as 
these statements would seem to indicate, there would seem to be no 
reason why the Boston & Maine experience cannot be duplicated here. 
The Chicago city authorities are again agitating the smoke question just 
now, and had the matter up before the Western Railway Club, at jts 
October meeting, and the Club has appointed a committee to consider 
the whole question of smokeless combustion on locomotives. 



342 



Railway Masteb Mechanic 



rhe American Engineer, in its October issue, goes into the change of 

practice on the Boston & Maine at considerable length, and from its 
remarks we make the following extracts : 

" In operation on the road there is a noticeable pale blue haze to be 
seen from the stack when the engine is working hard with the lever 'in 
the corner,' but after shortening the cut-off it is not to be seen except 
m tunnels or under bridges. The front ends are almost entirely clear, 
but the nettings are not removed because of the possibility of drawing 
small pieces of fuel through the tubes when working hard. Some 
clinker forms, but not as much as is found with Dominion coal burned 
without coking, and most of the coke clinker must be combustible, be- 
cause it is very seldom necessary to remove it from the fire boxes even 

after a run of over ioo miles. 
It is easier to handle than coal, 
but its bulk is to that of coal 
as 5 to 3, and large racks are 
placed on the tenders of en- 
gines making long runs. 

" With this fuel there is 
no dust or dirt in the cab, and 
none from the stack except a 
very fine, whitish, me- 
tallic dust, which does 
not adhere to clothing 
and is not sufficient to 
be in the least disa- 
greeable. It is evident 
that the running gear, 
valve motion and driv- 
ing boxes will be 




& r u__. -j/-'- rT^ r— - - - 

£^^J| greatly benefited by 
the absence of flying 



« 



—02- 



COKE-BURNING CAST IRON GRATE — B. & M. Ry 



dust and grit from the 
coal. 



"At first it was considered necessary to use water grates because of 
the extremely high temperature of the fire, which resulted in burning 
out ordinary cast iron grates. The grates used in the earlier experi- 
ments had water bars like those for burning anthracite, and, while these 
did not prove troublesome in any way, it was considered desirable to 
avoid the troubles which time would be likely to develop by the burning 
out oi the tubes. It was considered desirable to save the expense of 
fitting up the water grates, and also to provide means for using exactly 
the same grates for coke as for coal. Experiment developed the fact 
that coke may be burned on ordinary cast iron grates by introducing 
steam into the ash pans. This cools the grates and prevents them from 
melting by the intense heat ; it also tends to reduce the amount of 



Cokk for Locomotive Fuel 



343 



clinker. The present practice is to place a T in the exhaust pipe from 
the Westinghouse air brake pump and conduct a portion of the exhaust 
into a 24 -inch pipe which extends down and across the front end of the 
ash pan. The end of the pipe is plugged, and the steam issues from 
five % -inch holes in this pipe and passes back under the grates. This 
steam does not appear to have any noticeable effect on the fire, but it is 
possible that it aids combustion, as well as saves the grates. The en- 
gines are now converted into coke burners by the addition of this very 
simple piping and the use of a portion of this steam that would other- 
wise be thrown away. For the return to coal burning this pipe may be 
plugged, or it may be provided with a cock. A part of the air pump 
exhaust is sufficient for the coke, and only that portion is required that 

will naturally pass out 




1 



*mth/7uy. 



Steam Admission for Coke Burning. 



of a pipe fitted up in 
this way, while the 
remainder goes up the 
stack. The steam jet 
piping and the cast 
iron grates used in 
connection with coke 
are illustrated here- 
with. The cast iron 
grate is not new, but 
is shown because it is 
successful in burning 
coke. 

" The evaporative performance is not yet known, but the regular 
performance sheets show a uniformly better record for coke than for 
coal, ton for ton. The advantage in severe passenger service is about 
one mile per ton. The records of this road are not given in ton-mile 
units. A part of the saving is in the reduction of back pressure, which 
is due to the possibility of opening out the nozzles. Mr. Henry Bartlett, 
superintendent of motive power, says that the nozzles of nearly all of 
the coke burning engines are made about ^-inch larger than when 
using coal. This is a very important item, because it affects the power 
of the engine as well as the fuel performance, and if the records were 
made on a tonnage basis this ought to make a still more favorable show- 
ing for coke. When working hard there is some movement of light 
stuff in the fire, but it does not get to the tubes, and the tubes are not 
seriously coated. The coating is easily scraped off at the end of a run, 
and the tubes do not require cleaning out as often as with coal. 

" In steaming qualities very little, if anything, is left to be desired. 
Coke gives a remarkably hot fire, and thus far there has been no indica- 
tion of trouble with tube sheets or tubes. The fact that the fire door is 
not required to be wide open about half the time should favor these 
parts, and herein is another advantage of coke. The practice is to fill 
up the fire box within three inches of the door opening, working the fire 



344 Railway Master Mechanic 

somewhat thinner toward the front end. This is done when possible, 
while at a station or when the engine is shut off, because eoke, like an- 
thracite, requires a little time to kindle, and when started it will hold 
the steam for a hard run of from 6 to 10 miles without touching the fire. 
The writer saw the run from Lynn to Boston, i i miles, made with 10 
ears in about i 5 minutes without the fire being disturbed in any way. 
The fire box is filled up about five minutes before leaving a terminal, 
and the fire is good for about 10 miles. The fire door may be kept 
elosed, but it is generally left slightly open. This seems to improve the 
combustion. It also prevents the coating of the flues and appears to aid 
in burning up the clinker, although the introduction of the steam jet 
under the grates has practically overcome the difficulties with clinker. 
The riame is long, and the motive power officers believe that in spite of 
the high temperature there will be less destructive effect on the fire box 
sheets and tubes than is experienced with coal. From some engines a 
large amount of gas escapes into the cab while standing, unless the 
blower is put on, but in other cases the blower is seldom used. The 
gas is very much like that from charcoal. In running, it appears to be 
necessary to work the grates a little about every six or eight miles. 
When this is done and steam is admitted under the grates, no clinkers 
are formed except such as may be disposed of without giving trouble. 

" In looking for some disadvantages about this fuel, only one was 
found. Coke burns so freely that it cannot be banked, and it is found 
necessary to rake the forward portion of the grates bare while standing 
in the roundhouse. The watchmen give idle engines a little more 
attention when using coke, but this is not a serious matter." 



THE MASTER CAR BUILDERS' COMMITTEES. 

Committees for the current year's work of the Master Car Builders' 
Association have been appointed as follows: 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

On arbitration. — G. W. Rhodes, chairman ; John Mackenzie, M. M. 
Martin, G. L. Potter, J. X. Barr. 

( )n supervision of standards and recommended practices of the asso- 
ciation. — A. M. Waitt, chairman; G. I . Potter, Wm. Apps. 

On triple valve tests. — G. W. Rhodes, chairman ; A. VV. Gibbs, J. O. 
Pattee, W. S. Morris, Wm. Mcintosh. 

On brake shoe tests. — S. P. Bush, chairman; Geo. Gibbs, R. P. C. 
Sanderson. 

On prices in master car builders' rules. — J. X. Barr, chairman; S. P. 
Bush, J. II. McConnell, S. A. Charpiot, T. B. Purves, Jr. 



The Master Car Builders' Committees 345 

On tests of M. C. B. couplers. — W. W. Atterbury, chairman ; W. P. 
Appleyard, W. S. Morris, F. A. Delano, H. Monkhouse. 

SUBJECTS AND COMMITTEES FOR I9OO. 

Air brake appliances and specifications for air brake hose. — A. L. 
Humphrey, chairman; A. M. Parent, \Y. H. Marshall. 

Design for wheel circumference measure. — J. J. Hennessey, chair- 
man ; \V. J. Hemphill, E. S. Marshall. 

Design for journal box, bearing, wedge and lid for cars of 100,000 
pounds capacity ; also design for journal bearing and wedge gauges for 
80,000 and 100,000 pound cars. — E. D. Nelson, chairman; J. J. Hen- 
nessey, Wm. Garstang. 

Revision of rules for loading long materials. — Pulaski Leeds, chair- 
man ; P. H. Peck. F. H. Stark, C. Coler, S. P. Bush, B. Haskell, W. H. 
Lewis, J. R. Petrie. 

Revision of recommended practice for springs, including design for 
springs for 100,000 pound cars. — J. S. Lentz, chairman ; A. G. Stein- 
brenner, F. W. Brazier. 

Revision of passenger car rules. — H. J. Small, chairman ; J. T. 
Chamberlain, Frank Rearden, H. F. Ball, Wm. Garstang. 

Standard center plates. — R. H. Johnson, chairman; H. L. Preston, 
G. T. Anderson. 

Draft gear. — C. M. Mendenhall, chairman; James Macbeth, T. B. 
Kirby. 

Spread and design for side bearings. — J. W. Luttrell, chairman; H. 
M. Pflagler, B. Haskell. 

Uniform section of siding and flooring. — R. P. C. Sanderson, chair- 
man ; W. P. Appleyard, J. S. Lentz. 

Metal dead blocks: safety chains. — \V. P. Appleyard, chairman; J. 
H. Pennington, Wm. Mcintosh. 

Subjects. — G. L. Potter, chairman; A. M. Waitt, A. li. Mitchell. 



PISTON VALVES. 

The Master Mechanics' Committee on Piston Valves has issued its 
circular of inquiry, embodying the following questions: 

1. Have you any piston valves in service? If so, how long have 
you had them ? 2. What advantages have you found in their use ? 5. 
What disadvantages have you found in their use? 4. Do you have any 
difficulty with piston valves when the engine is drifting? If so, what is 



346 



Railway Master Mechanic 






^t- 










m 








5 


r. 








ZL 


v 








t J\ 


> 


o 






r- 


•"3 


C> 






W 










y 




(N 


o 




£ 


r. 


r- • 


o 






u 


rt 




rft 


<# 


c 


x 


u 


i— 1 












< 


M 


2 


y. 


4—1 


z 


ro 




Cfl 


o 


X 


Hi 


OJ 


— 


< 


N 


<£ 


<— • 


13 


> 




y; 


H 
J3 

cu 

-t-J 
-y: 

be 

H 


cj 


< 

u 

< 

1— 1 


CJ 


C 

t-t-H 
1) 

3 


vf 

r— 

b/3 

o 










o 
o 


f ■> 


r. 


93 


£ 


__ 


*-^ 






^ 


~y 


r^ 


CC 


-i-j 


t-n 


< 


Q 


H 






< 


o 
o 


o 




4— > 


1 

«— - 1 


o 


r— 


Z^ 




Q 


V© 


> 


3" 


4-1 

u 


r ^ 






M* 


CL 


"~* 


'T. 


■4—1 


X 


Rj 


I 


!~ 


o 




CJ 




V 

> 






^ 

C 


~S 


^" 


cj 


c5 








rt 


4-J 


ry 




rt 




W 


r^ 


BR 


4—> 


13 


p^ 


4-» 

r- 


X 


bfi 




M 


b£ 


vo 


. , 


rt 












J 


1) 


ro 


1) 

o 




^ — 






<-t-l 


I 


r T > 






















r. 


J 


,— ' 




— 


^ 


O 


C/3 


qj 






Etj 






[^ 


H 


'— 


D 


• 2 


p» 


-j 


'— 


^ 












H 












hy 


C- 


r. 






> 


o 


<— 


4-< 

V 




" — 


o 




V 


g 


'j-, 


q 


4—> 


4-1 


2 


> 


un 


JJ 


aj 


c 


J> 


O 




h 


Oh 


fH 


M 




2 




t/3 




r. 






« 


-4— i 


9J 






< — - 


t bp 


U 






u 




ri 






/■~\ 


'5j 








w 


> 








h^ 


** 








^- 


, 









12-Wheel Freight Locomotive — D. L. & W. \i\. 341 

the cause and remedy ? 5. Do you prefer internal or external admission ? 
6. Is exhaust any benefit as a jacket for the steam passage ? 7. Do you 
favor a solid valve or one with packing ? If packing, state what kind you 
prefer ? 8. Can you get a proper distribution of steam ? 9. Is there 
less wear on eccentrics and links with piston valves than with slide 
valves? 10. Do you consider a bushing for the piston valve chamber 
desirable? State reason. 11. Please give any information that you 
have to show the economy in the use of piston valve. Kindly furnish 
the committee with a drawing or blue-print of what you consider the 
most satisfactory form and location of piston valve. 

Replies should be sent to S. P. Bush, superintendent motive power 
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway, Columbus, Ohio. 
Mr. Bush is chairman of the committee. The other members are H. 
Schlacks and Wm. Mcintosh. 



TWELVE-WHEEL FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVE — DEL- 
AWARE, LACKAWANNA & WESTERN RY. 

The Brooks Locomotive Works recently turned out 1 5 1 2-wheel 
freight locomotives for the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western. These 
locomotives, one of which we illustrate on the opposite page, have 21x32- 
inch cylinders; 54-inch drivers; conical connection wagon top boilers, 
which are yS inches in diameter, and which are designed to carry 200 
pounds of steam; wide fire boxes over the wheels, 123x97 inches in 
dimensions ; grate areas of 82.4 square feet, and a total heating surface 
of 3,168 square feet, of which 218 square feet is fire box and 2,950 
square feet tube surface. The engines weigh 205,000 pounds, of which 
166,000 pounds are on the drivers. Complete details as to dimensions 
and equipment of these engines are appended : 

GENERAL DIMENSIONS. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Type 1 2-\vheel freight 

Name of builder Brooks Locomotive Works 

Name of operating road Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 

How many, and dates of delivery Fifteen — September, 1899 

Gauge 4 feet 8' 2 inches 

Kind of fuel to be used Fine anthracite coal 

Weight on drivers 166,000 pounds 

Weight on trucks 39,000 pounds 

Weight, total 205,000 pounds 

Weight, tender, loaded 106,000 pounds 



348 Railway Masteb Mechanic 



Wheel base, total, of engine 25 feet 9 

Wheel base, driving 15 feet o 

Wheel base, total, engine and tender 50 feet 4^ 

Length over all, engine .... 37 feet 4% 

Length over all, total, engine and tender 60 feet 2^ 

Height, center of boiler above rails 9 feet 2 V 2 

Height of stack above rails '•**... 15 feet 1 x / z 

Heating surface, fire box 218 square feet 

Heating surface, tubes 2, 950 square feet 

Heating surface, total 3, 168 square feet 

Grate area 82.4 square feet 

WHEELS AND JOURNALS. 

Drivers, number Eight 

Drivers, diameter 54 inches 

Drivers, material of centers Cast steel 

Truck wheels, diameter 30 inches 

Journals, driving axle 9x1 1 inches 

Journals, truck 5^x12 inches 

Main crank pin, size 6^x6)4. inches 

Main coupling pin, size 7K X 5 inches 

Main pin, diameter wheel fit 7% inches 

CYLINDERS. 

Cylinders, diameter 21 inches 

Cylinders, stroke 32 inches 

Piston rod, diameter 4% inches 

Kind of piston rod packing Jerome 

Main rod, length center to center 98 inches 

Steam ports, length 25 inches 

Steam ports, width 2 y z inches 

Exhaust ports, least area no square inches 

Bridge, width. . 2% inches 

VALVES. 

Valves, kind of Improved piston 

Valves, greatest travel 6}{ inches 

Valves, steam lap (inside) 1 inch 

Valves, exhaust lap or clearance (outside) Line and line 

Lead in full gear 1 -16-inch negative 

Lead constant or variable. Variable 

BOILER. 

Boiler, type of Conical connection wagon top 

Boiler, working steam pressure 200 pounds 

Boiler, material in barrel Steel 

Boiler, thickness of material in barrel ^-inch and 1 5-16-inch 

Boiler, thickness of tube sheet % -inch 

Boiler, diameter of barrel, front 78 inches 

Boiler, diameter of barrel at throat 83% inches 

Seams, kind of, horizontal Sextuple lap 

Seams, kind of, circumferential Triple lap 

Crown sheet, stayed with . Radial stays 

Dome, diameter 30 inches 



12- Wheel Freight Locomotive — I). L. *S; \V. Ry. 349 

FIRE BOX. 

Fire box, type Wide, over wheels 

Fire box, length 1 23 inches 

Fire box, width 97 inches 

Fire box, depth, front 74 inches 

Fire box, depth, back 64^ inches 

Fire box, material Steel 

Firebox, thickness of sheets Crown, ^-inch; tube, f^-inch; side and back, ^-inch 

Fire box, brick arch None 

Fire box, mud ring, width Back and sides, 3^ inches; front, 4 inches 

Fire box, water space at top Back, 4^ inches; front, 4 inches 

Grates, kind of Water tube 

Tubes, number of . . . 410 

Tubes, material Charcoal iron 

Tubes, outside diameter 2 inches 

Tubes, thickness No. 12 B. W. G. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 13 feet ioj^ inches 

SMOKE BOX. 

Smoke box, diameter outside 81 inches 

Smoke box, length from flue sheet 67^ inches 

OTHER PARTS. 

Exhaust nozzle, single or double Single 

Exhaust nozzle, variable or permanent Permanent 

Exhaust nozzle, diameter 5^ inches 

Exhaust nozzle, distance of tip below center of boiler 5 inches 

Netting, wire or plate Wire 

Netting, size of mesh or perforation 2^x2^ inches and 2^x1 %. inches 

Stack, straight or taper . . Steel, taper 

Stack, least diameter l S% inches 

Stack, greatest diameter 17% inches 

Stack, height above smoke box 3 !4 inches 

TENDER. 

Type 8-wheeled 

Tank, type B. L. W. sloping top 

Tank, capacity for water 5,ooo gallons 

Tank, capacity for coal 10 tons 

Tank, material Steel 

Tank, thickness of sheets % -inch 

Type of under frame Steel channel 

Type of springs Double elliptic 

nches 
nches 
nches 
nches 
nches 
nches 
nches 
nches 
nches 



Diameter of wheels 33 

Diameter and length of journals 5 inches x 9 

Distance between centers of journals 5 feet 5 

Diameter of wheel fit on axle 6y% 

Diameter of center of axle 5^ 

Length of tender over bumper beams 21 feet 8 ' 2 

Length of tank 19 feet 6 

Width of tank 10 feet o 

Height of tank, not including collar 60 

Type of draw gear M. C. B. Gould 

SPECIAL EQUIPMENT. 

Brakes American for drivers, Westinghouse for tender and train service 



350 Railway Masteb Mechanic 

Pump 9 1 2 inches 

Siizht feed lubricators Detroit 

Safety valves Kunkle 

Injectors Metropolitan 

Springs National 

Metallic packing, piston rods Jerome 

Metallic packing, valve rods B. L. W. special 

Spark arrester Improved Bell 



LOCOMOTIVE FRONT ENDS. 

At the September meeting of the Western Railway Club a valuable 
paper bearing the above title was presented by Mr. J. Snowden Bell. 
Air. Bell, as many of our readers know, is a patent attorney, and also 
the patentee of the Bell front end arrangement. By reason of his occu- 
pation and of his natural especial interest in front ends, Mr. Bell is so 
situated as to present a valuable and authoritative review of this topic; 
and this he has done. He has adopted the historical form for his paper, 
and has followed this plan with apparent thoroughness. His paper is 
quite long — too long to permit of presenting it in these columns — and is 
profusely illustrated. We have prepared a very brief abstract of Mr. 
Bell's tracing of the history of front end designs as follows : 

The importance of correct design and proportions of the front end of 
a locomotive boiler in promoting the effective and economical perform- 
ance of the engine, while not entirely overlooked by the earlier con- 
structors, has not, until a comparatively recent date, been given the 
recognition which it demands, nor induced the experimental research by 
which the principles involved may be so applied in practice as to insure 
the attainment of the best results under the conditions of service pre- 
sented in standard American locomotives. The term "front end" is 
ordinarily understood to comprehend the smoke box and stack, and their 
accessories and contained members, the essentials of which latter are the 
steam and exhaust pipes, a draft appliance, and some means for pre- 
venting, or attempting to prevent, the discharge of sparks or ignited fuel 
from the stack. 

1 he front ends of the early locomotives built in the United States 
were substantially similar to those of the English engines which pre- 
ceded them. The smoke box was of D shape in cross section, and had 
a straight, open stack. The steam and exhaust pipes were carried to 
and from the cylinders, inside the smoke box, as in present practice, and 
the exhaust nozzles were usually double and high. The cylinders were 
attached to the bottom of the smoke box, if a crank axle was used, or to 
the sides, in outside connected engines. Xo special draft appliance or 
spark arrester was used. Apparently, as a matter of mere mechanical 
convenience, and without any rule or basis as to its volume or capacity. 



Locomotive Front Ends 351 

the smoke box was made about the same length as the cylinders, and 
this continued to be the universal practice until the advent of the length- 
ened or extended smoke box, or so-called "extension front," in 1859. 

The contracted exhaust nozzle, as a means for effecting the forced 
draft which is essential in a locomotive boiler, was doubtless recognized 
at the outset, as it has been ever since, as a necessary evil — one that 
could not be avoided, but might, as subsequent practice has shown, in 
some degree be lessened ; and while its greater objection, the resultant 
back pressure on the pistons, could neither be removed nor reduced to 
any material extent, the lesser one, that of throwing ignited and par- 
tially burned fuel from the stack, very soon became the subject of 
efforts at prevention. Any and every spark arrester is necessarily an 
attempt to compromise two directly conflicting conditions — one being 
perfect freedom of draft and discharge of smoke and gases, and the 
other the prevention of the escape of solid matter in a state of ignition 
from the stack. It naturally results, from the impossibility of reconcil- 
ing these conditions and the imperfect compliance with each of them 
which it is possible to make, that none of the long array of spark ar- 
rester designs which have been proposed, or even of the comparatively 
small proportion of them which has been put into practice, has been en- 
tirely successful or satisfactory, and practically only two types — the 
diamond stack, and the open stack with spark arresting appliances in 
the smoke box — have survived the test of actual service, and are now in 
use to any substantial extent on the railways of the United States. 

The first spark arrester was doubtless a cap of wire netting con- 
nected to a widened top section of an otherwise entirely open stack, 
such as is shown in familiar illustrations of the early Baldwin and Xorris 
engines. The next step was the addition of a cone or deflector below 
the netting, thus giving the elements of the present diamond stack. 
The earliest authentic record of a spark arrester of any kind is believed 
to be the U. S. patent of J. P. Espy, June 29, 1833, a copy of which is 
published in the Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. XII, New Series, 
1833, page 418. Espy's device, which he termed "a draft generating 
chimney cap," consisted of a horizontal conical cap, with a lower neck 
fitting around and turning on the upper end of the stack, and having a 
vane on its top "to turn the angle of the cap always to the wind." The 
open end of the cap was about "thirteen or fourteen times the area of 
the top of the chimney," and was covered with "wire gauze so fine that 
a pin's head can hardly be thrust through the meshes." 

The volume of the Franklin Institute Journal above referred to, con- 
tains the earliest instance which has been found of a spark arresting ap- 
pliance in the smoke box, being a communication from J. Mcllvaine, 
describing and illustrating his " Arrangement for stopping sparks from 
the flues of locomotive engines in which wood is used as fuel." This 
appliance was a sheet of wire netting extending in an inclined position 
entirely across the smoke box, from the top of the flue head to the bot- 
tom of the smoke box front, the exhaust pipe passing through it. This 



352 Railway Master Mechanic 

is the pioneer in the line of perforated deflectors set in front of the 
tubes, and its principle is embodied, to a large extent, in present practice. 

Appliances for regulating or approximately equalizing the draft 
through the upper and lower rows of tubes were the next addition which 
was made to the smoke box, and it is a somewhat remarkable fact that 
only two of them, and these the earliest that were developed, have con- 
tinued to be used sufficiently to be worthy of mention, and are today 
elements of general and approved practice. These are the " petticoat " 
or lift pipe, and the deflecting plate in front of the flue sheet. The 
petticoat pipe was undoubtedly introduced at a very early date, and 
probably by some Xew England locomotive builder. According to the 
report in the 1884 Master Mechanics' Association Proceedings, the 
deflecting plate was designed by Isaac Dripps, in 1849, and an illustra- 
tion is given showing an inclined perforated deflecting plate, practically 
the same as some of comparatively recent date. The standard and 
almost universal practice in front ends in 1859, ana \ m the large major- 
it v of instances, for twenty years or more thereafter, comprised a bon- 
net stack of large diameter, a petticoat or lift pipe, and low exhaust 
nozzles. 

Prior to the year 1859, ft na d been the universal practice to make 
the length of the smoke box about the same as that of the cylinders, 
this being done mainly, if not entirely, for structural reasons, although 
it had also been, before that time, maintained by writers of admittedly 
high standing as authorities, that a reduction of smoke box volume was 
not only correct in principle but also advantageous in practice. A rad- 
ical innovation was made in 1859, by adding to the smoke box a forward 
extension or " extension front," the length of which was first proposed 
as about 18 inches, but which was afterward made very much greater, 
the average length being, until comparatively recently, 36 inches, 
and in some cases 44 inches or more. The volume of the smoke box 
was thus increased considerably over 100 per cent. The invention of 
the extended smoke box was claimed by John Thompson, of East Bos- 
ton, Mass., who was, at the time, master mechanic of the Eastern Rail- 
road, and it was patented by him in the United States May 29, i860, 
No. 28,520. 

The theory of the patentee that the sparks and cinders would be 
deposited and retained in the smoke box extension, was relied upon to 
constitute it a spark arrester, and no netting or other spark arresting 
appliance was proposed. It is hardly necessary to say that this theory 
was speedily shown to be entirely unfounded, and additional devices for 
arresting sparks were found to be indispensable. Commencing with a 
horizontal sheet of netting, extending from the flue head to the smoke 
box front, above the top row of tubes, which was the first expedient 
adopted, or one of the earliest, various designs of netting and deflecting 
plates were, in the course of time, designed and applied by those who 
continued to use the extended smoke box. It is obvious that, in and of 
itself, this appliance can possess no merit as a spark arrester, and its 



Locomotive Front Ends 



capabilities as a spark receptacle or retainer are so limited that they are 
no longer urged as an argument in its favor, it being now generally rec- 
ognized that practically all the solid matter that passes through the 
tubes is thrown out of the stack, and that if this can be done without 
liability to start fires on or adjacent to the ri<^ht of way, it is desirable 
that the smoke box should be cleared by the exhaust. 

Disregarding the numerous special designs of spark arresters, which 
had been previously, and were thereafter produced, the large majority of 
which was of the " freak " order, and made no record of substantial in- 
terest, or value in practical service, the ruling practice in locomotive 
front ends in i860 was a short smoke box, or one about the length of 
the cylinders, a " bonnet " stack for wood and bituminous coal burning 
engines, and a straight open stack (sometimes provided with a grating on 
its top to arrest sparks) for anthracite coal, low exhaust nozzles (usually 
double), and a petticoat pipe. Very few applications of the extended 
smoke box were made prior to 1880, when it was adopted by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, after which it rapidly gained in favor, and, until a few- 
years past, was practically standard on the railways of the United States. 

The extended smoke box had, by 1883, been adopted by locomotive 
builders generally, in deference to what, in the light of subsequent devel- 
opments and changes in practice, may not unreasonably be termed a 
popular craze, and up to 1894, when a change of sentiment was first 
decidedly manifested, the tenor of the references to it in the reports of 
the association is uniformly commendatory. 

The report of the committee on " Exhaust Nozzles and Steam 
Passages," at the twenty-seventh annual convention, 1894, contains the 
following significant conclusion : 

" 6. This test shows that an increase of the length of the smoke 
box over and above that necessary to get in a cinder pocket in front of 
the cylinder saddle is unnecessary and undesirable, as the long smoke 
box greatly decreases the vacuum. Sufficient area of netting can be put 
into a smoke box which is long enough to give room for a cinder pocket 
in front of the cylinder saddle." 

As was stated by the late D. L. Barnes, a member of the committee, 
in the discussion of the report (p. 122): "This report is quite against the 
long, and decidedly in favor of the short smoke box. Zerah Colburn, 
many years ago, found that a short smoke box gave very much more 
vacuum than a long one, and these tests corroborate that conclusion." 
Since the publication of this report the decline of the extension, while 
for obvious reasons not as rapid as its rise, has been decided and contin- 
uous, culminating, as has been recently evidenced, in its abandonment 
by the Pennsylvania Railroad on their latest and most improved types 
of engines. 

Mr. Bell proceeds, at length, with descriptions of many front end 
arrangements, and closes with the following conclusions : 

It cannot be doubted that the subject of locomotive front ends is of 
such substantial importance to motive power officers as to merit a higher 



:>/>4 Railway Master Mechanic 

development than it has yet reached, and that such development will, 
under intelligent and thorough investigation and test, be speedily 
attained. It is equally obvious that the extent of the subject and the 
widely varying conditions of fuel, service and structural limitations under 
which it must necessarily be considered, preclude its discussion here 
further than, as has been attempted to be done, upon the general lines 
of a comparison of past and present practice, and a review of the expres- 
sions of the Master Mechanics' Association regarding it. Upon this 
basis, as well as upon a study of the mechanical principles which seem 
properly applicable, the writer submits the following conclusions : 

i. That a smoke box of greater length than is necessary to permit 
the use of a sufficient area of netting to provide for free steaming, is not 
only useless, but also positively prejudicial, as to the steaming of the 
engine and economy of fuel. 

2. That, particularly with boilers of the present average diameter, 
the length from center of exhaust pot to front should not exceed, say, 
35 inches, and that all necessary netting and draft appliances can be 
properly applied in a smoke box of such length. 

3. That the front end should be of what is known as the " self- 
cleaning " type, and that the cinder pot or cinder hopper is wholly use- 
less and a needless addition to the cost of the engine. 

4. That where an open stack is employed, the taper or " choke " 
pattern will, if properly designed and proportioned, be more usefully and 
economically effective than a " straight " or cylindrical stack. 

5. That the construction recommended by the American Master 
Mechanics' Association at its 1894 and 1896 conventions, embodies, as 
a whole, the most desirable and effective plan or design, under the gen- 
eral principles and conditions applicable to and controlling in locomotive 
front ends. 

6. That, under certain conditions, the design of front end embodying a 
short smoke box, a diamond stack, low exhaust pot, and lift pipe, is as 
usefully and effectively applicable as that of the Master Mechanics' 
Association. 

7. That the useful and economical effect of a locomotive front end 
is wholly and solely dependent upon the draft appliances and spark 
arresting devices employed, and that such effect will be reduced propor- 
tionately to any increase of smoke box length beyond that necessary for 
the application of said appliances and devices. 

8. That experimental research can be advantageously made in the 
directions of: (a) ascertaining what reduction of smoke box length is prac- 
ticable; and (b) whether or not an appliance can be produced whereby 
cinders may be returned to the fire box in a practically useful manner. 



PERSONAL MENTION. 

Mr. F. Sayre, of the car inspecting department of the Panhandle road at Columbus, 
Ohio, has been appointed superintendent of the car inspecting department of the Armour 
Co., with office in Chicago. 

The office of master mechanic of the terminals division of the Great Northern has 
been abolished, and all duties pertaining to that position will hereafter be performed by 
A. C. Deverell, superintendent of St. Paul shops. 

The jurisdiction of Mr. J. T. Robinson, master mechanic of the Southern Railway 
at Selma, Ala., has been extended to cover the entire Anniston division. 

Edwin E. Ely has been transferred from the foremanship of the blacksmith depart- 
ment of the Philadelphia & Reading car shops, at Reading, to the same department in 
the locomotive shops. 

Mr. G. F. Jones, who has been 14 years secretary of the Richmond Locomotive 
Works, has resigned that position to become southern representative of the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works. His headquarters and office will for the present be in Richmond. 

Mr. Harvey Middleton has resigned as mechanical superintendent of the Baltimore 
& Ohio. Mr. Middleton, though yet a comparatively young man — being, we believe, 
only 47 years old — has held many high posts in railway service. His first railway work 
was as machinist and fireman on the Philadelphia & Erie. This was in 1876, 1877 and 
1878. For the next two years he was master mechanic of that road. For the next two 
years he was division master mechanic of the Louisville & Nashville. From 1882 to 1884 
he was master mechanic of the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba. For the succeeding 
five years he was superintendent of machinery of the Louisville & Nashville. He then 
served for one year as superintendent of machinery of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe. 
From June, 1890, to January, 1891, he was superintendent of motive power and machinery 
of the Union Pacific. In April, 1891, he entered the service of Pullman's Palace Car 
Co., remaining with that company, as superintendent of construction and as manager of 
the works at Pullman, until February, 1896. In March, 1896, he was appointed gen- 
eral superintendent of motive power of the Baltimore & Ohio. 

Mr. J. N. Barr, superintendent of motive power of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul, has resigned to become mechanical superintendent of the Baltimore & Ohio. 
Mr. Barr first entered railway service at the Altoona shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
and while there had charge of the wheel foundry, where he commenced the lifelong study 
which has made him a foremost authority on car wheels. He is the inventor of the 
widely used Barr contracting wheel chill. Mr. Barr came from the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road to the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul in 1885. His first work on this road was as 
mechanical engineer, but in 1886 he was made superintendent of the car department. He 
held this office for two years, and in 1888 was made superintendent of motive power, 
which position he has since held continuously. Mr. Barr has been useful, not only to 
his road but to the railway world at large. He has been for years a distinct leader in the 
work of the Master Car Builders' and Master Mechanics' Associations, and of the West- 
ern Railway Club; and to him is due the Chicago interchange agreement, the principle of 
which was a few years ago injected into the Master Car Builders' rules of interchange, and 
which has happily revolutionized the whole theory and practice of the intricate work of 
interchanging cars between the railways of this country. The passing of Mr. Barr to a 
new field of labor means a distinct gain for the east, which, we may add, has, in recent 
months, been very fortunate in securing bright men from the west. 

355 



356 Kaii.way Masteh Mechanic 

Mr. G. J Fisher has resigned as purchasing agent of the Fitch burg Railroad. 

Mr William B. Langston, heretofore connected with the St. Louis Southwestern 
shops at Pine Blult. Ark , has been appointed master mechanic of the Mississippi River, 
Hamburg & Western, with headquarters at Hamburg, Ark. 

Mr W. J. Robertson has resigned as master car builder of the Central Vermont, and 
the duties of the office have been assumed by Mr. C. E. Fuller, superintendent motive 
jpower. Mr. Robertson has been master car builder since October, 1892, and from Jan. 
1, 1885, to October, 1892, was superintendent of motive power. 

Mr. Mord Roberts, formerly master mechanic of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & 
Southern, has been appointed general master mechanic of the Louisville & Nashville, 
with headquarters at Louisville, Ky. 

Mr. John Conway, formerly master mechanic of the Florence & Cripple Creek, died 
October 6, aged 38 years. 

Mr. W. C. Alderson, purchasing agent of the Lehigh Valley, has been made treas- 
urer of that company, with headquarters at Philadelphia, to succeed Mr. J. Andrew 
Harris, Jr., resigned. 

Mr George W. Smith, superintendent of machinery, and Mr. j. H. Kuhns, general 
storekeeper, of the Santa Fe Pacific have had their jurisdiction extended over the San 
Francisco & San Joaquin Valley. 

Mr. A. C. Henry, purchasing agent of the Canadian Pacific, has been appointed 
general purchasing agent of the entire system, and Mr. E. N. Bender has been appointed 
assistant purchasing agent. 

Mr. William Howe Smith, for several years purchasing agent of the Schenectady 
Locomotive Works, died at his home in Schenectady, N. Y., October 14. Mr. Smith 
had been connected with the Schenectady Works for about 35 years, and was at one time 
assistant to the president of that concern. 

Mr. Frederick Regler, division 'master mechanic of the Rutland & Washington di- 
vision of the Delaware & Hudson Co., died at his home in Salem, N. Y., October 6. 

Mr. A. Travis Whitsel has been appointed division inspector of fuel and locomotives 
oi the 6th, 7th, 8th and 13th districts of the Wabash, and the Bement-Decatur line, 
including both these terminals, succeeding Mr. J. W. Evans. 

Mr. R. L. Stewart has been appointed master mechanic of the El Paso & Northeast- 
ern, with headquarters at Alamogordo, N. Mex. 

Mr. W. O. Taylor has been appointed road foreman of engines of the Philadelphia 
& Reading, with headquarters at Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. George J. Hatz has been appointed division master mechanic of the Illinois Cen- 
tral at East St. Louis, 111 , vice Mr. A. C. Beckwith, resigned. 

Mr. Frank Davisson has been appointed acting master mechanic of the Santa Fe, 
Prescott & Phoenix and Prescott & Eastern Railways, vice Mr. O. H. Jackson, master 
mechanic, resigned to engage in other business. 

Mr. A. C. Loucks has been appointed master mechanic of the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas, of Texas. Mr. Loucks has heretofore been acting master mechanic, to which 
position he was appointed when Mr. C. T. McElvaney resigned. 

Mr. S. F. Forbes, late purchasing agent of the Great Northern, has been appointed 
assistant superintendent of motive power of the Central Railroad of New Jersey. Mr. 
Forbes began his railroad career in 1881 as timekeeper in the shops of the Chicago & 
Northwestern, and later served as assistant general storekeeper on the same road. From 
there he went to the Great Northern as general storekeeper, later becoming superintend- 
ent of shops and finally purchasing agent. 



Personal Mention 



:;:>: 



Mr. A. W. Quackenbusfa has been appointed master mechanic of the Omaha, Kan- 
sas City & Eastern and Omaha & St. Louis Railways, vice Mr. J. W. Stokes, resigned. 
Mr. Quackenbush was formerly superintendent of machinery of the Chicago & Alton, 
and has been for several years, until resigning to accept his new position, superintendent 
of machinery of the Southwestern Missouri & Arkansas, at Cape Girardeau, Mo. 

Mr. R. C. Blackall, superintendent of motive power of the Delaware & Hudson Co., 
has been at his own request retired, and has been appointed consulting mechanical super- 
intendent of that svstem. Mr. Black- 



all has certainly earned a rest from 
his long continued activities. He is 
68 years old, and has been in active 
railway service for the past 50 years. 
Mr. Blackall was born in the city of 
Albany in 1 S3 1 . His first railroad 
work was from 1850 to 1 8 5 3 with 
the Saratoga & Washington Railroad 
Co., at Saratoga, under Mr. W. B. 
Gage, master mechanic. From there 
he went to the Hudson River Rail- 
road Co., and worked in that com- 
pany's shops at Greenbush from 
1853 to i860 under Mr. Wm. Buch- 
anan, superintendent of motive 
power. In i860 he was appointed 
master mechanic of the Albany & 
Northern Railroad, and remained 
there until that road was sold to the 
Rensselear & Saratoga Railroad Co. 
In 1863 he was appointed master 
mechanic of the Albany & Susque- 
hanna Railroad Co. In 1870 this 
road was leased to the Delaware & 
Hudson Canal Co. From that time 
to the present he has remained in the 
employ of the Delaware & Hudson 
Co., as superintendent of motive 
power. In 1872 Mr. Blackall joined 
the Master Mechanics' Association 
and in 1896 and 1897 he had the 
honor of being president of the association. In 1879 he joined the Master Car Builders' 
Association and served on the executive committee of that organization for several years. 
Mr. Blackall has long been a prominent figure at the annual meetings of these associations 
and the attendants at these conventions will always have pleasant memory of the hearty 
spirit of hospitality with which he invariably rounded out the pleasures of the Saratoga 
conventions. The strength of character and dignified kindliness of the man are reflected 
in the likeness of him which we present. It is pleasant to think that he is now so sit- 
uated that he is relieved from the exacting cares of an executive office, while still placing 
the benefit of his ripe mechanical knowledge at the disposal of his road and of the rail- 
way world generally. 

The duties of superintendent of motive power of the Delaware & Hudson Co. will 
be performed by Mr. J. R. Slack, assistant superintendent of motive power 




MK. R. C. IU.ACKAI.I. 



Consulting Mechanical Superintendent 
Delaware & Hudson Company 



358 



Railway Master Mechanic 



Mr. C. P. Coleman, at one time general storekeeper of the Lehigh Valley, and for 
some time past purchasing agent of the Bethlehem Iron Company, has been appointed 
purchasing agent of the Lehigh Valley, with headquarters at Philadelphia, vice Mr. W. 
* \ Alderson, who has been made treasurer of that road. 

Mr. W. Dickson has been appointed traveling engineer on the Tampico branch of the 
Mexican Central Railway, vice Mr. W. W. Scott, who was killed on the road 

Mr. Frank Hufsmith, superintendent of motive power and rolling stock of the 
International & Great Northern, is one of the distinctively prominent members of the 

mechanical railway world of the 



southwest. He has been with the 
road named for the past 10 years, 
and his valuable services were 
pleasantly recognized by his man- 
agement about a year ago, when 
it changed his former title of 
master mechanic to that which 
he now bears. Mr. Hufsmith s 
first railway work was on the At- 
lantic & Pacific, where he learned, 
first, the machinist's trade, and 
later that of a fireman and loco- 
motive engineer. In 1873 he was 
made roundhouse foreman on the 
Iron Mountain route, filling that 
position for five years. In 1878 
he went with the Little Rock & 
Ft. Smith road as master me- 
chanic and master car builder, 
filling these positions also for five 
years. In 1883 he was appointed 
superintendent of the Little Rock 
& Ft. Smith and Little Rock dc 
Mississippi River & Texas. In 
1886 he left these roads to become 
superintendent of transportation 
of the St. Louis, Arkansas & 
Texas, which position he filled 
until, in 1889, he resigned to be- 
come master mechanic of the In- 
ternational & Great Northern, 

with which road he has since remained continuously. Mr. Hufsmith is widely known, 

not only as a first-class mechanic, but as a thoroughly good fellow. His home popularity 

is evidenced by the fact of his having been for several years mayor of his home town, 

Palestine, Tex. 

Mr. James Gaston has resigned as general foreman of the car department of the 

Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis to accept the position of manager of the George E. 

Bryan Paint Company at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Mr. W. F. Bentley has been appointed master car builder of the Baltimore & Ohio 

lines east of the Ohio river, with headquarters at Mount Clare, Baltimore, and Mr. E. A. 

Westcott has been appointed master car builder of the lines west of the Ohio river, with 

headquarters at Newark, Ohio. 




MR. FRANK HUFSMITH 



Hiperintendent Motive Power and Rolling Stock 
International & Great Northern R. R. 



The Climax Blow-off Cock 



359 



Mr. Ben Stine has been appointed foreman of the Sherman, Shreveport & Southern 
road, vice James Long, resigned, on account of ill health. 

Mr. William F. Hinderer, formerly assistant master car builder at the McKees 
Rocks shop of the Pittsburg & Lake Erie, died October 15. at his home in Braddock. 

Mr. E. S. Greusel, master mechanic of the Burlington & Missouri River road at 
Havelock, committed suicide October 9 by shooting the top of his head off. For some 
time, his friends say, he has been despondent. He was 52 years of age and had been in 
the employ of the Burlington more than 40 years. 



THE CLIMAX BLOW-OFF COCK. 

A very simply constructed blow-off cock is that known as the Climax. It is especially 
designed for blowing out locomotive boilers. Reference to our sectional view will reveal 
its method of operation. The steam or air enters at the head of the cock, and the area of 
the top of the piston is so much greater than the end of the piston on which there is the full 

boiler pressure that it readily opens. When 
open, the two ports of the piston correspond 
with the opening on the side, through which 
the steam passes out, and with the circular 
passage on the end. The spring is used for 
the purpose of holding the piston closed when 
there is no steam pressure in the boiler, 
thereby preventing any flow of water from the 
boiler when the engine is not in use. This 
blow-off cock is made entirely of steam metal. 
It is especially claimed for this blow-off 
cock that it will not stick, for if any sediment 
should catch in the ports the very high steam 
pressure which closes it would shear such sed- 
iment off, and allow the piston to close, 
which would shut off the steam regardless of 
whether or not the seat closes clear down. 
The area of either one of the ports being 
larger than the intake of the blow-off cock 
allows a perfectly free passage of the steam 
and dirt. This blow-off cock is offered by 
Mr. F. G. Street, 535 Temple Court Build- 
ing, Chicago. 




NEW SHOPS AND ADDITIONS. 

New shops and additions thereto are reported by our exchanges during the past 
month as follows : 

The Flint & Pere Marquette Railway Company is contemplating building a new 
roundhouse at its 16th street grounds in Port Huron, Mich. — The Mexican Central 
is rebuilding its Tampico shops, on a larger scale. — It is reported that the Kansas City, 
Pittsburg & Gulf Railroad will erect additional shop buildings at Pittsburg, Kan., one of 
which will be a brick building, 100x142 feet in size, and will be especially fitted for 
rebuilding, repairing and painting coaches. A brass foundry is also to be built. — The 



360 Railway Masteb Mechanic 



Union Pacific Railroad Company is making arrangements to erect a roundhouse opposite 
the pumping house on the south side of the Blue river at Manhattan, Kan. — A round- 
house is to be built by the Lake Shore at the southwest corner of Mackinaw and 86th 
streets, Chicago. It is to cover 172x75 feet of ground and is to cost s6,ooo — The Lake 
Shore Railway's carpenter shop in Cleveland, at the foot of Buell street, was destroyed 
by (ire September 26. Loss about Si 0,000. — The Philadelphia & Reading has let a con- 
tract for the erection of a large car repair shop at Reading, to Ryan & Kelly This will 
be a one-story brick structure. 85 ft. 2 in by 402 ft. — The frame structure of a portion 
of the Delaware & Hudson shops, at Oneonta, N. Y.. was burned recently. — Work on 
the proposed improvements in the Santa Fe yards in Argentine has begun. Ground was 
broken for the erection of a big coach shed north of the roundhouse. The building of 
the repair shops has been commenced. — Nine stalls of the 23-stall roundhouse of the 
Chicago, St, Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha at Sioux City, Iowa, were burned recently. — 
The material and machinery for the new shops of the Mexico, Cuernavaca & Pacific, at 
Cuernavaca, have arrived. — The Missouri, Kansas & Texas is building an addition to its 
roundhouse, erecting new coal chutes and otherwise improving its shops and yards at 
Denison, Texas. — The Oregon Railway & Navigation Company is reported to have pur- 
chased 33 acres of land at Winona, W r ash., on which it will build division shops. — The 
shops of the Rock Island & Peoria and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific at Peoria, 111., 
are to be in part rebuilt and rearranged. — The Chicago, Burlington & Cjuincy has com- 
pleted a new roundhouse, storehouse, oilhouse and coal chutes at Hannibal, Mo.— The 
old Wabash roundhouse at Fort Wayne, Ind., recently used as a repair shop for engines, 
was destroyed by fire on October 10. — The New York Central is building a new round- 
house, coal sheds and machine shops at Ravenna, N. Y. 



BOOK NOTES. 

HEAT AND HEAT ENGINES: A study of the principles which underlie the 
mechanical engineering of a power plant. 576 pages and 198 illustrations. 8vo, 
cloth, $5.00. By Frederick Remsen Hutton, E. M., Ph. D., Professor of Mechanical 
Engineering at Columbia University. New York : John Wiley & Sons. 
The author explains in the preface that the present work has been prepared to 
answer, in part, questions which the student should ask at the end of his study of an 
earlier work by the same author, entitled, "The Mechanical Engineering of Power 
Plants "; and while the present work will be read by practicing engineers with much 
profit by way of reviewing early studies in the profession, it is very evident that " Heat 
and Heat Engines'' has been written for the use of the younger student. Because a 
majority of our readers are interested most in problems relating to the consumption of 
fuel, and the getting of the most benefit from the fuel used, we may refer them particu- 
larly to the first twelve chapters of the book, with the assurance that if they have covered 
the same subjects in earlier studies, the review will be profitable to them, and that if the 
present work is used by the beginner, he will find the gradual development of the subject 
interesting and highly instructive. The author says in the preface: "The treatment 
assumes, and does not attempt to prove, the dynamic or mechanical theory of heat, and 
does not ask or require to know whether there is an intermolecular ether or not, nor 
whether the-energy of heat manifests itself by producing a vibratory or undulatory or 
vortex motion of matter, or is an electro-magnetic phenomenon"; and the prospective 
reader may be assured that such assumption is made and no proof given. The work is 
to be commended in saving the younger student the confusion which must result from a 
discussion of the theory of heat at a time when he is not in a condition of mind to under- 
stand the arguments. It is sometimes quite as profitable to reason from effect to cause 



The Columbian System pob Lighting Cabs. 361 

as from cause to effect, and it is probably just as well that the student know something 
about heat before he tries to find out what it is. 

There are some equations, but most of them appear in the treatment of the transfor- 
mation of heat into power ; the few equations which appear in the chapters relating to 
the liberation of energy from fuels into forms available for producing work are not for- 
midable, and as these chapters will be of greater interest to the majority of our readers, 
we may assure them that the equations will not be a serious objection to a study of the 
work by them. The subject of fuels is very thoroughly treated — their composition, 
value in heat units, and money value as fuels, and methods of determining each. The 
temperature of combustion and methods of measuring such temperatures, the rate of 
combustion and the effect of the velocity of draft on the fuel economy, receive as 
thorough treatment as the scope of the work will allow. It may be well to add here that 
the prospective reader should not allow the kind of illustrations chosen, or their execu- 
tion, to deter him from reading the book, for, while a considerable portion of the text 
may be obtained in scattering books on other literature with which the illustrations may 
be associated, the orderly manner in which the subject is treated will be appreciated. 

The transfer of heat is considered, and the four processes by which heat can be 
transferred; radiation, contact, conduction in solids and convection in liquids, are 
explained. Heating surface and the counterpart, cooling surface, and evaporation in 
boilers, receive attention. There are also chapters on gas and compressed air engines, 
hot air and internal combustion engines, mechanical refrigeration, and a short chapter on 
the injector. 



THE COLUMBIAN SYSTEM FOR LIGHTING RAILWAY CARS BY 

ELECTRICITY. 

Now that the electrical current is used so generally for illuminating purposes it is nat- 
ural that persistent efforts should be made to extend it to the field of railway car lighting. 
The early attempts to do this were not practically successful, and for awhile the matter 
seemed to be dropped, but the great improvements which have been made in electrical mech 
anism have encouraged renewed effort to give to the railroads and the traveling public the 
advantages and comforts which result from the successful installation of the incandescent 
electric light. 

The experience of railroads has not been favorable to systems of electric lighting in 
which the current is produced by means of steam engines installed on one of the cars of the 
moving train, though one of the finest, if not altogether the finest, regular trains in the 
country is lighted in that way. Many experiments in various parts of the country seem to 
have narrowed the problem to that of using the axles of the cars of a moving train to actu- 
ate the dynamos which produce the electrical current. 

The Columbian Electric Car Lighting and Brake Co. offers a solution of this problem 
which is proving satisfactory and sufficient on a number of leading roads. The general 
features of this system can be understood from the following description which we abstract 
from the Electrical World and Engineer : 

"In this system the generator is driven by gearing from a car axle. Each car has its 
own generator, as well as a storage battery, to supply current during stoppages and at times 
of abnormally slow speed. 

" The generators are standardized, and provisions made for fitting them to any ordinary 
car axle, turned or unturned, by means of a split sleeve and chuck jaws, which latter grip 
the axle, and are adjustable to permit of exact concentricity of the motor bearings with the 
axis of the axle (see Fig. i ). The mechanism whereby the direction of the current from the 
dynamo is changed in case of change of motion of the car, thus enabling the battery to be 
charged regardless of the direction of motion, is shown in Fig. 2. As will be seen, this 
is accomplished by means of a worm on the armature shaft, which engages a gear, which in 



362 



Railway Master Mechanic 




turn actuates a 
pole -changing 
switch. 

"The generat- 
or, which is shunt- 
wound, is excited 
from the storage 
battery, the excit- 
ing current being 
regulated to the 
speed of the 
armature by a 
rheostat in the 
shunt ci re ui t , 
which cuts resist- 
ance in or out as 
the speed of the 
car increases, 
thus k eeping the 
e. m. f. constant. 
The rheostat is automatically operated by a pawl mechanism, the pawls being constantly 
kept vibrating by a small motor; one pawl or the other is made to engage with a ratchet 
turning the rheostat arm by the action of an electro-magnet in the armature circuit. In 
connection with this regulating arrangement is another actuated from the same electro- 
magnet, whereby resistance is thrown into the lamp circuit when the dynamo is charging to 
compensate for the rise in battery e. m. f., which then results. There is also a cut-out 
switch to disconnect the battery from the generator when the car stops, or the speed falls 
below a certain minimum. 

"The operation of the device as a whole is as follows : Assuming that the train is run- 
ning below normal speed, the lights will be supplied direct from the storage battery, getting 
its full e. m. f., and the machine is cut off from the battery by the automatic switch. As 
the speed rises, the automatic switch closes, the current flows through the solenoid which 
attracts its armature, engaging the pawl which turns the main shaft in such a direction as to 
cut resistance into 






Fig. i — End View of Generator. 






the field circuit to 
limit the charging 
current, as well as 
into the lamp cir- 
cuit, to take up 
the increased 
electro - motive 
force of the 
cells. More and 
more of these 
resistances are 
cut in, as the 
speed and charg- 
ing current rises. 
"As will be 
seen, the system 
i> abs olutely 
automatic, no at- 




Fig. 2 — Pole Changer. 



Supply Trade Notes 



363 




Fig. 3 — Regulator. 

tention being required on the part of the train operatives. The load on the machine is kept 
constant, a resistance replacing a lamp or fan motor when one is turned off." 

The company states that it has the system in operation on the New York Central, 
Pennsylvania Railroad, Baltimore & Ohio, Union Pacific, Pennsylvania lines west of Pitts- 
burg, Canadian Pacific, and other important roads, and that it is lighting the cars of these 
roads to perfection. The office of the company is at 1 1 Broadway, New York city. 



SUPPLY TRADE NOTES. 

The 10 new Boyer long stroke riveting hammers, which the Pressed Steel Car Co. 
have had in use for some time at their Allegheny shops, have proven so satisfactory 
that they have now placed with the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. an order for 60 more 
of these hammers. The hammers are used for riveting in the erection of the cars manu- 
factured by that company, and have proven durable and rapid, effecting such a sav- 
ing in labor as to greatly expedite the work and increase the productive capacity of the 
works. Severe tests were made to determine the desirability of using these riveting ham- 
mers, and the results of these tests are indicated in the order just placed for 60 of them. 
These long stroke hammers are the greatest advance yet made in pneumatic tools, and 
orders for them are already taxing the manufacturing facilities of the Chicago Pneumatic 
Tool Co. 



364 Railway Master Mechanic 

~ ♦ — 

Mr. Harry G. Darwin, who, for the last n years, has been associated with the Safety 
Car Lighting and Heating Co., has become connected with the Lappin Brake Shoe Co. 
His title is " Special Agent, " and his headquarters will be at the general offices of the 
company at 41 Cortlandt street, New York. The management of this concern is sur- 
rounding itself with a strong staff of able and successful men. 

The Reagan Fuel Economizing Co. has been organized with headquarters at 59 Clark 
street, Chicago, to introduce in the west the Reagan grate. This grate is applied to loco- 
motives as well as stationary furnaces, and has made some remarkable records in the way 
of saving fuel and securing satisfactory steam pressure. 

Mr. Lee S. Chadwick, who graduated in the class of '99 from Purdue University, 
stepped at once from the class room to that of superintendent of the Bali-Bearing Co. of 
Boston. The additional fact that he is successful in discharging the duties of his present 
position speaks well for the "practicalness" of the instruction given at Purdue. 

The Q. & C. Co. now exclusively controls the sale of magnolia anti-friction metal to 
the railways, both steam and electric, of the United States, Canada and Mexico. This 
new line was taken on by the Q. & C. Co. on October 16. 

Merchant & Co., Inc., of Philadelphia, New York, Brooklyn and Chicago, extend a 
cordial invitation to every one interested in their line of goods to pay a visit to their ex- 
hibit at the National Export Exposition now on in Philadelphia, "Section D-6, Main 
Building. " This company will have representatives there at all times, who will be glad to 
see all visitors and give them information about the goods they have to offer. The exhibit 
itself is a novel one, consisting of a handsome booth, covered with their well known Mer- 
chant's Spanish tiles, and having two "Star" ventilators, one of the "Standard" form 
and the other of the glass top "Skylight" form. Above this roof there is an apparatus 
which distributes water in the shape of rain, so that the visitor has a practical example of 
the value of good roofing as a protection against the weather. Within the booth is a full 
line of the product of their smelting works, consisting of the largest line of Babbitt 
metals produced in America, as well as every description of solder and newspaper metals; 
also a full sample line of Merchant's high grade roofing, bright tinplates and metal ceil- 
ing; also brass tubing, which they handle in very large quantities. This exhibit will be 
of marked interest to every one, and is well worth a visit by those interested in the best 
bright or terne tin in ventilators, and in the general line of roofing material; also to the 
numerous manufacturers and users of machinery who require brass and copper goods 
and Babbitt metals. 

The National Electric Car Lighting Co. on October 14 sold, assigned and transferred 
to the Electric Axle Light & Power Co. its entire assets, consisting of property, patents 
and patent rights, contracts, agreements, privileges and good will. The business for- 
merly done by the National Electric Car Lighting Co. will be continued by the Electric 
Axle Light & Power Co., 100 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. E. P. Bigelow is now the general eastern agent of the American Steel Foundry 
Co. of St. Louis. Mr. Bigelow's office is at 206 Havemeyer Building, New York City. 

The Boston Artificial Leather Co. has removed its office and warerooms to New York 
City. The demand for moroccoline having increased to such large proportions the com- 
pany found its facilities for the manufacture of it wholly inadequate to meet the demand. 
The change of location, therefore, was deemed most desirable. The new factory is 
located within a few miles of New York, and with increased facilities for manufacturing 
moroccoline all orders will be filled with satisfactory promptness. Moroccoline is rapidly 
becoming a staple article, its merits being recognized and its superiority over all other 



Russian Contract for Westinghouse Air Beakes 365 

kinds of imitation leather being acknowledged by the furniture and upholstery trades, and 
many other lines of business, by which it is largely used. 

RUSSIAN CONTRACT FOR WESTINGHOUSE AIR BRAKES. 

A contract for American apparatus, amounting to $15,000,000, could not fail to 
absorb a good deal of public attention. The fact that the Imperial Russian Government 
was one of the contracting parties, and the apparatus was such a purely American inven- 
tion as is the Westinghouse air brake, were further factors in securing notoriety. Mixed 
with a feeling of national pride that American mechanism should be considered superior 
to all others, there arose also a spice of envy among competitors, which led to statements 
in the public press contradicting the exclusive nature of the Russian contract with the 
Westinghouse Brake Company. 

The controversy has now been entirely set at rest by an important communication 
transmitted by Consul-General Holloway, of St. Petersburg, under date July 27, 1899. 
This communication fully confirms the exclusive'mature of the contract for air brakes 
granted by the Imperial Russian Government to the Westinghouse Brake Company, 
and completely confirms every statement which the latter have given to the press from 
time to time. The order issued by the Russian Minister of Ways of Communication 
states : 

Article 1. In virtue of the opinion of the State Council, recorded on the 30th of 
March, 1898, imperially sanctioned, continuous automatic brakes are to be applied to the 
engines and trucks of the freight stock circulating in direct traffic on the Russian system 
of normal 5-foot gauge railroads. 

Article 2. In conformity with the decision of the Minister of Ways of Com- 
munication, and of the extraordinary congress of representatives of the service of rolling 
stock and traction, summoned in January of this year (1899), on the question of the 
choice of the fundamental system of continuous automatic brakes for freight trains, the 
Westinghouse system of brakes is adopted. 

The Westinghouse air brake has been a potent factor in fostering railway traffic in 
the United States. It has enabled heavier and longer trains to be operated and a more 
frequent service maintained. The Westinghouse type of air brake has been tried for so 
many years that it has the prestige of long successful operation. On this account it was 
decided to employ it exclusively upon the rolling stock of the Government lines, as well 
as upon private railways, in Russia. 

Article 3. The order issued by the Minister of Ways of Communication admits the 
experimental introduction of other systems of continuous automatic brakes under certain 
stringent conditions, but excludes their general use until the expiration of the present 
Westinghouse contract in 1903. The conditions are as follows : (a) The previous trial of 
the new system on trains of local circulation, during not less than three years, for its 
thorough trial under the ordinary conditions of working ; (b) The possibility of the com- 
bined action of the new system with Westinghouse system ; (c) The mutual interchangea- 
bility of the connections (couplings) ; (d) Previous to the introduction of the new sys- 
tem into direct communication, the question of its practical suitability for this object is 
to be considered by the congress of representatives of the service of rolling stock and trac- 
tion, and the ratification of the conclusion of the congress is to follow the usual course. 
It is well known among railway experts that trains made up of cars carrying differ- 
ent systems of brakes are often endangered thereby. The compressed air used in 
connection with the brakes is a very powerful force, requiring the greatest care in manip- 
ulation. To control the energy of steam-driven trains, a higher force than could be 
produced by manual effort became necessary, and this was found in compressed air. 
The controlling apparatus in the hands of the locomotive engineer is necessarily of a 



366 • Railway Masteb Mechanic 

very sensitive nature, and is capable of use in various degrees. The quick-action brake 
is employed on ordinary occasions for stopping trains, but by a further turn of the lever 
the same apparatus causes the emergency brake to be put into operation, applying the 
full energy of the compressed air It may, therefore, be easily understood that trains 
made up of cars carrying different types of brakes may be seriously imperiled, since some 
of the brakes will not respond as quickly as others to the control of the engineer. In 
fact, several railway accidents have been traced to this very cause. 

The imperial Russian order involves the equipment of 300,000 freight cars, as well 
as a large number of locomotives. Sixty thousand cars are to be fitted with Westing- 
house air brakes, and the remaining 240,000 with air pipes and couplings, inside of three 
years. The decree stipulates that 20 per cent of the freight cars of a train shall be 
equipped with air brakes, all of which will be capable of control by the locomotive en- 
gineer, as the air pipes and couplings will be continuous throughout each train. 

One of the stipulations made by the Russian Government is for the manufacture of 
the air brakes in Russia. For this purpose the Westinghouse Company has erected a 
fine plant at St. Petersburg, equipped with the latest improved American machinery, and 
is now employing a large force under expert American engineers. The general manager 
is Mr. A. Kapteyn, of London, who is assisted by Mr. Walter Phillips, of Philadelphia, 
and by American experts in charge of the various departments. 

Consul-General Holloway. of St. Petersburg, writes : "Russia is the first country in 
Europe to use the continuous air brake for its freight and military trains. While Russia 
began the development of its industrial resources much later than other nations, she is 
pursuing the policy of equipping her new factories with the latest modern machinery and 
adopting the most perfect methods of manufacture, as shown by the many new industrial 
plants in course of construction, which are almost without exception among the finest to 
be found in Europe. These are being assisted by the enterprise of Americans, who are 
beginning to appreciate and take advantage of the opportunities offered by this country." 

In order to meet the requirements of the Russian railways, the Westinghouse Com- 
pany have decided to double the original size of their works in St. Petersburg. It is 
intended, as soon as the brakes can be manufactured, to apply them to all the freight 
cars on the Imperial and private railways, the present arrangement for 20 per cent of 
each train being but preliminary to their universal application. 



W ANTED — DRAFTSMAN — A man with a technical education and some experience in 
car and locomotive work. Address Y. M., care of Railway Master Mechanic. 

A POSITION is sought by a thoroughly competent mechanical man, who is experienced 
in directing work in a railway shop and in manufacturing establishments. Particu- 
larly well up in car work. Now occupies a responsible position, but is desirous of 
making a change. Address, in confidence, the editor of the Railway Master 
Mechanic. 

SITUATION WANTED— As Chief Clerk Motive Power Department or in similar 
capacity. Have had 15 years' experience in practical mechanical work and in 
administrative duties. Have a thorough knowledge of all classes of equipment in 
detail. Have had extended experience in the organization of forces and discipline of 
same. Can offer endorsements and recommendations by many high railway offiicials 
and others more or less intimately connected with railway affairs. Address ' 'Charles, 
care Railway Master Mechanic. 

A FOREMAN BLACKSMITH desires a position in charge of railway blacksmith shop. 
Is thoroughly up to date in shop methods and well accustomed to handling men. 
Best of references can be furnished. Address A. J., care of Railway Master 
Mechanic. 

SITUATION WANTED — By a capable general foreman of locomotive repairs. Per- 
fectly satisfactory reasons for leaving present position. Address G. F., care of 
Railway Master Mechanic. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 

WALTER D. CROSMAN, EDITOR. 

EDWIN N. LEWIS, Manager. 

W. E. MAGRAW, Assistant Manager. 

Vol. XXIII. CHICAGO, DECEMBER, 1899. No. 7 



THE HIGHER PRICES demanded at present for railroad ma- 
terial and equipment are more far reaching in their effect than 
one would imagine at first thought. We have previously noted 
work which has been postponed with the expectation that it could be 
done cheaper in the reasonably near future ; and we wish to point out 
now the fact that the higher prices for railway supplies are having a very 
decided effect on the design of cars and locomotives, and one that is 
really interrupting the usual rate of progress. The railways are adhering 
to old designs and buying nominally cheaper, though probably ultimately 
costlier, supplies, while the experience of the officers dictates something 
better. During the continuance of these high prices care must be taken 
not to estimate the ability and good judgment of the mechanical officers 
by the design of the equipment purchased ; because sometimes a grave 
injustice will be done. 



THE SYMPATHY and assistance which the managements of 
many railways give to railway branches of the Y. M. C. A. are 
the outgrowth not so much of religious or sentimental feelings 
as of a conviction that the influence of such organizations is of practical, 
everyday advantage to their roads. That the money and privileges 
given by a railway to these institutions on its lines are a " paying invest- 
ment," is not questioned by any one who has investigated the subject 
thoroughly and without prejudice. But why is it that the managing- 
powers of nearly all our roads manifest no particular interest in associa- 
tions of employes which have for their express object the education and 
improvement of their members in their railway work ? The benefits 
which a road derives from the Y. M. C. A. branches on its line are indi- 
rect, but it is directly benefited by any organization which helps its men 
to a better understanding of their duties, and makes them more intelli- 
gent and active in their daily work. And yet how little direct encour- 



368 Railway Master Mechanic 

agement and help arc bestowed by the managing railway officials on 

such organizations. For example, if the car foremen and chief car 
inspectors of a city wish to get together occasionally and discuss the 
questions which are constantly arising in the course of their daily duties, 
and give each other the benefit of their experience, they must, out of 
salaries which are never more than adequate, pay all the expenses in- 
curred ; and often the time taken to attend the meetings is grudged 
them. The same would be true of any other class of employes. It 
would seem that our railway managers might, with advantage to the 
properties which they control, give more substantial encouragement to 
such efforts at associational work. 



THERE ARE many little "kinks" which contribute to the use- 
fulness of a bulldozer, or forming machine, and the number of 
them which the manipulator has at his command determines the 
variety of operations for which this useful tool can be used bv him and 
also determines, largely, whether the tool is kept busy or whether it 
stands idle much of the time. A very common operation, that of 
making a right angle bend, may be performed in such a way as to 
reduce the section of the metal at the bend — and this is the most com- 
mon result from the average dies — or the dies can be designed so as to 
increase the section at the bend. The latter is much to be desired. If 
the stock is not sliding properly in the dies the forgings will take a 
rough appearance ; to correct this and to give a nice finish to the output 
use graphite on those parts of the dies over which the stock is to slip. 



JOURNAL BEARINGS were among the parts of cars first stand- 
ardized by the M. C. B. Association, and the standards for these 
were adopted long enough ago for a layman, at least, to suppose 
that only a few odd journal bearings should be in use at the present 
time. The layman, however, is wrong in his supposition, because we 
have recently learned that at some of the larger interchange points one 
hundred different designs of bearings would hardly cover the number 
required for repairs. The list of M. C. B. bearings is a very short one, 
but the number of combinations which can be worked by a slight 
increase and a slight decrease in the principal dimensions of length, 
breadth and height is quite appalling. An effort worthy of better 
results than were obtained was made to reduce the number of coupler 



Harmony in Each Department 369 

knuckles kept for repairs; the possible economies to result from a 
reduction in the number of odd-dimension bearings would amply repay 
for a more determined effort, if possible, in this direction. 



Harmony in Each Department. 

There is a very decided tendency at present, and it has been growing 
for some years, toward a more friendly relation between the various 
departments of railways, and it is being appreciated that certain work 
should be done by a certain department, not so much because traditions 
so determine, as because the work can be done cheaper and with less 
friction by that particular department. With this very desirable change 
in the relations between the different departments, a more decided 
improvement than has been made might have been expected within the 
various departments. It is possible that, on the roads on which the 
most friction occurs within a department, the conditions are not appre- 
ciated by those who are directly interested and, as our attention has been 
called recently to the evidence of friction within the mechanical, car and 
locomotive, department of several prominent roads, it is our desire to 
describe some of the symptoms and to prescribe a few well known reme- 
dies, trusting that each " long and patient sufferer " will recognize some 
of the "aches and pains " as common to his case, and that he may profit 
by the prescriptions, or prescribe himself something more effective for his 
particular case. 

When the locomotives and cars are going into and out of the repair 
shops in " bunches " of eight or ten at a time, or a month's work is going 
in during the first few days of each month, and the entire monthly out- 
put is coming out on the last day or two of the month, it may well be 
concluded that something more than a " laxative " is required, and when 
the remedy is decided upon it will be best to administer it in allopathic 
doses, because under such conditions the output is restricted to about 
50 per cent of the possible output of the shops and of the men. 

The general foreman is largely, if not entirely (and he should be 
entirely), responsible for the amount of work turned out; therefore his 
appointment should be a question for serious concern. Me must be 
broad enough to recognize the needs, the limitations and the resources 
of every shop contributing to the output, and he should be able to allow 
for, or to take advantage of, each condition. It is probable that no one 
will question the truth of the foregoing declaration, so that, if a discus- 



370 Railway Master Mkchanh 

sion is to be provoked, it will be necessary to advance another question 
tor consideration and this will be done by asking whether the general 
foreman, as we meet him today, has had the training that especially fits 
him for the position ? The assertion is ventured that, with very few 
exceptions, the general foreman does not have such special training. 
He is usually appointed from the minor foremen of the erecting shops 
and he knows little of the forge shops, of the boiler shops or of the 
foundries, and too often his promotion means to him the authority to 
give orders and a notice not to receive suggestions. These conditions 
make him an " erecting shop " man instead of a " general " man and his 
usefulness is limited accordingly; he fights the battles of the erecting 
shop against the other shops, and instead of being a general man, direct- 
ing everything to a common purpose, he is showing partiality to the 
erecting shops at the expense of the other shops. It will be no better 
to take a general foreman from any other than the erecting shops, 
because he will show partiality to whatever shop from which he may 
come, unless, perchance, he is an ideal general foreman. This may 
seem to be a rather harsh criticism, but it is believed that those who 
consider it most harsh are in the best condition to profit by a careful 
consideration of it. Of course it is just as essential that the foreman of 
each shop shall be thoroughly acquainted with the work of the shop 
over which each has control, otherwise a certain class of work may clog 
the shop. 

With the general foreman and shop foremen working in harmony for 
the maximum output of every shop, and with assistance from the heads 
of the departments, the cars and locomotives will arrive in a continuous 
stream and be of such condition of repair that each shop will be always 
working at about its maximum economical capacity ; each car and loco- 
motive will be scheduled into the shop, through the shop and out of the 
shop; it will be a minimum number of days out of service; and the cost 
of repairs will be at a minimum. 

In the all-in-together all-out-together system every machinist is a 
stripper for the first few days of the month, and the boiler maker and 
blacksmith wait on them ; and in the car department every painter is a 
cleaner and the carpenters wait for them ; or the large amount of heavy 
boiler repairs for a month limits the output of the locomotive shop, while 
a large amount of burning off paint may, similarly, limit the output of 
the car shops. On the other hand, with the cars and locomotives arriv- 
ing at the shops regularly, and their selection based upon the kind of 
repairs they are to receive and the condition of work in each shop, and 



Road Tests of Locomotives 371 

with a regular schedule, carefully arranged and faithfully carried out, for 
the progress of the work through the shops, each and every shop will be 
worked to about its maximum economical capacity and the output of the 
shops as a whole will be the maximum. 

Under this arrangement each man can be treated as a specialist and, 
as is done in manufacturing establishments, he can be given the same 
kind of work day after day, with the result that the work will be done 
better and quicker. This will also increase the output. The adoption 
of the schedule method, together with a careful selection of the cars and 
locomotives to meet the needs of and condition of work in the various 
shops has, in several instances, increased the output 25 per cent with no 
increase in the number of men employed. The successful working of 
the system, however, requires harmony within the department. 



ROAD TESTS OF LOCOMOTIVES. 

At the September meeting of the New York Railroad Club, Mr. R. 
P. C. Sanderson read a paper entitled " Some Deductions from Road 
Tests of Locomotives." The main point of Mr. Sanderson's paper was 
that in making road tests too much is attempted and that expectation to 
obtain in such tests anything of specific value as to fuel economy, steam 
consumption, etc., is doomed to disappointment. In participating in the 
discussion of his paper Mr. Sanderson made the following remarks, 
which compactly present the ideas he wished to convey : 

" I think that certain rules have been laid down for tests of locomo- 
tives which have been very generally followed, which are altogether too 
elaborate, and my paper was intended to show that all this elaboration 
that we go about in our attempts to get accurate results for the effi- 
ciency of the engines as regards fuel economy, steam consumption and 
other details, is wasted energy; but when it comes to seeing what a 
given locomotive will haul over a given division, there is absolutely no 
other way of doing it than by testing it, putting it to the proof. A 
couple of years ago, about the time that tonnage rating was first taken 
up, we went to work on that, and, taking the profile of each division, 
calculated for each class of locomotives according to the most accepted 
rules of theoretical tonnage rating over the ruling grades, leaving the 
momentum grades out of account. With some of the modern heavier 
engines the calculations came out almost exactly right. Hut with some 
of the over-cylindered engines it was away below. One class of engines 
in particular, hauled nearly double what the formula said they ought to 
haul, and on the same grades with the same curvatures on different divis- 



372 Kailway Masteb Mechanic 



ions the engines would not haul the same tonnage, do what we would 
with them, and there was no jockeying in it either, because they were 
watched by men who knew about jockeying and knew how to stop it, 
and the engines were handled by road foremen who were trying to do 
their best. When you come to the hauling of tonnage, the road test is 
the only thing; but when you want to find out the merits of a piston 
valve against a slide valve, the internal friction in the engine, the merits 
of the draft appliances, the question of petticoat pipes versus no petti- 
coat pipes, and this and that and the other, you have got to go on the 
laboratory rollers and keep conditions absolutely uniform — keep out all 
the disturbing elements, do away with the personal equation in the mat- 
ter — before you can get any results that you can feel satisfied may be 
depended on." 

In the paper Mr. Sanderson pointed out some of the causes which 
may seriously affect the results of road tests and which may not ordina- 
rily be recognized as disturbing elements. He. bases his points upon 
experiences he had himself had in making tests. As illustrating these 
experiences we quote one or two samples as follows : 

One of the engines used in the test was of a new class, having 
large extended wagon-top, radial-stay boiler. These engines do not carry 
their water as steadily, and it took the engineraan some time to get on 
to the proper height to carry his water so as to keep the steam up. As 
he became more accustomed to this and understood the engine better, 
the figures for evaporation in pounds of water per pound of coal from 
and at 212 ° fell from 12.85 to !I - 22 t0 9-9 down to 9.5 where it be- 
longed. Now, it required close watching to see that the steam was 
unduly wet, and this, without a calorimeter, which is unhandy to use on 
a locomotive, could have very easily been overlooked. Had the results 
for the first and last mentioned trips been compared for the purpose of, 
let us say, ascertaining the merits of one kind of coal as against another, 
or perhaps of a feed water heating device, it would have shown a saving 
of 35.2 per cent, and led, perhaps, to placing a year's contract for coal 
with a new company, or led to the application of a large number of worth- 
less feed- water heating devices. 

Another case : 

In testing one engine having piston valves, the tonnage was steadily 
increased from 733.5 tons, a light load, to 898.5 tons, a considerable 
overload. The results obtained, however, were exactly contrary to what 
was to be expected. The coal per 100 ton-miles decreased steadily 
from 13.2 to 12.8 to 12.6 to 12.3 to 1 1.7. There were two reasons for 
this fact — one was in the engine crew : From the time they had handled 
the engine the first eight miles on the first trip, both men fell in love 
with the engine, and unquestionably a strong prejudice in favor of this 
particular engine led them to, perhaps unintentionally, handle her more 
and more successfully. More than that; it takes an engine crew some 



Eoad Tests of Locomotives 



.>. •> 



time to learn the personal peculiarities of each engine, so as to get the 
best work out of her under all conditions. Further, as the distance 
during which the engine was exerting herself to her maximum, and 
therefore consuming fuel wastefully, was only about 30 per cent of the 
entire distance, it was profitable to force the engine to the utmost dur- 
ing this distance, regardless of economy; because during the rest of the 
trip the engine was not overtaxed and was piling up ton-mileage faster 
in proportion than she had consumed coal wastefully on the short 
portion of the run ; so that the net result was the saving of coal per ton- 
mile for what might be called excessive overloading of the engine. 

Another case : 

To obtain some further light on the quantity of coal required per 
ton-mile, ten trips were made with loaded coal trains varying from two 
thousand to two thousand four hundred and fifty tons over a 133.6-mile 
division of generally level character, but which, with the exception of a 
few miles of dead-level track, is really a continuous succession of mo- 
mentum grades. When the trains were not stopped in the bottoms, and 
were allowed to go, results showed that the coal per 100 ton-miles was 
about the same for all tonnages. The explanation of this is that, as the 
dips were all short, by wheeling the cars a little faster down the hills, 
enough momentum could be stored up to easily carry the train over the 
top of the next hill without working the engine much harder than usual. 
As a fact, for normal trips not affected by outside causes, the coal per 
100 ton-miles varied only a decimal point or two up or down, sometimes 
one way and sometimes another, although the tonnage was increased 
over four hundred tons over the regular service rating. It takes very 
little more effort to keep a heavy person going in a swing than it does 
a light one, after they have been set at full swing. About the same 
push on the downward half of the swing will carry them up and back 
again. There is an important lesson to be drawn from this, namely, 
that if stations, passing sidings, water tanks, and so on, could all be 
located either on levels on tops of the hills, or just beyond the crests of 
the hills, on roads having broken grades of this character, the tonnage 
could be very considerably increased. As it is, on the division referred 
to, with railway crossing stops in the bottoms, awkwardly located sta- 
tions, passing sidings and tanks to contend with, the tonnage must not 
be regulated by what the engine could get over the division with safety, 
but by what she can get away with at certain awkward places, without 
stalling and doubling, thus balling up the road and causing overtime. 

A third case : 

With two trains varying only 21.4 tons, in both cases considerably 
below the normal rating of the engine, the pounds of coal per 100 ton- 
miles increased from 10 to 14.8. The reason for this was due to fre- 
quent stops for blocks and for passing trains, the delays in one case 
being 1 hour and 5 minutes, in the other 6 hours and 40 minutes. It 
was not so much the length of the stops, for the coal and water used 



:'m4 Railway M aster Mechanic 

during exceptionally long stops were kept account of and deducted, but 
the greater number of stops, requiring that man}- more accelerations of 
the load from rest to motion, was the important factor. In the subse- 
quent trials with 2,000-ton trains on the division 133.6 miles long, this 
was prominently illustrated ; on one trip, with everything favorable, few 
stops, few trains to meet and easy places to start from. Another trip 
with numerous stops, many of them hard places, although none of them 
long stops, the latter showed an increase of 18.1 per cent in the coal per 
100 ton-miles, for which there was no other conceivable reason than 
that mentioned. 

Mr. Sanderson cites another instance where, when everything was 
read)' for a trip, the regular fireman was taken sick and another first- 
class man picked out to fill his place. While this man tried his best to 
show his ability equal to that of the man he had succeeded, yet for the 
reason that he was not working in harmony with the engineman, and, 
perhaps, because he was not equally proficient, the coal consumed per 
100 miles jumped up 17 per cent. 

The author contended, finally, that the personal element in engine 
performance is the most important factor of all ; and that tests with 
single trains may give not only inaccurate results, but, for some of the 
man}' reasons cited, may show results apparently exactly contrary to the 
facts. " While the objection often raised to laboratory tests," again says 
Mr. Sanderson, "that they do not represent road service, is correct, still, 
if absolute, or if even tolerably reliable, results are required, laboratory 
tests are the only sure way of obtaining them. In the laboratory nearly 
all, if not all, the variables can be eliminated and each particular feature 
of the engine can be tested on its merits alone." The author, however, 
admits that fair road service tests may be had with passenger trains. 



DUTIES OWED EMPLOYES AND CAR REPAIR- 
ERS ESPECIALLY. 

In the case of Fool against the Southern Pacific Company, the 
supreme court of Utah says that it is well settled that the contract of 
employment imposes upon the master the implied obligation not to 
expose the servant to dangers which the master, by the exercise of 
reasonable care, skill and prudence, can avert. 

The evidence in this case showed that a car repairer was directed to 
repair a car standing on a track other than a repair track, that he went 
under the car tor the purpose of making repairs as directed, that no 



Duties Caved Employes 375 

danger flag was placed on the car being repaired, and that while he was 
so employed an engine and caboose, under the direction of the foreman 
of the switchmen in the train department, who had actual knowledge of 
the car repairer's position under the car, were backed against the car, 
resulting in the injury and death of the car repairer. 

Applying the rule stated to these facts, the court holds it clear that 
the railway company had not properly discharged the duties which it 
owed to the car repairer under the contract of employment, and was 
guilty of gross negligence. 

Continuing its discussion of the law, the court lays it down that 
among the implied duties imposed by the contract of employment upon 
the master are, that he shall provide reasonable ancl suitable means and 
appliances to enable the servant to do his work as safely as the hazard 
incident to the employment will permit, and that he will provide a suit- 
able and reasonably safe place for doing the work to be performed. The 
master cannot escape liability for injuries inflicted upon his servant for a 
negligent discharge of these duties by intrusting their performance to 
another. These duties are personal duties of the master, which can in 
no way be delegated so as to relieve him from responsibility. A failure 
to perform these duties, or any negligence in their performance, is the 
negligence of the master, for which he is liable. . Such negligence is not 
a hazard necessarily attendant upon the occupation of the servant, nor is 
it one which he, in legal contemplation, is presumed to risk in the service 
of the master. 

Besides, the court holds that where the place where the car repairer 
was ordered to work was not necessarily or inherent]}' dangerous, he had 
a right to presume that he would not be exposed to unnecessary danger, 
and to presume that the railway company had used proper care to render 
the place where he was to work reasonably safe, and the fact that he, in 
obedience to the order of the foreman in charge of repairers, went to 
work under the car, beneath which he was fatally injured, did not estab- 
lish contributory negligence. 

Then, too, the court insists that when the nature of the business is 
such as to require it, the law imposes upon the master the duty of 
making and promulgating suitable rules to promote the safety of his 
employes. And it particularly holds that where the nature of the 
employment of car repairer is so hazardous as the evidence herein 
disclosed, the duty is imposed upon the master, of making and promul- 
gating a rule requiring the placing of danger flags upon cars when 






1\ailway Mas tkk Mechanic 






x 












'^ 










. 


SZ 










^> 


o 










"™ 


<— 










< 


•- 


„ 








•"■"I 




^ 








w 


o 


Q 








2£ 


m 


Q 










x 


cu 


N 






_ 


Tt- 


l"H 


M 






< 


ro 


^c 


^i- 






ry 


__, 


X 


ro 




















rj 


-4— > 


cu 


CU 




u 


r^ 


V 
V 


■ — 








<-t— 1 








',. 


IN 




— 


• - 


X 


~~ 


N 


u 




X 




^~ 






V 




5? 


U 


-y^ 


— 


-4— > 


pj 


■►^ 


--- 


u 


cfl 


he 


s 


CN 














■— ' 










£ 


.E 


o 


u 


o 


r^ 


2^ 








o 


O 














^_j 


. , 


O 


*""! 


1) 


— 


— 


x 


"^ 


cfl 


Vh 


cr. 














~ 


X- 


^ 


CU 


X 


o 




g 


'— 


3 


X 

1) 




>^ 


^ 










z 




4-1 


U 


>— 


^t" 




o 


cu 


•*-> 


f— 


■_- 




o 


D 


rt 


- 


u 


~y 


M 


'— 


> 


V 


•4—1 










•4— > 




w 




CU 


cu 


X 


-- 














f ^ 


/. 


EQ 


cu 


Vj 


>^ 


— 




In. 


X 


£ 




1 


~ 


q_ 




X 


u 


z 




r ^. 


^ 


3J 


•s 


w 


3 


u 






p - 1 






u 










f— 


■ — i 


w 








be 

> 


x 


CD 


O 


13 




ID 


-^ 


be 


>"~ 


cu 


u 












^J 




'Z. 


-4—1 


•~ 


X 














_— 


X 


-4— ' 


4-1 


Q 


Jr 


_ 


^^ 


r: 


u 


1 


— 


*-: 


rj 


u 


1/ 




c 


/— V 
























u 


Q 




1) 


1/ 


<— 




*" " 


X 


rE 


■""* 


■4-J 


> 


o 
o 


cu 


X 


cu 


— 


- — 


un 


p* 




[3 






l-O 


• — 


C 


~ 




' 


tN, 


ro 


N 


X 




u 


— 


c 


tN 
tN 






— 


w * 


CO 


cT 






z 


_C 


u 










bfl 


> 




















_ 


cu 


'— 








— 


^* 











u 












[/: 


73 











Compound Ten-Wheeler — \. P. R. R. 



repairers are under them, and forbidding any coupling to be done by a 
locomotive while they are so engaged. 

Nor does the court consider that a laborer in the car shops of a rail- 
way corporation and the foreman of the switchmen in the train depart- 
ment are fellow servants. But even if the injury complained of was 
directly caused by the act of a fellow servant, if the chances of its 
occurrence would have been greatly less if the railway company had 
faithfully performed the duties it owed to the car repairer, and its negli- 
gence in this regard contributed to the injury, the court holds that the 
railway company would be liable for damages. 



HEAVY COMPOUND TEN-WHEEL LOCOMOTIVE 
—NORTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD. 

Fourteen heavy compound 10- wheel locomotives have recently been 
built for the Northern Pacific Railroad by the Schenectady Locomotive 
Works. On the opposite page we give a view of one of these engines. 
They are of the same general type as previous locomotives built for the 
Northern Pacific by the Schenectady Works. These engines have cylin- 
ders 22 and 34x30 inches ; 63-inch drivers ; extended wagon top boilers 
which are 70 inches in diameter, and which are designed to carry 200 
pounds of steam pressure ; fire boxes 120 3-16x41 inches in dimensions ; 
a grate area of 34.22 square feet, and 3012.7 square feet of heating sur- 
face of which 208 square feet is fire box, 32.1 square feet water tube 
and 2772.6 square feet tube surface. The engines weigh 175,500 
pounds, of which 134,200 pounds are on the drivers. 

These locomotives are now in very successful operation on the 
Northern Pacific in the most severe service, and are giving most satisfac- 
tory results in economy of fuel and repairs, and hauling capacity. This 
service has demonstrated the advantage of using the piston type of 
valve on the high pressure side, with which, it will be noted in our 
engraving, these engines are fitted ; this is evidenced by the ease of 
handling and the decreased strain in the valve gear, which is quite nota- 
ble as compared with the slide valve. On the low pressure side, Allen- 
American valves are used. 

On these engines the fire box is depressed at the front end, to give 
as much depth as possible under the tubes. The springs are under- 
hung. The drivers have cast -steel centers. The special equipment 
includes Jerome valve stem and piston rod packing, Hancock inspirator 



378 Railway Master Mechanic 

and Ohio injector, American air driver and Westinghouse air brake and 
pump, Ashton safety valves and Leach sand feeder. 

The tender has a water capacity of 4,350 gallons, and coal capacity 
of nine tons. It has a 10-inch channel frame. 



A MODEL WORKINGMAN'S VILLAGE. 

THE HOME OF CHICAGO, BURLINGTON & QUINCY SHOP EMPLOYES 
AT WEST BURLINGTON, IOWA. 

A visitor at the West Burlington shops of the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy Railroad is always sure of being well repaid for his call, for 
the equipment and operations in these shops always present the distinct 
characteristic of progressiveness. But there is something else of value to 
see at this point, aside from the shops and their work. By stepping 
across the tracks, and walking a short block, past the comfortable home 
of the master mechanic, one finds himself in a truly model workingman's 
village. Here nearly 70 per cent of the shop hands live, in handsome 
little homes — homes that nearly all of them own — nearly 50 per cent of 
them now all paid for. The homes vary, of course, in style of archi- 
tecture and finish, according to the circumstances of the owners-— but 
all are neat, and many really handsome ; and all are surrounded by good 
sized yards, devoted to lawns, flower beds or kitchen gardens. A good 
barn is also seen on many of the lots — over 60 per cent of the house- 
holders having their own horse and buggy. The streets are, in the main, 
well shaded with fine trees, the roadways and sidewalks are well kept up, 
the lawns are beautified with flowers and shrubbery, the windows are 
prettily draped — and altogether the pleasanter aspects of a handsome 
country village are strongly in evidence. And all this owned, occupied, 
and governed by fortunate members of a class of men who, as a general 
rule, find their lot so cast that a great part of them have, to put it 
mildly, very indifferent home surroundings, and hold rent receipts 
instead of deeds. 

Just three miles due west of the Mississippi river, on the great 
Burlington route, is situated the beautiful and homelike little town of 
West Burlington, which was until the last 16 years recognized only as a 
part of the rolling prairie of Iowa. Settlement was first made in this 
place in about the year 1834. But where the pioneers built their log 
huts and cleared away the timber, of which, we are assured, there was 



A Model Workwoman's Village 



379 



an abundance, and became excellent farmers on improved farms, there 
now is situated the prosperous little town which is the subject of our 
sketch. 

The shops were built in 1 88 1 by the Chicago, Burlington & Ouincy 
Railway, and were occupied in 1882. These shops, by the way, which 
were illustrated in the Railway Master Mechanic of August, 1886, 
are today considered as among the model shops of the country. The 
village organization was established in January, 1884, with Thomas C. 

Scholes as mayor. Mr. 
Scholes was at that 
time general foreman 
of the shops. Soon 
after the shops were 
built, the town — or, 
rather, the country — 
took on a businesslike 
look. House after 
house went up, not to 
be rented, but to be 
bought by the shop 
employes. Some of 
them were built to be 
paid for on the month- 
ly instalment plan, 
and in some cases part 
payment was given 
down and a mortgage placed for the remainder of the purchase price. 
The plan upon which the workmen obtain their homes is equitable 
in form and easy in detail. The unsatisfactory features observed in the 
methods in somewhat similar towns are not in evidence. For instance, 
the house is not necessarily built after a stereotyped set of plans de- 
signed by the selling company, but is just what the purchaser wishes it 
to be, there being a tacit understanding, however, that no one shall 
undertake to buy a home that is beyond his means. The town was laid 
out by the West Burlington Land Association, a company which, while in- 
directly connected with the railway company, is yet an entirely independ- 
ent and distinct corporation. In providing for a home, the workman 
arranges to buy a lot from this association, gets up his own plans and 
specifications, lets the contract to whomever he wishes to, and when the 
work is done the association pays all bills and hands the key to him, on 




A Blacksmith's Home. 

The residence of Mr. John Enberg. A very beautiful cottage home, 

furnace heated. Mr. Enberg is a blacksmith, and 

his wage rate is £2.75 per day. 



380 



Railway Master Mechanic 



the sole condition that he pay the association a certain sum monthly. 
The prices charged for the lots are only in touch with the times, and 
the rate of interest charged is 7 per cent. At the end of each year, or 
oftener, if desired, the association furnishes the purchaser with a state- 
ment showing just how the deal stands. At the end of the year the 
purchaser is credited with half of the interest on the amount he has paid 
in during the year, so that there is no compounding of interest. The 
purchaser is at liberty to insure his home with an}' company he chooses. 

The present popu- 
lation of the town is 
nearly eleven hun- 
dred, and there are not 
more than fifteen or 
twenty shopmen, with 
families, who are rent- 
ing their homes. 

Nearly 50 per cent 
of the owners now 
have their homes en- 
tirely paid for, and the 
remainder are steadily 
paying for theirs, and 
lapses are practically 
unknown. The pres- 
ent force working at 
the shops is about 
seven hundred men, 
and between 60 and 
70 per cent of these 
men live in West Hur- 




A M v.chinisi 's 1 Lome. 

The residence of Mr. (i. W. S< holes, a machinist, who has been 

in the employ of the company for 25 years. Che house 

is modern throughout, and is furnace heated. 



lington. 
The municipal government of West Burlington consists of a mayor 
and six town trustees. The mayor is elected every two years ; the 
trustees serve three year terms. The citizens participate very warmly 
at the elections, and on nearly all occasions the best men are chosen. 
The council meets in regular session on the second and fourth Mondays 
in each month. The mayor receives 50 cents and each trustee 25 cents 
pec meeting night, if they are present. The town has a marshal who is 
paid S50 per year for looking after the interests of the place and the 
preservation of good order when it is necessary. Hut it is a very quiet 



A Model Woukim.ma n's Village 



:;si 



town in this regard. There never has been, and is not now, a house of 
ill fame in the town ; and the saloon is a feature t